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MANUFACTURE 

OF 

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION 



McGraw-Hill BcK)kCoittpai5r 

PujSC£s/iers ofSoo/^/br 

ElGCtrical World TheEngjlneeriiig andMining Journal 
tngiiieGrii^ Record Engineering News 

Railway A^ Gazette American Machinist 

Signal EngiriQer American Engpieer 

Electric Uailway Journal Coal Age 

ME>talltu'gical and Chemical Engineering Power 



MANUFAOTUEE 



OF 



AETILLERY AMMUNITION 



BY MEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL 
STAFF OF THE AMERICAN MACHINIST 

L. P. ALFORD, Editor-in-Chibp 
f. h. colvin ^ e. a. suverkbop 

Robert Mawson John H. Van Deventer 



First Edition 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc 

239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK 



LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd. 

6 A 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 
1917 



• • 



Copyright, 1917, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



THK MAPX«B PRKBS "T O R K PA 



FOREWORD 

By Howard E. Cofpin 

Member, Naval Consulting Board of the United States, and Chairman of its 
Committee on Industrial Preparedn^; Member, Advisory Com- 
mission of the Council of National Defence. Vice- 
President, Hudson Motor Car Co. 

Our vital national need for a text-book dealing with the quantity 
manufacture of army and navy materials should require little either by 
way of explanation or comment. Two years of experience on orders for 
foreign governments have taught our American manufacturers that the 
making of materials of modem warfare is a new art. It is an art with 
which we have had little or no previous experience and in which our 
workmen are unskilled. 

In England, a little over two years ago there were not more than 
three government arsenals. Today more than four thousand of Eng- 
land's leading industrial plants are being operated as government factories 
for the production of war materials, and many other thousands of factories 
still under private control are concentrating their energies in the same 
direction. The teaching of the munition-making art to these thousands 
of manufacturers and to millions of industrial workers, both men and 
women, has called for a work in industrial organization and education 
such as the world has never before seen. In France, in Germany, in 
Italy, in Japan, and even in Russia, this same education and organization 
of the industrial forces is going forward. 

We have here in the United States vast resources in manufacturing 
and producing equipment, but they are unorganized and uneducated for 
the national service. Our observations of the European war have taught 
us that it is upon organized industry that we must base any and every plan 
of military defence, and that in the event of trouble with any one of the 
several first-class powers, between eighty and ninety per cent, of our 
industrial activity would, of necessity, be centered upon the making of 
supplies for the government. We have learned also that from one to 
two years of time and of conscientious effort are needed to permit any 
large manufacturing establishment to change over from its usual peace 
time commercial line to the quantity-production of war materials for 
which it has had no previous training. Delays of this kind, in time of 



vi FOREWORD 

emergency, cannot but result in closed plants, in the disruption of labor 
organizations built up over a period of years, in a loss of skilled men 
through enlistment for the fighting front, and in those same chaotic 
conditions which wrought near disasters to several of the nations at the 
outbreak of the European struggle. 

We have had no experience in the kind of warfare now being waged 
abroad, and yet this is exactly the sort of thing for which we must pre- 
pare, or it is worse than useless that we prepare at all. Industrial pre- 
paredness is strictly in keeping with the natural tendencies and abilities 
of our people. It is the basic and at the same time the cheapest form of 
preparedness. We have already the investments in plants, in tools and 
in machinery, and more important still are our resources in skilled work- 
ers. But it is only through the most careful methods of organization and 
education that we may make all these resources available to us in time of 
emergency. Each manufacturing plant must be taught in time of peace 
to make that particular part or thing for which its equipment is best 
suited and for which, by a carefully prepared classification, it is to be 
held accountable in time of war. Annual educational orders, of such 
small sizes as not to interfere with commercial products, must be delivered 
each year under government inspection. There exists no other method 
of harnessing industry in the defensive service of this government. 
Every manufacturing institution in the country carries fire insurance; 
for the future it must demand war insurance as well. 

An up-to-date text-book, dealing with munitions work, will be found 
indispensable in this educational campaign. We have heard much of the 
difficulties that American manufacturers have experienced in getting out 
foreign war orders. Months of experimentation, argument and delay have 
resulted because of the lack of proper information as to the tools, processes 
and methods involved in the quantity-production of such materials. 
Fortunately for us, we have not been one of the principals involved in the 
European struggle, and however costly failure in delivery may have been 
to individual manufacturers, it has not produced a national calamity. 

The work of the Naval Consulting Board involves three steps: First, 
an inventory of the coim try's manufacturing and producing resources;* 

* Under the Committee on Industrial Preparedness, many thousands of patriotic 
American engineers have devoted time and money in an inventory of the more 
than thirty thousand manufacturing institutions in this country doing a business in 
excess of one hundred thousand dollars per year. 

The American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, and the American Chemical Society, having a combined 
membership of more than thirty-five thousand, have co-operated in this work through 
state and territorial directorates of five men each. These directors, two hundred 
and fifty in all, have served at the request of the Secretary of the Navy as associate 
members of the Naval Consulting Board. 



FOREWORD vii 

second, the training and education of these resources for a national service 
both in peace and in war; ilmd,, the enlistment of the skilled laborer of 
the country in an industrial reserve which shall keep the trained worker 
in his place in the factory, the mill or the mine, and prevent his loss 
through enrollment in the fighting army. It is in the second step in this 
program, that the text-book of mimition manufacture will prove invalu- 
able. In the event of any future war in this coimtry, the mimition 
industry must become our one great national industry. 

The work accomplished by the Committee on Industrial Preparedness 
of the Naval Consulting Board, has now been turned over to the 
newly created governmental body, known as the Coimcil of National 
Defence. It is imder the auspices of this Council that the education and 
organization of our resources for national emergency service will be carried 
forward. It is by this body that the text-book of munition-making will 
be put into the service of the nation. 

Too much credit for this vitally important work cannot be given to Mr. 
L. P. Alford, Editor-in-Chief of the American Machinist, and to his corps 
of efficient workers who have cooperated so largely with the Committee 
on Industrial Preparedness. To him and to his staff is due the patriotic 
initiative, which has given to us in permanent form a record of the in- 
valuable experience gained by our manufacturers in the filling of foreign 
munition orders. 



The personnel of the Committee on Industrial Preparedness, which created and 
directed this nation-wide patriotic activity, is as follows: Howard E. Coffin, 
Chairman; Wm. L. Saxtnbebs, Thomas Robins, Lawrence Addicks, W. L. Emmet, 
B. G. Lamme, Benjamin B. Thayer. 



PREFACE 

" Manufacture of Artillery Ammunition " has been written to preserve 
in permanent form a record of some of the great work done in United 
States and Canadian machine shops in producing munitions for the bel- 
ligerent nations of Europe. Much, though not all, of the information in 
its four sections has previously appeared in the American Machinist. All 
of the matter has been especially prepared for the book to make the treat- 
ment uniform and consistent. 

Two major purposes have been before the authors in writing this 
i^cord of one of the sensational periods of the history of American machine 
«hop8. Never before have modem munitions of war been produced on 
this continent in large quantities. Never before have our machine shops 
1>een called upon to turn out such an enormous volume of new products in 
fsuch ^ short time. A record should be preserved of this work to aid 
Americans in producing their own munitions of war if occasion should 
ever arise, and to show the excellent machining methods, machines, tools 
and appliances that have a much wider application in manufacturing 
than merely to make shells, cartridge cases and fuses. Such is the two- 
fold purpose that has brought this book into being — to aid in making 
munitions; to further machine^hop practice. 

The material naturally divides into four sections: Shrapnel, high- 
exploeive shells, cartridge cases and fuses. In each, manufacturing 
methods are shown on a variety of sizes. The range for shrapnel is from 
3 in. to 12 in.; for explosive shells from the 1-pounder to the 12 in.; for 
cartridge cases from the 1-poimder to the 4.5 in.; while the fuse section 
includes combination fuses, detonators and primers. Several appendices 
contain associate information, of which one part deals with machine tools 
and outlines some of the steps that might be taken for their control by the 
United States authorities in the emergency of war. 

One of the important features of the book is the giving of production 
data, operation by operation, for each kind and size of ammunition whose 
manufacture is shown. It is believed that no other book has ever been 
written in any branch of the great machine-shop industry that gives such 
complete information on times and quantities of production. 

The authors are glad to express their appreciation of the kindness of 
all the Canadian and United States manufacturers who opened their 
plants and made the collection of material possible. They also acknowl- 
edge their indebtedness to a few contributors to the American Machinist, 
whose articles have been incorporated in the book. And, finally, much 

ix 



X PREFACE 

credit for whatever excellence of presentation the book may possess is due 
to Mr. Reginald Trautschold. It was his industry that shaped the pre- 
viously published material, collected additional information, and fitted 

all together into a consistent whole. 

The Authors. 

New Yobk City. 
January J 1917. 



CONTENTS 

Page 
FORBWORD V 

Preface ix 

SECTION I 
Shrapnel 

Chaptbb 

I. What a Shrapnel Is and Does — The French 75-mm. Shrapnel ..... 3 

II. Forging the Blanks for 18-Lb. British Shrapnel — Forging 3.3 Shrapnel 

Blanks on Steam Hammers and Bulldozers 8 

III. Making the 18-Lb. British Shrapnel— The Double-Spindle Flat Turret 
and the 18-Lb. British Shrapnel 31 

IV. The Powder Cups for 18-Lb. British Shrapnel — ^Punching Steel Disks for 
British Shrapnel Shells — The Manufacture of 18-Lb. Shrapnel Shell 
Sockets and Plugs — From Birch Log to Fuse Plug 66 

V. Three Inch Russian Shrapnel — Making 3-In. Russian Shrapnel in a 

Pump Shop 83 

VI. Manufacturing 12-In. Russian Shrapnel 146 

VII. Making Shells with Regular Shop Equipment — Manufacturing Shrapnel 
Parts on Automatic Machines — ^Automatic Production of Shrapnel Parts — 
A Bridge Shop Transformed into an Arsenal 183 

SECTION II 

High-Explosive Shells 

L What a High-Explosive Shell Is and Does — Explosives Used with High- 
Explosive Shells— Steel for High-Explosive Shells 231 

II. Casting Steel Forging Blanks for 4.5-In. Explosive Shells — Forging the 
Blanks for 4.5-In. High-Explosive Shells — Forging Base-Plates for High- 
Exploaive Shells 236 

III. Manufacturing British 18-Pounder High-Explosive Shells 251 

IV. Manufacturing British 4.5-In. High-Explosive SheUs 312 

V. Manufacturing British 8-In. High-Explosive Shells 366 

VI. Operations on the British 0.2-In. Mark IX Howitzer Shell 389 

VII. Operations on the British 12-In. Mark IV Howitzer Shell 399 

VIII. Manufacturing the Russian 1-Lb. High-Explosive Shell 412 

IX. Manufacturing Russian 3-In. High-Explosive Shells 442 

X. Manufacturing 120-Millimeter Serbian Shells 460 

XI. Manufacturing French 120-Millimeter Explosive Shells 494 

SECTION III 

Cartridge Cases 

I. Manufacture of Cartridge Brass — Rolling Cartridge Brass 517 

II. Making 1-Lb. Cartridge Cases 536 

xi 



xii CONTENTS 

Chapteb Page 

III. Making the 18-Lb. Cartridge Case — Drawing 18-Lb. Cartridge Cases on 
Bulldozers and Frog Planers — Cartridge Heading Presses and Accumula- 
tors at the Angus Shops 555 

IV. Making the 4.5-In. Howitzer Cartridge Case 595 

SECTION IV 

Fuses and Primers 

I. The Detonator Fuse — Making the British Detonator Mark-100 — Making 

Adapters for British Detonator Fuse 623 

II. Making the British Time Fuse Mark 80-i4 — Caps and Base Plugs for 

Time Fuse — Making the Small Parts of the British Time Fuse .... 660 
III. Making Primers for Cartridge Cases — Loading the Primers 705 

APPENDIX 

Machine Tools for Munition Manufacture — Composition and Properties of 
Shell Steel — flight Shells — Details of Some Shrapnels — Details of Some 
High-Explosive Shells — British Requirements for Projectile Inspection — 
British Prices for Hand Painting Shells — Diameter of British SheUs Oyer 
Paint — Weights and Dimensions of Some British Shells — Temperatures 
and Duration of Heat Treatment for British Shells 729 

Index 761 



C 



SECTION I 

SHRAPNEL 

By 
JOHN H. VAN DEVENTER 

Pagi 

CHAPTER I. What a Shrapnel Is and Dobs 3 

CHAPTER II. Forging Shrapnel Blanks 8 

CHAPTER III. Making the Ig-Ls. British Shrapnel 31 

CHAPTER IV. Powder Cups, Disks, Sockets and Plugs poh 18-Lb. British 

Shrapnel 66 

CHAPTER V. Making 3-In. Russian Shrapnel 83 

CHAPTER VI. Manufacturing 12-In. Russian Shrapnel 146 

CHAPTER Vll. Making Shells with Regular Shop EgmpMENT 183 



MANUFACTURE OF 
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION 

CHAPTER 1 

WHAT A SHRAPNEL IS AND DOES'— THE FRENCH 76-MM. 

SHRAPNEL 

Shrapnel; because its explosion may be timed to a nicety, its rain of 
shot scattered at just the right instant, has proved one of the most 
effective tools of destruction in modern trench storming and defence. 
The shells of the various nations vary somewhat in shape and propor- 
tions, but their general construction is quite similar. 

Fig. 1 shows a shrapnel shell casing such as has been extensively 
used in the great European war. These shells are manufactured in 
sizes from 2 to 15 inches in diameter. 

The brass shell A that envelops the outside of the shrapnel casing is 
filled with powder, which is carefully measured to have the exact amount 
in each shell. This powder is ignited similarly to a cartridge in a gun 
and is intended to discharge the shell from the gun. 

At fi is a powder pocket which contains the necessary amount of 
powder to explode the casing and scatter the charge. 

A copper band, which is shrunk and also hydraulically pressed over 
the body of the shell, is shown at C. The outside diameter is turned 
somewhat larger than the gun bore, which is rifled or grooved in a spiral 
through its entire length. 

When the shell is placed in the gun, the breech end admits it freely, 
but the gun bore being somewhat smaller and the copper being soft 
material, it is compressed and a portion of the copper ring sinks into 
these spiral grooves. Thus, when a shell is fired it has a rotary motion 
corresponding to the spiral of the gun, which means that the shrapnel 
is revolving at the same time it is traveling longitudinally. The rotary 
motion is so rapid that it keeps the shrapnel in practically a straight line 
laterally in its flight. If the gun did not have spiral grooves, when the 
shrapnel started to travel it would swerve against the resistance of the 
air, which would make it impossible to determine in what position it 
would explode. In other words, a smooth-bored gun and a smooth- 
surface shrapnel could not be depended upon for accuracy, and no scien- 
tific calculations could be made whereby shrapnel fired one after another 
would land in about the same place. 

* J. P. Brophy, Vice-President and General Manager, Cleveland Automatic 
Machine Co. 

3 



4 SHRAPNEL ISbc. I 

From this explanation it will be 
understood that the piece C is an 
important part of the shrapnel. 

Details of De^gn. — A steel 
washer, which is pressed in position, 
is shown at D separating the powder 
pocket from the chamber of the 
shrapnel proper. This is commonly 
called "the diaphragm." 

A copper tube connecting the 

powder pocket B with the fuse body 

H is shown at F. This contains an 

igniting charge of gun cotton E at 

a either end, 

§ The shell casing is shown at G, 

a the fuse body at H and a powder 
10 passage /is shown at an angle con- 
s necting with the gun cotton. 
g The threaded connection between 

.< fuse and shrapnel bodies at / is of 
^ fine pitch, so that when the powder 
z is ignited at B the threads strip, 
P allowing the balls to be dischai^ed. 
H After the powder is ignited, if the 
I pressure is not great enough to de- 
g stroy the thread, the shell casing 
will burst at the end, which is its 
weakest point, and open up in 
b umbrella shape, the balls and body 
of the shell being driven with great 
force in all directions similar to the 
explosion of a skyrocket. This is 
very destructive within a radius of 60 
ft. from where the explosion occurs. 
The Timing Device.^The time 
ring, graduated on its periphery, is 
shown at K. This controls the time 
of igniting the fuse J. When the 
time ring is set to zero the shell ex- 
plodes just after it leaves the muz- 
zle. The graduations indicate the 
explosion time at practically any 
number of feet desired up to the full range of the gun. On the inside 
of the graduated ring K a small opening is milled for ahout three- 



Chap. U WHAT A SHRAPNEL IS AND DOES 5 

fourths of a circle, so that the fuse cannot burn all way around. In this 
small opening the time fuse is placed, and at the bottom of the ring 
are small holes. 

A loose piece N moves freely and carries at an ignitible and highly 
explosive substance, which is so sensitive that if one drop were struck 
with a lead pencil held in the hand, it would shatter the end of the pencil 
before it could be withdrawn. 

When the gun is in position, the range finder immediately estimates 
the distance to the enemy, and this information is given the gunners. 
The ring K is moved to the position which indicates the number of yards 
the shrapnel will travel after leaving the gun before it explodes. This 
is all taken care of in a few moments. The fuse on the inside of ring X, 
when ignited, burns in the direction that leads to the powder passage J, 
and the time taken to reach this determines the distance that the shrapnel 
will travel before exploding. 

When the powder at J commences to burn, it ignites the gun cotton 
at E, and the flame passes through the tube F to the gun cotton at the 
opposite end, igniting the powder at B. The time taken by the flame 
to travel from J to B is diflicult to estimate because of its rapidity, but 
may be compared to the speed of electric current. 

How the Fuse is Ignited. — ^A piece called a "free-moving slug" is 
shown at P. The moment the gun is fired, the shrapnel travels with 
such great rapidity that it causes this moving slug to rebound and come 
in contact with 0. The ignitible substance at creates a flash, which 
burns back and around the chamber to the powder L, which leads to the 
fuse embedded in the face of the graduated ring K. The time, reckoned 
in fractions of seconds, that it takes to burn the fuse in the ring K before 
it reaches the powder J is calculated according to the distance the shell 
travels in flight before the charge is to be ignited at B, 

If the shrapnel fails to explode at the correct distance because of the 
slug P not responding, then at the moment it comes in contact with 
anything in its path the sudden impact will carry forward the loose 
piece N, which is free to oscillate. This will mean a contact of the igniti- 
ble substance at with the piece P. Ignition immediately takes place, 
and as piece N is in the forward position, the flame will travel in the 
direction of M. This action reverses the direction of the flash, as 
already explained. This means du-ect ignition through the powder 
passage M to the powder pocket B at lightning speed. The con- 
sequence is an instantaneous explosion of the shell at the moment it 
comes in contact with any object in its path, and extreme destruction 
at this point. 

Refinements of Destruction. — The outside shape of the fuse body 
is such as to ofifer the least resistance; in other words, it breaks up the 
air as it bores its way through. If this nose were longer or shorter. 



6 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

or a different shape, it would offer greater resistance, which would lessen 
both its speed and its range. 

The muzzle velocity of the 3-in. shrapnel shell, which is being used so 

extensively abroad, varies from 

1,500 to 1,900 ft. per sec. dimng 

the first second of flight, and 

because of the air resistance, 

diminishes in speed gradually 

through the remaining distance 

'' that it travels. The maximum 

effective range is about 6,000 

yd., and as the time fuse can be 

set to explode at 100 yd, or less, 

and at any point up to 6,000 

yd., the time it would take to 

J travel 100 yd. would be about 

^ one-sixth second. 

^ The balls are placed in the 

I position shown and a special 

3j wax is molted and poured around 

^ them so that they are practically 

^ a solid mass. The destruction 

g which takes place when these 

B balls, traveling at great velocity, 

spread in the midst of hundreds 

^ of human beings can easily be 

I imagined. 

The French 76-mm. Shrap- 
nel. — The shrapnel used in the 
celebrated 75-mm. French field 
guns differs in certain details 
from the shrapnel used by the 
British and American armies. 
No powder cap is used (see 
Fig. 2) and a nose containing 
balls is fitted in place of the 
timer. The fuse is screwed into 
this nose, the thread to receive 
it being shown in the illustra- 
tion. A feature of this loaded 
nose is the wooden holder that 
carries the lead balls. These are composed of 90 parta lead and 10 parts 
antimony. 

The space for the powder charge in the base of the shell is varnished on 



Chap. I] WHAT A SHRAPNEL IS AND DOES 7 

all surfaces with a varnish composed of 200 grains of gum arabic cut in 
one liter of alcohol. This coating is also applied to the lower surfaces 
of the lower steel diaphragm. This diaphragm is seated in a packing of 
rubber to make a sealed joint. 

Another point of difference between the British and French construc- 
tion is the method of keying the copper band. The British design calls 
for cutting a series of waves or drunken threads, around which the dead 
soft copper band is swaged. The French construction merely cuts a 
series of V-grooves into which the band is compressed. 



CHAPTER II 

FORGING THE BLANKS FOR 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNELS- 
FORGING 3.3 SHRAPNEL BLANKS ON STEAM 
HAMMERS AND BULLDOZERS' 

The Montreal Locomotive Co., Montreal, Canada, when confronteb 
with the task of forging shell blanks for 18-lb. British shrapnel put every 
piece of equipment to work and in a remarkably short time were able to 
turn out an average of 3,000 completed blanks every 24 hr. These 
blanks were forged from 0.50 carbon steel and the allowable error on 
surfaces not subsequently machined was only 0.01 in. The bar stock 
steel blocks were heated and in only two operations squirted and drawn 
into shrapnel blanks. This record was maintained for months, not- 
withstanding the rigid inspection and tests demanded by the British 
Government, and a detailed description of the processes in vogue in the 
shops of the Montreal Locomotive Co. is one of a standard of efficiency 
in manufacture. 

The steel for the forgings come in commercial bars, 10 to 12 ft. in 
length, the specifications for which call for 0.45 to 0.55 carbon, 0.70 man- 
ganese and less than 0.04 sulphur and phosphorus. These bars are 
stamped by the steel mill to indicate the "melt" from which they were 
made and test pieces from each "melt" are analyzed and broken by the 
Canadian Inspection Co. Three bars are then selected from each " melt " 
by the Montreal Locomotive Co.'s chemist and two pieces cut from each 
bar, one of which is again analyzed and the other made into a "test" 
shell and given the heat treatment. The "test" shells are then care- 
fully tested for tensile strength, etc., and if satisfactory in all respects 
the rest of the bars from the "melt" are cut to the standard length for 
shell-forging blanks, the blanks from each "melt" being kept together 
throughout manufacture. 

Cutting the Bars. — Four methods of cutting the commercial bars into 
standard 4%-in. lengths for the shell blanks were employed, which are 
of interest as examples of rapid and accurate production. Fig. 3 shows 
a large Gorton cold-saw cutting four blanks at a pass. The bars A are 
held between the soft-wood clamps B, which are shaped to bring the 
bars to the same circle as the saw, thus reducing the travel and time of 
cutting to a minimum. Hardwood was tried at first, but did not grip 
the bars securely. On this machine 250 blanks can be cut in 10 hr. 

* E. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American Machinist. 

8 



Chap. 11) FORGING THE BLANKS EX>R SHRAPNEL 9 

The clamps to the extreme right are not loosened until the bars are too 
short to handle in the saw, thus avoiding a lot of unneecBsary adjusting 
of the individual bars. 



r A ooBTON < 



In Fig. 4 is shown a Newton saw on the same work. This eaw has 
a capacity of 190 blanks in 10 hr. The stop A was at first secured to a 



10 SHRAPNEL (Sec. 1 

bracket attached to C. When thus attached, ita position with regard 
to the work was stationary and trouble was encount«red with the nearly 
severed blank jamming between the stop and the saw and breaking out 
the teeth. With the bracket B secured as shown to the eaw housing, 
the stop A is in contact with the end of the bar only when the saw is out 
of contact with the work. During the cut it is entirely out of contact, 
and at completion of the cut the blank is free to drop clear of saw and 
stop. 

In Fig. 5 is shown a turret lathe used for cutting blanks. On the 
machine shown 256 blanks can be cut in 10 hr. 



Fia. 5. CUTTINQ BLANKS ON TURRET 

In Fig. 6 is shown the cutting of blanks on a large planer. The bars 
are held down by ordinary strap clamps and spacers are placed between 
them. Special holding devices for tools and work are in course of con- 
struction, whereby the output by this method will be from 400 to 600 
blanks per day. Two tools are used in each head. The outer tools on 
each side are about ^ in. in advance of the inner tools so as to leave 
enough mel^l to resist the bending stresses. With all these methods 
ordinary cutting compound is used as a lubricant. 

Removing the Burr, — A burr is left on all blanks except those which 
are cut while the bar rotates. This must be removed. The removal 
is a simple job with a pneumatic chisel, but the method of holding the 
work is worth showing. The machine steel block A, Fig. 7, secured to 
the bench is about S}4 in. high, 6 in. wide and 20 in. long, and weighs 
about 100 lb. The blank B is gripped by a J-s-in. sctscrew operated by a 
long crank handle C. The inertia of this heavy block steadies the work 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



and makes cutting an easy matter. The crank handle is quickly operated. 
One operator can easily remove the burrs from all the blanks, 

Forgiiig. — Forging was undertaken on a large flanging press, on a 




a Inches) 

{1} DimeneionB "A." "B" and "C" are the finiahcd internal sizes of shell. (2) 
At "D" this dimension allows material for machining equal to 0.05 in. per side. 
(3) The material on inside wall allowed tor machining from "C" to "D ' tapers 
from 0.0 to 0.05 in. per side. (4) At the shoulder "E" on which disk rests material 
0.1 in. is allowed tor machining. (6) At "F" material is allowed for machining equal 
to 0.05 in. per side. (6) At "G" material is allowed for machining equal to 0.05 in. 
Care must betaken to remove all scale troro this part. {7) Face "H" to be machined 
by foiling manufacturers. (8) Projection "J to be left as shown on base unless 
Otherwise specified when forging are ordered. (9J Face "K" to be machined by 
forging manufacturers to dimensions given. (10) Dimension "L" allows for machin- 
ing, but this should not exceed 3.55 or 3.50 in. (11) Inside tinish of toroings from 
mouth of shell at face "K" to dimension "C" to be smooth and free from scale, 
projections, irregularities and other blemishes. The body must also be straight, 

bulldozer and on drop presses and it is of interest to note that the dimen- 
sions and limits shown on Fig. 8 were maintained by workmen who had 
previously forged only locomotive frames and had never before been called 



Chap. Ill 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



13 



upoD to work to huDdredths of an inch. The metal was worked hot 
which further complicated matters by necessitating allowances for 
shrinkage, and finally both the shop and the Government inspectors 
rejected any work which did not rigidly meet specifications. 

First Forging Operation. — The cut-off blanks are charged into ordinary 
reverberatory furnaces, of which, there are two for each press. The 
furnaces are fired with oil at 25-lb. pressure and air at 7 oz. Each press 
is equipped with two sets of punches and dies, as shown in Fig. 9. The 
punches are made of 0.70 carbon steel, finished ail over and hardened but 



4ThirBds I 1 ^ I ! *■ 




Punch ond Dte for 
Pisrcm^ Operation 
I. 9. PUNCHES AND DIES POH P1H8T POKGINQ OPERATION 
HAWKERS 



not drawn. The dies are made of 0.70 carbon steel or chilled iron. It 
has been found that new punches and dies have a tendency to stick to 
the work unless they are first heated. 

The work of adapting the lai^e flanging press and bulldozer to shell 
forging was taken care of by Robert Allison, works engineer, and while 
these two machines are now employed for th? second operation, a descrip- 
tion of the fixtures applied to them will not be out of place. In Fig. 
10 is shown the fixture for the flanging press. With the exception of 
the punches and dies, which are for the second, or drawing, operation on 
the shell blanks, the fixture is the same as used for the first operation. 

The flanging press is 155 tons capacity with a stroke of 30 in. It was 
found that to assure proper stripping a pull-back of 25 tons per forging is 
necessary. For that reason the pull-back on the press was increased to 
55 tons. 

Equipment for Flanging Press. — The flange G is bolted to the upper 
platen. The distance-piece D connects with the original ram to bring 



the toola to handy working height. The two punches B are secured in 
. the head as shown. A swinging stop operated by the handle C is dis- 





PIO. 10. EQUIPMENT SHOWN FOB SECOND 

posed on each side of the press. In the plan view to the right the stop 
E is shown swung out of the way, while to the left it is in operating posi- 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



tion. The swinging stop is used only when the second operation is in 
progress. At F are the guides for the punch head; at H are the seats for 




the dies for both first and second operations; at / is a cored opening for 
the removal of the work on completion of the second operation. 



16 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

When the blanks have attained the proper temperature, a press feeder 
at each furnace removes one with a pair of tongs and, swinging it over 
ms head, brings it down end-on against an iron block to jar off as much 
of the scale as possible. Two men with the scrapers A, Fig. 11, and 
brooms then rapidly remove the rest of the scale and the feeders place 
the blanks in the dies. They then drop their tongs and take the guide 
B, Fig. 11, and lay it on top of the hot blank. The 3^^-in. recess is 
downward, surrounding the hot blank and centering it. The punch then 
descends, enters the 3}42-^^' opening on top, centers the guide and work 
with relation to itself and, passing on down, causes the hot metal to 
squirt upward around the punch. The press is then reversed and the 
punch ascends, bringing with it the forging, which is now about 7}^ in. 
long. Occasionally a forging will seize; then the punch is unscrewed and 
a new one inserted, which takes but a few minutes. When things are 
running right, the press will turn out 1,000 first-operation cups in 10 hr. 
At C in Fig. 11 is shown the blowpipe for removing scale from the dies 
in the first operation and at D the one for removing scale from the dies 
in the second operation. At E is shown the spray for cooling the punches 
in the second operation when they get too hot. The length of service 
of a punch or die depends upon many variables; it is, however, not 
uncommon for a die to last 24 hr. 

As the requirements for the insides of the shells are more exacting, 
there being no machining inside except at the bottom, the punches 
under normal conditions require to be replaced more often than the dies, 
averaging 4 to 5 per day. 

The gage //, Fig. 11, is used in inspecting the finished forging. The 
short leg goes on the inside of the shell, the difference between the length 
of the legs indicating the proper base thickness. 

Special Fixtures for First Forging Operation. — Special fixtures designed 
by Mr. Allison to secure accuracy and high production on a special 
R. D. Wood & Co. press are illustrated in Fig. 12, the operation of which 
is as follows: 

The plates B (in connection with the guide and stripping tool 5, 
Fig. 11) strip the work from the punches A, The dies. Fig. 9, are seated 
at C. The knock-out D is operated by the frame E hung from the ram 
by chains in the eye-bolts, which it will be noted hang at a slight angle. 
The knock-out D is simply a rivet which is actuated by the frame E. 
In the position shown, the bottom of the knock-out D enters a hole in the 
frame member E and the top of D comes flush with the bottom of the 
die. As the punch A descends, frame E also descends and on clearing 
the end of the knock-out D swings by gravity to such position that when 
the punch and frame again ascend, the bottom of D is struck and the 
work ejected from the die C. After the removal of the work, the operator 
pushes frame E in the direction of the arrow until the stop H strikes the 



Chap. II] 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



17 



frame of the press, when the knock-out D again drops into the pocket of 
frame E and the die C is ready to receive another blank. 

In construction, the two stops / are simple and efficient, but under 
the repeated poundings, the punches and the stops are gradually upset 
so that adjustments must be made from time to time. Adjustment is 

P^k7>< Ji Oeep Hengih to suit Press 






I' 



¥(^ ® 



^■- 



"HlVg 



ti 



o . c 



@-- 



L^ 







r-1 -w^ 

:^>* 



FINISH AU (MR 



(steel) 




>|3V<--/J" 






>l 







'^ (steel) 



FINISH ALL OVER 




1_ 



■^c 



DIE BLOCK 






I J* 






/- 



4>" 

JL_ 



./.SI 



Fixed /^rf ton 
of Press 

j-i- 

II 






m=m 



Brass Yfashtr ploced befmreen 
Stfscrew^and Punch Threads Sf 



yubshers for 
adjusfinq-- 
Trare/ of 
Press 





^ 
> 



\ y. 



EyeBoH 



FIG. 12. SHELL-PIERCINO DETALS 



secured in the following simple manner: On top of each post-stop / 
is an inverted cup J supported by thin sheet-steel shimes, one or more 
of which can be removed or inserted to readjust the length of stroke. 

Second Forging Operation. — A bulldozer is chiefly employed for the 
second-operation work. This machine, see Fig. 13, has accommodation 
for the three punches and dies shown in Fig. 14. 



2 



18 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



The work goes through one die at a time, passing in succession through 
the three dies mounted in the consecutive seats B in the fixture A, Fig. 
13. The bottom of the shell is formed at the end of the stroke between 
the punch end and a bottoming die located at C, It will be noted that 




JL 

->t 



i^i^.&i 



^ i mm 



L.._^..:....:5^ ps 





a 

n 

to 

o 

o 
M 
O 

M 
O 



B 

H 

o 

a 

n 



CO 

d 



the punches have a head instead of a thread to hold them in. A %-in. 
setscrew D on top prevents the dies falling out. The cups from the first 
operation being hot, the operator takes them one at a time and holds 
them with the base toward the die. The bulldozer is tripped and the 



Chap. II] 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



19 



advancing punch enters the hole in the work, pushing it through the die 
and against the bottoming die C. By this time the operator standing 
on top of the fixture A has had time to replace his tongs with a hand 
stripper which is merely a crotch of steel with a long handle, shown at 
E, Fig. 13. The crotch is placed over the punch between the work and 
the front flange F of the fixture, and on the return of the punch, the work 
is stripped, dropping to the bottom of the cavity 0, from which it is 
removed with tongs. 



e'^O/am 




CAST IRON 
OilLLED 



l^OOiam: 




W OPERATION ON BULLDOZER 




CASTIRON 
CHILLED 




\<—ll50Dlam. ->' 

Zn? OPERATION ON GULLDOZiR 




CASTIRON 
CMILUD 




^" 3.600 Dfcm--->^ 
ZtPOPERATION ON BULLDOZER 

FIO. 14. SHELIi-DBAWINO DIES 



Second-Operation Forging on Special Press. — The second operation 
on the special press is entirely different from that done on the bulldozer. 
There the work passes through three separate operations in three dies 
held in three different holders; here the work passes at a single stroke 
through three dies placed in sequence in the same holder. In the bull- 
dozer the bottom is formed inside and the base of the forging brought 
to the desired thickness at the completion of the stroke. In the special 
press it inmiediately precedes drawing, although it does not consist of 
a separate operation. 

The drawing punch and dies are shown in Fig. 15. The arrange- 
ment of the three dies, one above the other, the largest at the top and the 
smallest at the bottom, is shown in the elevation at H in Fig. 10 and 
T in Fig. 16. 

The Drawing Operation. — The cups from the first operation being 
hot, the pressman at each side of the press removes one from the furnace. 
On each side is a jet of water, vertically disposed. The cup is inverted 



20 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



over the jet for an instant which causes the scale on the inside to loosen. 
Striking the inverted cup a sharp blow on an iron block shakes the scale 
out. Both inside and outside is then scraped and brushed to remove 
as far as possible the scale. A man on each side of the press then takes 
a base-forming tool, shown at F in Fig. 11, and lays the die end of the 
tool in the top of the die in the press. The hot forgings are then placed 
base down in the recess in the top of the base-forming tool, and the press 
tripped. 

On this press two stops are provided, one for forming the base to 
thickness and the other at the extreme stroke of the ram after drawing 




■S^IUam.- 



if^ ^ili^'^ 



CHILLED 



i 



J^ 



IVOPiRATION ON nAN6€ PRESS 



f 

% \ 

M L 



WMEM (A5TIMH. / 
CH ILLE D f / 

imf STEEL Jp% \. 
CARB0M_0ROVER h/- 

^3i6SS'Dfam->i 



T^ 




29 OPERATION ON FLANGE PRESS 
.^ . 



USSfe/ ThnodL 
4 Threads per Inch 



t 

I 
± 



k - -6940 

PUNCH FOR DRAWN6 OPERATION 




-M 



\ WEN CAST IRON, f" 
CHILLED /; 

'WTimienoft, 

A CARBON OR O/ER 



'<559S Diem. ■— >* 
iV OPERATION ON FLANGE PRESS 

FIG. 15. DRAWING PUNCHES AND DIES 



has been completed. The first stop is adjustable, and after being used 
must be swung out of the way before the pimch can descend and draw 
the shell. 

The handling of stops in the large flanging machine, is by hand, as 
shown in Fig. 10. Stripping also is by hand, the same as described for 
the bulldozer operation. There are many objections to hand operation 
of stops and strippers. There is too much chance of the human equation 
getting out of balance and too much expenditure of energy. With hand 
stripping there is always a possibility of spoiling the work on bending 
the punches by getting the stripper cocked on the edge of an unequally 
drawn shell. To overcome these difficulties Mr. Allison designed a 
system of air-operated stops and strippers which entirely obviate any 
chance of something being forgotten and consequent disaster. The 
device is shown in Fig. 16. 

Before describing the automatic-stripping mechanism, an outline 
of the drawing operation as performed without it will give the reader a 
clearer conception of the duties performed by it and enable him to 
appreciate its simplicity and effectiveness. 



Chap. II] FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 21 

When the first stop is reached, the punches have formed the inside 
of the shell bases and brought the bases to the desired thickness. The 
man m control of the hydraulic operating valve raises the punches so 
that the base-forming die can be removed. In the meantime, the first 
stops on each side of the press base have been thrown clear of the stops 
on the ram. The ram is again caused to descend and the punches push 
the shells down through the three dies, drawing them from 7}4 to 10 in. 
in length. The pressman at each die has in the meantime taken a stripper 
similar to the one used in* the bulldozer and shown at E, Fig. 13, and 
placed the crotch over the punch between the drawn shell (which clings 
to the punch) and the base of the die seat. On reversal of .the ram the 
forged shell is stripped from the punch and falls to the ground below the 
die, whence it is removed to a large three-sided iron bin. 

When things are going right, the press on second-operation work 
turns out about 70 finished forgings an hour. The work is not only 
heavy, but must be rapidly performed and, owing to the proximity of 
the furnaces, the temperature is high. 

Automatic Base-forming Stops and Strippers. — Referring to Fig. 16, 
the stops A for the base-forming operation are secured to the plunger 
plate of the press, one at the front and one at the back. The lower 
member B of the stop, when in operating position, covers a cored hole S 
in the main frame, which is large enough to permit the stops A to pass 
downward when the members B are drawn out of the way. The mem- 
bers B are in slides and actuated by connecting-rods from the bell cranks 
C. The stop A seats in a cup in B, in the bottom of which are a number 
of disk-shaped shims. A slot D, which runs through the cup, serves a 
double purpose, facilitating both the removal of shims and the egress of 
water, which is apt to fall into the upturned mouth of the cup when the 
punches are being cooled with the spraying tool shown at E, Fig. 11. 
Before this slot was made the water caused the men much annoyance 
through squirting in their eyes. 

The bell cranks C are operated by the air cylinder E. The two 
strippers F are actuated by the bar G, which has a yoke, or opening, H 
of sufficient size to permit the removal of the stripper for repairs or re- 
placement or the use of a hand-stripper, should that be for any reason 
necessary. One end of the bar G is pivoted through a link to the main 
body; the other end is connected to the yoke-end / on the piston rod of 
the air cylinder J, shown in the upper right-hand corner of the detail. 
This cylinder receives air at one end only and the piston is returned by 
the coiled spring K, also shown. 

At L is an air valve which is normally kept closed by a heavy compres- 
sion spring M, The spindle of this valve is embraced by a yoke, the 
upper end of which finishes in a pin N which is in line with a trip plunger, 
mounted on the plunger plate of the press, which depresses N just as the 




o 
o 


e O 


U 


.a- A 



Chap. II] FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 23 

plunger completes its downward stroke. This permits the air under 
pressure in the pipe to pass through the pipes as shown by the arrows, 
actuating both pistons in the air cylinders J and fiUing the reservoir P 
(the duty of which will be explained later). The piston in the air cylin- 
ders J forces the strippers F into contact with the punches, and as the 
press ram ascends, the finished forgings fall to the bottoms of the cored 
openings Q in the base. 

In the pipe system is an adjustable needle valve R, which permits 
the air to leak gradually from the pipe system, the air cylinders J and 
the air reservoir P, when the valve L is in normal, or closed, position. 
By regulating the leakage through the needle valve R, the device can be 
so timed that, shortly after the finished forgings are stripped from the 
punches, the pressure in the pipe system and reservoir will have fallen 
so low that the pull-back springs K in the air cylinders act, and the 
strippers are drawn back where they will on the next stroke of the press 
clear the descending work. 

Action of the Automatic Device 

Briefly, then, the action of the device is as follows: The work is 
placed in the base-forming die and the ram descends until the stop A 
brings up against the lower member B, The ram is raised to remove the 
base-forming die and the operator opens the air-control valve. The air 
entering the cylinder E throws both lower members B back, so that the 
stops A are free to enter the cored holes S. The ram, being reversed, 
comes on down forcing the forging through the triple dies T, Near the 
bottom of its stroke the stripper trip on the plunger plate strikes the 
plug iV, allowing the air to enter the stripping system and to actuate 
the stripping operation as described. While still hot, the forgings are 
gaged with the forked gage shown at H, Fig. 11. 

Forging Hints. — It is most imperative to remove as much of the scale 
from the work as possible, as this is liable to cause a great deal of trouble 
cutting the dies and making cavities in the work. Proper lubrication of 
both punches and dies has been a source of considerable thought. When 
the job first came up, the old blacksmith's trick of putting a pinch of 
soft coal in ahead of the punch was tried, but discontinued. While hot, 
the hole would look good and clean, but when being machined, pockets 
of scale and slag would break out and the work would not pass inspection. 

At present graphite and water applied with the swabber shown at 
G, Fig. 11, are used on the punches. For the dies, graphite and oil are 
applied with a similar tool. But there is still much to be desired in the 
way of a good lubricant. 

Correct temperatures are of great importance. For the first forging 
operation, the work should be as near 2,000 deg. F. as practicable; for the 
second operation, the work should be at a temperature of 1,800 deg. F. 



24 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



Speeds are also of considerable importance. On- the first operation, a 
speed of 30 ft. per min. is permissible and satisfactory; on the second 
operation, a speed of 22 ft. per min. is all that the work can safely stand, 
an increase over this of only 2 ft. per min. being liable to cause trouble. 
A decrease of speed by the same amount also gives unsatisfactory results. 

Heat Treatment. — After the forgings are machined, up to the com- 
pletion of operation 10, as shown in "Making the 18-Lb. British Shrap- 
nel,'' page 41. They then go to the heat-treating department, shown 
in Fig. 17. The shells are placed 30 at a time in reverberatory 
furnaces A, It takes about 30 min. to bring them to a temperature of 
1,600 deg. F. They are then taken one at a time and quenched in whale 
oil in the tank B, provided with a screen bottom which can be raised by 
the air hoist C, as shown in Fig. 17. After the bulk of the oil has drained 



/kerf TrterHnq 
Furnace 




AirHokf 



Wha/e 
Bath 




ZPiank 
Slide 



Sodam 



Bench wifh 
Netoscope aftacfwf 



n 



Track 



FIG. 17. HEAT-TREATING ARRANGEMENT 



from the shells, they are placed on the angular draining surface D. After 
the first treatment, the shells, if too hard, are reheated and drawn at a 
temperature varying from 700 to 900 deg. F., depending on the steel, 
to give the required scleroscope hardness of 38 to 42. As previously 
stated, the heat treatment is determined by Mr. Hendy, the chemist, 
from the coupons taken from each melt. Of three lots passed through in 
5 days, 3,000 required no second treatment, while the remaining 12,000 
had to be drawn. 

After heat treatment the shells are washed in soda water in the vat 
E, It has, however, been found that bending of the metal in this opera- 
tion at the low temperature attained by the metal at the point where 
the curved nose strikes the cylindrical body is apt to make it brittle; 
so, after nosing, the shells are returned to the lead pot, shown in Fig. 
18 to bring the metal at this point to a low red heat and prevent shortness. 

The pins A are of such length that when the shells are inverted over 
them the open ends reach down the required distance into the lead. 

The nosing die is shown in Fig. 19, at A, and at J? is the bolster to 
locate the base of the shell in line with the die. Formerly, for every 120 



Chap. II] 



FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 



25 



shells nosed, there was a wastage of 100 lb. of lead due to evaporation. 
The present chemist suggested covering the surface with broken charcoal, 
and now the wastage is about 20 lb. for 500 shells, and the bulk of this 









->l 




3Wii^ 



K--/?^'— ->lf 



FU^MCe 
FIG. 18. LEAD POT AND FUKNACB 




■^.703 



Fronf of She// 



~l 



es?"^. 



-3.379 ---=^-.-zzz 



■3.S5-- - 






U- 



>* ^<.Lof 
\J Radius 

V 



• k- 



iH'- 

finish all oyer 
(steel) 



'4.03- 



FIG. 19. NOSING DIES 



is what sticks to the work. In all lead-pot heating, the protection of 
the surface with charcoal is advisable, as unprotected lead hardens and 
depreciates rapidly. 

If the thin part of the shell, that is, above the line AS in Fig. 20, 



26 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



shows a scleroscope hardness according to specification, the test piece 
will invariably pull apart in the thick part below the line AB oi the test 
piece. This, of course, is because the heat treatment affects the thin 
section more readily, and because in this as in all other work the thickness 
of the work, as well as the hardness, influences the rebound of the indicat- 
ing member of the scleroscope. 







^ : 



^ife* 



/6i 



tff 



>\ 



^ — 1~^> 



1 « ' 



^^ 



(ST££L) 




B 
T 






3 ^liS' 








FIG. 20. LOCATION Or PHYSICAL TEST PIECES 

The scleroscope is mounted on a base and perpendicular to the center 
of a V for the reception of the shell. At the back of the V is a stop to 
locate the shell, so that the testing point is always a given distance from 
the base of the shell. This testing point is slightly below the line AB, 
Fig. 20. 

FORGING 3.3 SHRAPNEL BLANKS ON STEAM HAMMERS AND BULLDOZERS 

At the Turcot works of the Canadian Car & Foundry Co., Ltd., 
Montreal, Canada, quite another method of forging the sheU blanks re- 



Chap. II] FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 27 

suited in the completion of 1,200 every 24 hr. This record was attained 
and maintained without adding a single new machine and though seven 
operations were required to perform the work done at the Montreal 
Locomotive Co, works in three, still the adaptation of the plant's 
steam hammers and bulldozers to the work is of interest. 

Cutting Off the Blanks. — In this shop the cutting of the blank shown 
at A, Fig. 21, is done hot. The bar stock is received from the mill cut 
to lengths which are an exact multiple of 5^6 ii-t the length of A. With 
the shearing method there is no kerf to allow for, and should the last 
blank on a bar be too short to use for a forging, it is a solid chunk of 
scrap steel readily_^salable at a much better price than cuttings from a 
cold-saw. 




The bars, approximately 6 ft. long, are heated four to six at a time 
in a furnace above which runs a trolley, connecting with an Acme forg- 
ing machine, with block and fall for handling the bars between the fur- 
nace and machine. The dies for cutting off are arranged as shown in 
Fig. 22 (a), so that two blanks are cut each time the machine is tripped 
and completes its cycle of operation. Three men make up the gang 
and have under their care the furnace, the forging machine and a steam 
hammer. Their work consists simply of cutting off the blanks and 
upsetting them. 

The fixed holding dies A are secured to the housing D of the machine. 
It will be noted that the lower dies are 5^6 in. deep and are spaced S^^g 
in. from the upper dies, both these measurements being equal to the length 
of the blank. The movable holding dies B are similar in all respects to 
the fixed dies A. The operation is as follows: 

The red-hot bar is lowered till its end strikes the bottom E. The 
machine is then tripped, and the two movable holding dies B advance 
and clamp the bar in the fixed dies A . The shearing die C then advances 



28 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



and shears a blank out of the space between the upper and lower dies 
Ay leaving a similar blank in the lower dies A and B. On the return 
of the slides to open position, the two sheared blanks are removed by the 
operator and the process repeated. 






B 



to 
I 



(a} Catting off DIef 



n 




(6) UpMtting Die 




*/ 



nimwnirion ii~37i let Op. 
Dlineiuloa A'S^^'^d Op. 

DimeiiBtoa A-39^u8rd Op. 



» 



— 8 







GhiUed 



E?"^ 



(c) Panoh for 
PieniOff Op«ntioK 



I— 4k;h 



I \*-A-;-*i I 

{e) Dcawins Dies 



L 
f 




1 



[d) PlcKiBff Die 



T 

.L 




B«M 

(/) Fonntns Dia 




-} "Mtt 



f 

(j^^) Puaeh for 
6tli.6ti)aiid7tli 
Operations 



FIG. 22. DETAILS OF PUNCHES AND DIES USED IN FORGING SHRAPNEL-SHELL BLANKS 

ON STEAM HAMMERS AND BULLDOZERS 

Upsetting the Blanks. — On removal of the sheared blanks from the 
machine, the operator throws them to the hammerman, who takes the 
hot blank and, placing it near the center of the anvil, brings the head 



Chap. II] FORGING THE BLANKS FOR SHRAPNEL 29 

down slowly to center it with relation to the die in the hammer head. 
From two to four sharp blows with the hammer shape it to the form shown 
at B, Fig. 21. With a new die in the hammer head, the upset piece 
readily drops out, and one man can handle the upsetting operation. 
When the die becomes worn, help is necessary and the two other men of 
the gang assist at the upsetting. 

The upsetting is done without reheating, direct from the shearing 
operation and by the same gang of men, so that each shift handles 600 
pieces sheared and the same pieces upset — 1,200 handlings per shift. 

The Piercing Operations. — ^While still hot the upset blanks are placed 
in a furnace and raised to forging temperature for the first piercing opera- 
tion. This is performed on a steam hammer fitted with the punch and 
die shown in Figs. 22(c) and (d) respectively. Two or three blows with 
the hammer drive the punch 2)4 in. into the work and lengthen it about 
^ to ^ in., resulting in a blank 4% in. high, 3% in. in diameter at the 
bottom, 43^ in. at the top with a 3-in. hole 2}^ in. deep. The blank 
is then returned to the furnace and reheated for the final piercing opera- 
tion. This is done with the same punch and die and in the same manner, 
resulting in a blank 5}4 in. high, 3^ in. in diameter at the bottom, 
4% in. at the top with a 3-in. hole 3J4 in. deep. 

The Drawing Operations. — On completion of the second piercing 
operation, the fourth of the series, the work, while still hot, is placed 
in the first operation drawing die of a bulldozer, provided with four 
sets of punchers and dies, two of which are for the first drawing operation 
and the other two for the second drawing operation. 

The two dies for the first drawing operation are of chilled iron as 
shown in the detail Fig. 22(e) with a 3%-in. hole. Both sets of dies are 
used alternately to prevent overheating. The hot blanks are taken 
direct from the previous operation and, held with a pair of pick-ups, 
are slipped over the end of the advancing punch. This forces the work 
through the drawing die and at the completion of the stroke pushes it 
into a base-forming die. The eflfect of this base-forming die can be readily 
seen at the bottom of the pieces E and F, Fig. 21. The bottom-forming 
die is shown in the detail. Fig. 22(/). The bulldozer runs at a speed of 
9 strokes per minute. 

After being formed to the shape shown at E, Fig. 21, the work which 
comes from the first drawing operation 6 in. long, 3% in. diameter at the 
top, 3^ in. at the bottom, with a 3 in. hole 5 in. deep is returned to the 
furnace until they reach a full yellow heat. The heated blanks are then 
pushed through the second set of drawing dies in the bulldozer. These 
are similar to the first operation dies but 3^ in. smaller in diameter, 
measuring 3% in. at the small end of the throat. On the completion of 
the second drawing operation the blanks are as shown at F, Fig. 21, 
8^ in. long, 3^ in. in diameter, with a 3-in. hole 7% in. deep. 



30 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

The work is then passed through thc^ final drawing operation without 
reheating, but is cleaned of the inside scale before it is passed through the 
final operation die of the last operation bulldozer. In this machine the 
base-forming die is replaced with a flat die which, just at the completion 
of the stroke, flattens the bottom of the shell and imprints the manu- 
facturer's mark. 

The work from the final forging operation is 10)^ in. long, 3^ 1° 
diameter, with a 3-in. hole 9% in. deep. 



CHAPTER III 

MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL^— THE DOUBLE- 
SPINDLE FLAT TURRET LATHE 

The British 18-pounder, 3.3-in. diameter, represents the highest 
efficiency in shrapnel, for this size possesses the maximum damaging 
ability with a minimum of labor in handling the gun and its ammunition. 
Furthermore, this size is small enough to be within the capacity of 
ordinary machine tools and large enough to require, for its manufacture, 
rigid boring bars and other equipment suitable for heavy cuts. These 
characteristics make the output of 18-pounders typical of shrapnel 
manufacture in general, and a detailed description of the shop operations 
required for this size will constitute a comprehensive and reliable guide 
for the manufacture of all shrapnel shells from 3-in. diameter, 15-lb. 
shrapnel, up. 

The Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co. was among the first to undertake 
to deliver a definite number of shells per week (2,000 per week at first 
and subsequently 3,000) and a record of this shop's operations sets an 
excellent guide for all plants which may in future be called upon to 
undertake the manufacture of shrapnel. 

Reconstructed Engine Lathes. — ^An advantage which this plant 
already had was the possession of a first-class toolroom. The tooling-up 
for a proposition that runs into hundreds of thousands of pieces is vitally 
important, for every cent nipped off of an operation means a thousand 
dollars or more. As a result of this, one finds many reconstructed engine 
lathes fairly well disguised by the addition of special chucks, revolving 
turrets, or square-turret tool posts of the Gisholt type. Their builders 
would hardly recognize them. But where the original machines, as a 
general utility tool, had a possible average of 40 to 50 per cent, efficiency, 
the reconstructed machines with their specialized attachments probably 
figures nearer to 80 or 90 per cent., from a viewpoint of doing what they 
have been designed to do. Even the addition of a square-turret tool 
post to an engine lathe, in cases where the same tools are used over and 
over again in sequence, cuts down the loss of time very noticeably. 

Here one finds an illustration of good work done on old tools. Pos- 
sibly the most important part of the entire shell, as far as the limit of 
accuracy is concerned, is the thickness of wall directly behind the thread 
seat at the nose end. While other dimensions have high and low limits, 

' John H. Van Deventer, Managing Editor, American Machiniat, 

31 



32 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



this particular one is marked simply by the exact dimension, and the 
slightest deviation shown by the inspector's micrometer from this dimen- 
sion, causes the rejection of the shell. One of the machines used for 
performing the operations on this part is an old turret lathe so inaccurate 
that it had the reputation of not being able to hold a size within one- 
eighth inch of any given, dimension. But when equipped with a positive 
turret-locking device and a cam which controlled the movement of the 
cutting tools, the machine was able to live down its former bad reputa- 
tion and is today producing work fully up to the exacting requirements. 
The Evolution of the Completed Shrapnel Case. — The thirty odd 
main operations required, from that of trimming the rough forged blanks 
to length to that of boxing the completed steel cases for shipment to 
England, where the explosives, the fuses, the timing devices, etc., are 
added and the shrapnel assembled with its brass cartridge shell, are 
explained in the concise descriptions of Operations 1 to 32, inclusive, 
which follow. 








mdmwMw^mmm^. 



2-Jaw 
Chuck 



r 




-1 





_if 



OPERATION 1. LAY OUT, CUT OFF AND REAM BURR 

Machines Used — Cutting-off machines with front and back cutting tools, A. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — Mandrel for laying out, B; surface gage, C; surface 
plate, D; bevel hand reamer for removing burr (held against rotating shell), E. 
Gages — None. 
Production — From one machine and one operator, 20 per hour, including laying 

out. 

Note — Soap-water lubrication used in cutting. 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE IS-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



33 
















3307S' 




c: 







lasAaNHMk 



I 



1 z 



J\ 










OPEBATION 2. ROUGH-TURN BODY AND TUBN BEVEL 

Machine Used — Qisholts and engine lathes fitted with turret tool-posts. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — ^Expanding mandrel, A; special driving dog, E. Cut- 
ting tools: For rough-turning body, Bl; for finish-turning body, B2; for forming 
taper, B3. 

Gages — limit snap-gage for diameter, C. Gage for setting taper-turning tool 
(used against mandrel before sheU is chucked), D. 

Production — ^From one machine and one operator, six per hour. 

Note — The accuracy of finish of the body at this stage is on account of future 
chucking in special chucks. 



8 



34 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sdg. I 







'//z^//xy//y//////////'////x////y^///A^////////y///:^/y 




Tabit 



OPERATION 3. ROUGH-FACE BASE END OF SHELL 

Machine Used — 42-in. vertical turret lathe. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Circular chucking fixture to hold 24 shells, A. 
Cjages — Thickness gage, ^ in. square, for setting tool at correct height in con- 
nection with finished surface B. 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 48 shells per hour. 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



36 




OPEBATION 4. FINISH-FACE END, FINISH-TURN BASE AND MAKE RADIUS ON BASE EDGE 

Machines Used — 16-in. turret lathes and engine lathes with square-turret tool- 
posts. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Split-collet chuck, with internal distance arbor, A; 
steady-head for supporting the collet chuck, B; split adapter bushing, to make up for 
taper end of shell, C. Cutting tools: For finish-facing base, Dl; for finish-turning 
base, D2; for rounding comer, D3. 

Gages — ^Limit snap-gage for base diameter, E; radius gage, F; distance block for 
setting facing cut from internal distance arbor, G. 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 10 per hour. 

Note — The completion of the base end at this operation eliminates one operation 
on the grinders. 



OPBBATION 5 

FitBt Shop Inspection — The cases are inspected for sise of base diameter, radius 
of comer, etc., using gages similar to those in the operation 4. The carbon content 
is also stamped on the shell base at this point, shells being put through in lots of the 
same carbon content. Up to this point the various lots were distinguished by paint 
marks inside the shell. At this inspection particular attention is paid to defects and 
flaws, especially at the base of the shell, ho that further labor will not be put on de- 
fective cases. 

Production — Sixty per hour per inspector. 




■3ii-*l Hjp-t 



^ 




u-..r...:r-*- i<„-j|;o4^ 



Ml- 



Machines Used — J. & L. flat-turret lathea. 

Special Elxturaa and Tools — Special hinged chuck, A. Cutting tools: For rough- 
boring powder pocket, Bl; for finish-boring powder pucket, B2; for rough-boring 
disk seat, B3; for reaming disk seat, 84; for facing noae end, B5; for turning nose end, 
B6. 



Chap. Ill) MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



37 



Gages — Double-end limit plug-gage foi diameter of powder poeket, C; double- 
end limit plug-gage for diameter of disk-seat, D; special limit gage for depth of powder- 
pooket, E. 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 10 pec hour. 

Note — 1, Lard oil is used on this operation as a cutting lubricant. 2. Upper end 
of gage E, illustrating register of + and — surfaces, shown at F. 3. Details of 
hinged chuck, shown at G. 





^"-i 




-tt-,.H ^ 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE l&iB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 39 

OF8BA,TI0M 7. CUT KECEBS AND MAKE WAVES 

Machines Used — F. & J. automatic chucking machines. 

Special Fixtures and Toob — Special chuck, jaws bored for shell diameter, A; 
wave cam, attached to faceplate, B. Cuttti^ tools: For roughing receee (carried on 
cross-alide), CI; for forming wave (carried on cross-sUde), C2; for undercutting recess 
(carried on erose-elide and fed by arm on turret), C3. 

Gages — Limit snap-gage for bottom of groove, D; limit gnap~gage for diameter of 
top of waves, E; template for height and form of wave, F; limit gage for distance of 
recess from base, G; limit gage for width of recess, H; minimum limit gage for under- 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 10 per'hour. 

Note — Method of cutting the three-wave cam on engine lathe, shown at K. 



©" 




OPEBATION 8. 

Gages — For ± thickneBs of base, A; for ± depth of powder pocket, B; tor ± 
diameter of powder pocket, C; for ± diameter of disk seat, D; for ± length over all, 
E; for ± diameter of base, F; for ± diameter of recess at bottom, G; for ± diameter 
over waves, H; for ± recess width, I; for ± distance of recess from base, J; for — 
undercut, K; for — thickness of nose, L; for — diameter of nose, M. Total, 23 gaging 

Production — Fifty shells per hour inspected by two men. 




OPBEATION 9. HEAT-TREAT, QRINI) SPOT AND TEST 

Equipment Used — Muffle furnaces for hardening and tempering, A; oil baths for 
quenching, B; plain grinder for spotting, C; scleroscope, D; boxes for 120 shells, E; 
special shell tongs, F. 

Production — Heating and quenching; 16 shells per hour per furnace. Four fur- 
naces in operation, tended by two men. 

Note — Heat treatment consists of heating to 1,460 deg. F., and quenching, then 
reheating to between 650 deg. and 1,000 deg. F., according to carbon contents, and 
tempering. Carbon varies from 45 to 55 pointa. Oil fuel is used, and beat iscontroUed 
by pyrometers. After sorting into batches, two shells are selected at random, one for 
tensile-strength test, the other for firing proof. 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE IS-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



41 




I 



I 



5A W 



n 




b 



MILL SIOCS 



n 



r 



MILL 3L0r 



I 

,j 






^^/I^ /Y^//^ 



FILilNJlG 



OPERATION 10 — MAKE TENSILE-STRENGTH TEST-PIECB 

Saw out test-piece on miller, mill flat-faces, mill slot, drill test-piece and file in jig 

Machines Used — Drilling machines and plain miller. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Distance collars for miller arbor for sawing test- 
piece, A; thickness blocks for miller vise for milling flat faces, B; round-comer cutter 
for milling slot, C; drill jig for drilling, D; filing jig for filing, E. 

Gages — Micrometer. 

Production — One man performing all operations can produce one in 2^ hr. 




"bottle" N08B BND, REHXAT 

Elquipment Used — Lead pot A; bottlJDg press, B; bottling die, C; lower ring, D; 
mica box, E, 

Production — With one lead pot, one bottling press and two men, 60 per hour. 

Note — The "disk" is inserted just previous to "bottling," after heating the case. 
The bottling press used at the Canadian Ingersoll-Rand plant is a rebuilt Leyner 
mine drill sharpener. The die is water-cooled so the shell will not stick to it. 




OPERATION 12. 



Note — The sandblast has been found most satisfactory to rt 
to heat treatment. 

Production — One apparatus and one operator, 60 per hour. 



MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 




;:.^.:d 



i!S^ "g 



J^ 




OPERATION 13. TURN, BORE AND TAP HOSD END 

Machine Used — Turret lathes and engine lathes with improvised turreta. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Hinged and collet chucks, same as operations 4 
and 6 (hinged chuck shown at A); nose turning and boring cam, B. Cutting tools: 
Outside turning and facing tool, CI; boring tool for roughing thread seat in nose, 
C2; boring tool for boring inside of nose, C3; reamer for thread seat, C4; collapsible 
tap for tapping thread in nose, C5. 

Gages— Gage for wall thickness, D; gage for wall thickness, E; length gage, F; 
profile template for nose, H. 



14. RETAP NOSE 

Machines Used — Radial drilling mactiiiies. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Vbe for holding shell, A. 

Gages — Plug gage for thread. 

Production — One operator and one machine, 20 per hour. 




Equipment Used— Hinged chuck used ai 
Fioductiou — Two men, 60 per hour. 



Chap. UIJ MAKING THE 1»-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 




OPEBATION 16. OBIND NOSE 

Machines Used— Norton and Landis pl&in grinders. 

Special I^xturea and Tools — Wheel-truing device, A; driving dog and center- 
plug (see operation 15). 

G^ea — Profile gage for noBe, B; micrometer for large diameter. 

Production — One operator and one machine, 40 per hour. 

Note — Grinding wheel used is crystolon, grade L, in a grain mixture of }i each 
24-36 and 46. The output per wheel varies between 3,200 to 9,S00 shells. The 
frequency of wheel dressing is once per 10 to 30 shells, with a maximum of 1 in 3 and 
" " in 78 shells. 




OPERATION 17. GRIND BOOT 

Machines Used — Norton and Landis plain grinders. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Driving d<:% and plug-cent«- (see operation 15). 
Gage — Micrometer. 

Production — One operator and one machine, 20 per hour. 

Note — Wheel and work speed, and composition of wheel, same as in operation 
9. Wheel maintenance aver^;es Ic. per shell. Power required averages 30 hp. 



46 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 




OPERATION 18. SHOP INSPECTION 

Special Fixture — Holder for shell for gaging wall thickness, A. 

Gages — Micrometer for wall thickness, B; for wall thickness, C; for wall thick- 
ness, D; for ± overall length, E; for thread in nose; for ± diameter of base, G; for 
± diameter at shoulder, H; for ± body diameter, I; for ± diameter over waves, J; 
for nose profile, K; for depth of nose recess, L; for ± diameter of bottom of wave 
recess, M. Total of 17 gaging operations. 

Production — Sixty shells per hour for two men. 



OPERATION 19. FIRST GOVERNMENT INSPECTION 

(Not illustrated) 

Gages — Similar to those shown in operations 8 and 18. 

Production — Six government inspectors take care of both the first and final 
inspection of 600 shells per day. 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



47 





OPERATION 21. TURN AMD FORM DRIVE BAND 

Machines Used — Brass lathes and engine lathea with special forming slides. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Draw-in collet-chuck, A, and special forming slide, 
B. Cutting tools: Width tool, CI; rough turning tool, C2; finish forming tool, C3. 

Gt^es — For height of radius from base, D; for fonn of band, E; for ± diameter 
at F, F; for ± diameter at G, G; for ± diameter at H, H; for ± diameter at 1, I. 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 15 per hour. 



MAKING THE 1&-LB. BBITISH SHRAPNEL 



Equipment Used — Rolling presB for inscription, . 
Production — One man, 40 per hour. 









1 


m 




D 




1 


H^ 



OPERATION 23. PILL WITH BALIiS, : 



K ON VIBRATOR A 



Equipment Used — Shot box with Belf-measuring hopper, A; vibrator table, B 
scales, C; shot funnel for centering powder tube, D. 

Production — One man, 50 per hour. 

Note — The necessity tor shaking down on the vibrator depends on the roughnes 
of the shot used. The vibrator is "borrowed" from a moldii^ machine. 



MAKING THE 1»-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



OPEBATIOK 24. FILL WITH BOSIN AND WBIQH 

Equipment Used — Electric rosin pot, A; scales, B. 

Production — Two men and two rosin pots, 60 shells per hour. 

Note — The rosin must be heated between 360 deg. to 400 deg., to fill the shell 
properly. The current consumption of each pot is 2}i kw., 11 oz. 10>^ drams of 
rosin are required per Ehell. Exact weight is made with buckshot. 



1 


HH 




KB 


1 






_ 


Bx, ■ 


F 




,rr 




:^ 




1 






t 


^ 


t i 


f 


'w '"' 




w 


_ 


i -A.J 1 



Equipment Used — Special hinged chuck, u ^ 
wreDch, B. 

Production — One man, 60 per hour. 



E BOCKLT 

', A; Bpccial tonga t 



OPKAATION 26. sou: 

Equipment Used- — Special ball-bearing table for rotating shell, A; electric 
soldeiing iron, B; solder rings, C. 

Production— One man, 60 to 60 shells per hour. 

Note — This remarkably high production rate has been maintained for several 
months. 



MAKING THE 1&-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



OPE RATI OH 27. 




Machines Used — Braaa turrets and modified engine lathee. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Special split collet chuck with scroll ring, A. Cutting 
tools: Facing and recesHing tool, Bl; rough turning tool, B2; forming tool, B3; form- 
ing tool, B4. 

Gages — Profile template, C; limit bevel gage, D; nose undercut limit gage, £. 

Production — One man and one machine, 10 per hour. 



OFEBATION 




Equipment Used — Air drills driving reamers. A; special equalizing clamp, B. 
Gages — Fuse socket gages as described for operation 27. Drive band gages as 
described for operation 21. 

Production — Twenty per hour per man. 




OPERATION 29. INSERT 



Equipment Used — Special viae, similar to those shown in operation 25. 
Production — One man, 50 per hour. 

Note — The fuse-hole plug is a brass protectbg plug and is removed when the fuse 
itself is attached. 



OPERATION 3 



FINAL aOVGRNMENX INSPECTION 

(Not iUustrated) 



MAKING THE 1*-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 




AND PAINT 



Equipment Used — ReconBtructed bolt threadere, A; Bpring cup centers, B; 
drying racks, C. 

Production— Four men; prime, paint aad stack 00 shells per hour. 

Note — Shells are left to dry 24 hr. between primer and finish co&t. Steel work 
is finished in naval gray, copper parts are finiahed with red lead. 



OPERATION 32. BOX FOB BBIPUGNT 

Note — Six shells are placed in each box. 



56 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 



Various Kinds of Chucks. — One of the first considerations, and a very 
important one, is the method of chucking the shell. The requirements 
are firm gripping and complete and rapid self-centering. The internal 
chuck used for the second operation presents the most diflBicult problem. 
With a restricted space in which to act, and its dimensions limited by the 
inside of the rough shell, it has nevertheless to withstand the most severe 
cutting strain of any during the whole process. The details of this 
chucking arbor are shown on the second operation sheet, and that it 
serves its purpose may be judged by the fact that a rough cut ^e ^' 
deep and with a 3^-in. feed is taken over the shell at a speed of 70 ft. 

The external chucking of the shell is a simpler proposition. Various 
types of chucks are being used for this purpose. The hinged chuck 
shown in operation 6 was one of the first put in service, but was 
not altogether satisfactory, as slight variations in the diameter of 
the shell, even within permissible limits of accuracy, made consider- 
able diflference in holding jjower. Split-collet chucks, as shown in opera- 
tions 4, 21 and 27, have proved more satisfactory. The latest improve- 
ment is to equip several of these chucks with draw-in collets operated by 
compressed-air pistons^ which effects a creditable economy in the time 
of chucking. It will be noticed that in nearly all cases the special chuck 
is equipped with a "steady-head," which is necessary to avoid spring 
due to the length of the shell. 

The Advantages of Subdivided Operations. — There are two widely 
different principles in quantity manufacturing, each of which has its 
apparent advantages and supporters. These are nowhere any better 
illustrated than in the manufacture of shrapnel shells. Some believe 
in putting as many operations as possible upon one machine; others, in 
reducing each operation to its lowest terms. The Canadian Ingersoll- 
Rand management advocates the latter. It produces several arguments 
in favor of this plan, in addition to the final proof of a remarkably low 
total-production time. 

"When you multiply operations, you multiply trouble," says Mr. 
Sangster, plant superintendent. "You have more trouble in making 
an expert operator out of a green hand, and the delay is more serious in 
case anything goes wrong. Taking all in all, the flexibility and freedom 
from serious delays accompanying fine subdivision of operation more 
than make up for the slight extra cost of handling pieces from one machine 
to another." It may be possible that this simplification of operations 
has something to do with the quickness with which this organization has 
taken hold of a new line of work. Each man has a simple and definite 
task to accompUsh, and his work presents a problem which is not made 
difficult of solution by containing too many variable and unknown 

quantities. 

Gages. — Shell manufacture is strictly a limit-gage proposition and 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 57 

necessitates, in addition to the master set of gages used for reference 
purposes, a set of inspection gages and corresponding gages at each 
machine for which inspections are required. 

Most of the gages employed by the Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co. 
are of the ''snap" type, having maximum and minimum measuring 
surfaces on the same gage. One of the most ingenious is shown in opera- 
tion 8 at B. This is used to measure the depth of the powder pocket. 
The inner gaging spindle slides within the outer reference sleeve, and is 
provided with a notch milled at its upper end, with two surfaces, one 
plus and one minus. The inspector, by grasping the outer sleeve and 
placing his thumb on the notch, can readily feel the register of maximiun 
and minimum surfaces with the outer sleeve and perform his inspection 
without the necessity of looking at the gage. 

Another weU-designed device indicates the thickness of the base of 
the shell. It is shown at A, operation 8, and consists of a surface plate, 
a mandrel for holding the shell and a maximum and minimum gage 
fastened into a heavy base which slides upon the surface plate. 

Shop Conveniences. — The transportation system which was in use 
at the Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Co. plant was weU adapted to care for 
the requirements of shell manufacture. Transfer trucks with removable 
platforms formed an important part of the complement of the shop, so 
special box platforms were constructed conveniently to hold the shells. 
Each of these box platforms holds 60 shells, one-half the common unit lot 
of 120. 

Inspection. — The arrangement of the shop inspections is made with 
the idea of catching defectives in time to prevent unnecessary labor loss. 
The first inspection, operation 5, is made to come before the shells are 
bored, so that any defects or pipes which would condemn the shell may 
be discovered at this time. Shells which have the least sign of defect 
at the base end are immediately rejected, since a flaw at this point might 
be the means of igniting the bursting charge in the shell at the time that 
the exploding charge in the cartridge case is fired. 

Heat Treatment. — Heat treatment is one of the most critical opera- 
tions on the shell and must be given careful handUng. The insistence 
upon this point is due to the tendency of a shell when fired to change its 
shape while in the gun. There are enormous strains imposed at this 
time, and if the material in the shell is of low elastic Umit or too ductile, 
it is Ukely to expand and grip the bore of the gun, causing an explosion. 

The muffle type of furnace has been adopted for heat treating the 
shells as being more convenient than the ordinary heating furnace, 
which necessitates a higher lift in placing and removing the shrapnel. 
It must be stated, however, that the cast-iron pots which are used in the 
muffles at present are not altogether satisfactory, since they burn out 
quite frequently. Steps are now being taken to design furnaces of the 



58 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

same general type but constructed entirely of firebrick. Electrical 
pyrometers are used to indicate and control the temperatures. 

Closing-in the Shell. — The "bottUng," or closing-in, of the shell is a 
simpler operation than most people imagine. The nose end of the 
shell is heated to a dull red heat in a lead pot. At this temperature, 
very little force is required to close up the nose end, and it has been done 
on almost every conceivable kind of a machine from tire upsetters to 
bulldozers, not excluding steam hammers and punch-presses. At this 
plant, a reconstructed mine-drill sharpener is used for the purpose, and 
the bottUng die is water-cooled so that the shell will drop out without 
sticking. 

Grinding Operations. — The main metal cutting operations are com- 
pleted with operation 14, after which the body and nose of the shell are 
ground to finished size. This is quite a recent development and was 
introduced in the shops of the Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co. to increase 
output rather than for the slight saving in cost realized from grinding the 
shells instead of finishing them in a lathe, as was the former practice. 
A very considerable increase in output from a given floor space was made 
possible by the adoption of the grinding process. 

The critical inspection following the grinding operations, however, 
makes it imperative to keep the grinding wheels in proper shape. This 
is done by means of diamond truing-up devices. One of these for the 
nose wheel is shown in operation 16; it consists of a radial diamond holder 
mounted so as to reproduce the radius of the shell nose on the grinding 
wheel. It will be noticed that, in addition to its curve, this wheel has 
a straight face for approximately % in. at the side nearest the base end 
of the shell. This is produced on the wheel after truing the curve by 
locking the diamond in position and allowing the wheel to traverse. At 
this point is the "shoulder" of the shell, which is from one to two thou- 
sandths larger at this diameter than at any other, excepting, of course, the 
copper drive band. 

Every effort is made to economize in time and labor on the part of 
the grinder operators. The driving dog and plug center required prior 
to grinding are fitted by an operator who does nothing else, thus enabling 
the grinder operators to produce shells at the rate of 20 an hour for the 
body grinding and 40 per hour for nose grinding. 

Two grinding operations are employed at this plant. This is less 
than the usual number, one grinding being eliminated by operation 4, 
in which the base end of the shell was turned to its finished size. Where 
this is not done, it is necessary to readjust the driving dogs and finish the 
base of the shell by a third grinding operation. 

The Preliminary Inspection. — After the grinding processes, the shell 
is completed as far as its steel case is concerned, all further machining 
operations being upon the copper and brass attached parts. Therefore, 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 59 

the shells are at this point checked up by the Government inspectors, 
and to insure as small a percentage of rejections as possible, they are 
prior to this given what is called a preliminary inspection by the shop 
inspectors. 

One of the most interesting gaging fixtures used is that for determin- 
ing the thickness of shell walls at various points. This consists of a 
holder shown in operation 18. This fixture is made so as to locate the 
shell accurately with reference to two finished surfaces that serve as 
bases for special micrometers to rest upon, insuring that the thickness of 
wall shall be gaged in each case at similar points. 

The micrometers, if such they may be called, are also unusual. The 
measurement is not made by means of a screw, but by plus and minus 
location surfaces on the sliding spindle, which indicate by their align- 
ment with a milled recess in the holding sleeve. The register of these 
plus and minus surfaces can be felt with the finger nail without the 
necessity of looking at the gage. 

The Government inspectors have been forced instinctively to adopt 
a sort of motion study in order to keep up with their work. With over 
40 inspections on each shell and 500 shells per day, it requires a great deal 
of activity on the part of six men to keep up the 20,000 necessary 
measurements. As a result, the operation has become very specialized. 
The inspectors follow one another, some of them with gages in each hand, 
along the lines of shells laid out on benches. It is a question as to how 
much these methods which have resulted from having to get the job done 
in a given time could be improved by actual time or motion study made 
in advance of the work. 

The Copper Drive Band. — The copper drive band is a very important 
part of the shell. It is forced into the rifled grooves of the field piece, 
and causes the shell to rotate as it travels through the air. This copper 
band in reality imparts the spin to the entire shell and does this in such a 
short interval that the strain to which it is subject is enormous. There 
must be no possibility of its turning on the shell. This is the reason 
for the peculiarly waved ribs in the band recess. 

The drive bands in the rough shape are simply copper rings large 
enough to go over the base end of the shell. One or two blows of a ham- 
mer secures them from falling o£F until they are forced down into the recess 
by the band-crimping press. The machine used for this purpose at the 
IngersoU-Rand plant is one of their own design. The crimping dies are 
actuated by toggles connected with a lever arm that is operated by a 
compressed-air piston. This type of banding press appears to be more 
convenient than the horizontal type, in which the weight of a shell must 
be supported at arm's length. 

The drive band is machined to a very peculiar finished shape. This 
is shown in operation 21, which also indicates the process by which the 



60 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



copper band is turned to its final form. The lathe on which this operation 
was observed had a ''home-made" forming slide attached to the rear of 
the carriage. This slide carried a tool which took the finishing cut. 
Being fed tangentially across the work instead of straight in toward the 
center, this tool took a shearing cut and distributed the heat much more 
than a radially fed forming tool would do. In fact, before this attach- 
ment was used, front and back radial forming tools were employed, 
and the shell became so hot that to prevent distortion it was necessary 
to fill it with soda water previous to this operation. 

Filling the Shell. — An understanding of the succeeding few operations 
in which the shells are filled will be helped by referring to Fig. 23. Here 
are shown the parts to which reference will be made frequently. The 




FIG. 23. THE POWDER TUBE, POWDER CUP, LEAD BALLS, STEEL DISK, FUSE SOCKET 

AND PLUG 

brass powder tube having a shoulder at one end and a thread cut beneath 
it is shown at A. At B is the tin powder cup of a shape to fit in the pow- 
der pocket, and at C the 3^-in. lead balls which are used in this size of 
shell. At D is the steel drive disk, which is an unfinished drop forging, 
and at E the brass fuse socket, which is machined from a brass stamping. 
At F is the brass plug, which is made from a casting. All of these parts, 
as well as the steel shell forgings are furnished to the plants that are turn- 
ing out shrapnel. The parts A,B,C,D and F are in finished shape when 
received and require no labor other than that of assembling them into 
the shell. The fuse socket E, however, after becoming a part of the shell, 
is machined as shown in operation 27. The Canadian shell manufactur- 
ers who perform the operations described in this article furnish only 
their labor. 

It is somewhat of a problem to the uninitiated to figure out how the 
tin powder cup, which goes into the powder pocket underneath the steel 
disk, can be introduced after this disk is within the shell, but the man who 
is doing this work does not seem to find it difficult. Proportions and 
dimensions are so figured that a dexterous movement causes the steel 
disk to turn a somersault, carrying the tin powder cup with it to its 
correct position. The powder cup is, of course, empty. Later on, but 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 61 

not at this plant, it is to be filled with the explosive charge which will 
cause the shell to burst. The brass powder tube makes this possible 
by keeping a source of communication open between the fuse socket and 
the tin powder cup. 

Lesid Balls Embedded in Rosin. — The Government is particular to 
have each shell inscribed with the date of manufacture and the initials 
of the plant in which it was made. This is done upon the side or body 
of the shell, and for this purpose the Ingersoll-Rand Co. has pressed into 
use the inscription-rolling machine with which they formerly marked the 
barrels of their pneumatic hammers. That it is well adapted for this 
purpose is indicated by the fact that the man who operates it is also able 
to take care of inserting the tin powder cups and of screwing the brass 
powder tubes into the disks after the latter have been driven home with 
blows of a hanmier. 

One who might anticipate difficulty in getting a full measure of peas 
or potatoes on account of their not settling to the bottom of the recep- 
* tacle, would not expect to encounter similar trouble in connection with 
shot. But it exists, and for that reason it is necessary to do one of two 
things to get the required number of balls in a shrapnel shell — either put 
them in under pressure or jar them down by vibration. The latter plan 
has been adopted as cheaper, and a molding machine vibrator has been 
"borrowed" for this purpose and attached to a small round table upon 
which the shells are placed while being filled from the shot box. The 
funnel which is used to introduce the shot has a central boss with a hole 
in it that serves the purpose of centering the free end of the brass powder 
tube. The man who fills the shells with shot must also give them a 
preliminary weighing to be sure that he has introduced a sufficient 
number. 

One Reason for the Rosin. — If one tries to imagine the action of a 
rapidly rotating hollow shell filled with round balls of such a heavy ma- 
terial as lead, one can see a very good reason for cementing the shell and 
its contents into one solid mass by means of rosin. If they were not held 
homogeneously by some such material as this, the shell would perform 
very peculiar actions during its flight very similar to those of a "loaded" 
ball on a bowling alley. Another reason for filling up the air spaces 
between the balls is that it gives the explosive charge less room to expand 
and therefore bursts the shell with greater force. 

The men who fill the shells with rosin also take care of the final 
weighing. They are allowed to make up the weight of one K-in. ball 
by means of bucketshot; this giving them a slight margin whereby they 
can correct variations in the weight of the metal parts. This weighing 
must be done in a hurry, for the shell must be handed to another operator 
who screws home the fuse socket before the rosin sets. 

Extreme uniformity of weight is very necessary in these shells. The 



62 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

fuse, which will be added before the shells are fired, is graduated in J^-sec. 
divisions, each of which corresponds to approximately 50 yd., becoming 
less, of course, as the shell nears the end of its flight. Therefore, to make 
range-finding possible, the action of shells of the same caliber must be 
very similar. A slight diflference of weight would be fatal to accuracy. 
The total allowance is plus or minus 4)^ drams, making a total tolerance 
of a little over J^ oz. on a weight of 18 lb. 

Soldering 60 Tubes per Hour. — Soldering the powder tubes to the 
fuse sockets is performed by laying the shells, one at a time, upon a 
rotating ball-bearing table (operation 26), placing a solder ring over the 
outside of the tube where it projects through the fuse socket, and then 
completing the operation by holding the point of an electric soldering 
iron within the tube and spinning it around by hand until the solder 
melts. Such simple helps as the ball-bearing table and the solder rings 
make possible the soldering of 60 tubes per hour. 

Final Machining Operation. — The last machine operation (operation 
27) consists of finishing oflf of the protruding part of the fuse socket, 
facing oflf the powder tube and removing the surplus solder. Sometimes 
it is necessary to clean out and ream the powder tubes with an air drill 
and reamer, but if not, the shells go direct to a final inspection, after the 
brass plug has been inserted in the fuse socket and fastened with a grub 
screw. 

Painting with Bolt Thread-Cutting Machines. — Rotating the shells 
between spring cup centers of bolt threadcutting machines greatly 
expedites the painting of the shells in the Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co- 
plant. Two machines are used for this work, one for applying the 
priming coat and the other the finishing coat. 

Boxing for Shipment. — After the newly painted shells have been 
allowed to dry for 24 hr. they are packed in substantial wooden boxes, 
holding six shells each, for shipment to England. These boxes are of 
heavy construction, bound together by iron bands, and 26 wood screws 
are used for each box. Spliced rope handles are provided for convenience 
and safety in handling — see operation 32. 

THE DOUBLE-SPINDLE FLAT TURRET LATHE. 

Economical as have proved the methods of manufacture employed 
in the plant of the Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co., munition plants which 
were equipped with doublespindle flat turret lathes fitted up these ma- 
chines with the necessary tool accessories for shrapnel work with such ex- 
cellent results that a description of the operations performed on such 
lathes is of particular interest. 

In one plant where the machine mentioned was observed, it had been 
fitted with a chuck of novel design. Ordinarily, for the first operation. 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 63 

the shells are gripped on the inside by means of an expanding arbor. In 
this case, almost unlimited additional driving power was secured by the 
use of a three-jaw exterior-gripping chuck. Since the thickness of the 
shell varies in the rough forging, it was necessary to make provision so 
that the alignment of the work should be determined by the inside chuck- 
ing and gripped by the exterior chuck jaws simply in conformity to this. 
This was accomplished by cutting away the scroll support of the chuck 
so that in reality it forms a floating scroll ring, permitting the jaws to 
accommodate themselves to the work as chucked on the internal arbor 
but retaining the function of closing together when the scroll is turned. 

Three main operations, the first two performed in sequence and the 
third after the shell is heat-treated, the disk inserted and the nose end 
bottled, are performed on the double-spindle machine. These differ 
little from -those performed on single-spindle machines, but can be per- 
formed much more expeditiously — the production of cases on the double- 
spindle machine averaging some 60 per cent, greater than can be obtained 
on the single-spindle machines with the same set-up. Two double- 
spindle flat turret lathes have an output, including all three operations, 
of about eight shells per hour. Briefly outlined, the operations, taken in 
sequence; are as follows: 

First Operation, — 1. Rough- turn the outside diameter of shell body. 

2. Form the recess and shape the base end of the shell. 3. Form the 
waves. 4. Undercut the recess for the drive band. 

Second Operation — 1. Rough-bore the powder pocket and turn the 
nose-end taper for bottling. 2. Rough-bore the disk seat. 3. Finish- 
bore the powder pocket. 4. Finish-bore the disk seat. 

Third Operation. — 1. Bore the nose for its tap hole and rough-turn 
the nose profile. 2. Face the end and rough-form the inside of the nose. 

3. Finish-face the end and finish-form the inside of the nose. 4. Tap 
with a collapsible tap. 

In the first operation (see Fig. 24), the shell is held by the nose end, 
while in the second and third operations (see Figs. 25 and 26) the shell 
is grasped by its base. In each of the four positions of the turret in 
each operation, two shells are worked upon at the same time, so that in 
the three main operations, necessitating but three set-ups of the work, 
twenty-four separate tasks are performed — twelve on each shell. This 
enables a shell proper to be completely finished in about fifteen minutes. 



64] 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 




o 



NO/lVHSJO^f 



MAKING THE 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



CHAPTER IV 

TIN POWDER CUPS FOR 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL"— PUNCH- 
ING STEEL DISKS FOR BRITISH SHRAPNEL SHELLS'— 
THE MANITFACTURE OF IB-LB. SHRAPNEL 
SHELL SOCKETS AND PLUGS'— FROM 
BIRCH LOG TO FUSE PLUG* 

The powder cups which hold the explosive charge for shattering the 
shrapnel shell and scattering the load of lead balls fits into a machined 
recess in the base of the shrapnel shell. These cups are made of heavily 
coated tin and are connected to the fuse socket by a brass or copper 
tube. The top portion of the cups is made of 0.036-in. stock and the 
bottom portion of stock 0.022-in. in thickness. 

Drawing the Cup Bottom. — The bottom of the powder cup is com< 
pleted in one operation, and the die-blanking and drawing in one stroke 
of the press. In Fig. 27, at D can be seen the shape of the bottom after 



FIQ. 27. STEPS IN THE PROCESa OF UAKIKQ & TIN POWDER CUP 



coming from the press. The bottom die for this operation is shown in 
Fig. 28. Here C represents the die itself; A, the ejector, and D, the form 
block, which is operated by four pins through the holes B. These pina 
come in contact with a rubber stripper underneath the press, which is 
of the usual type. The upper punch is shown in Fig. 29, A being the 
punch and B the drawing block. These punches and dies complete the 
bottom portion. 

Forming the Top. — The first operation on the top requires a straight 
blanking-die, and as this is an every-day proposition I have not illus- 
trated it. 

' J. H. Moore. 

•E. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American MackinUI. 

* J. H. Moore. 

'John H. Van Deventer, Managing Editor, American Mackinitl. 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDEE CUPS FOR 18-LB, BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



67 



The second operation dies for forming the top, are shown in Fig. 
30. In this, A represents the upper form punch; B, the knockout pin 
operated from the upper stripping attachment on the press, and C, 
the lower form die and ejector. The illustration shows this die clearly. 




Pia. 28. BOTTOM ME 



POR DRAWING 




The third operation is the piercing of the top hole to take the copper 
tube, and this again being an exceedingly simple operation is not 
illustrated. 

The fourth and last operation is that of making the small flange on 
top. and the dies shown in Fig. 31 will clearly illustrate this work, A 
being the upper form punch with 
the flange-forming punch inserted; 
B, the lower die, and C, a hole of 
sufficient diameter to allow the 
forming of the flange. 





no 30 PUNCH AND DIE FOR POWDER-CUP TOP FIG. 31. FLANGING TOOLS 



Referring to Fig. 27, A represents a blank from which the top portion 
is formed; B, the blank after the forming operation; and C, the blank 
after being pierced and flanged. The finished bottom portion is illus- 
trated by D and in E is shown a finished powder cup. 

Assembling the Powder Cup.— Power presses or simple lever foot 
presses are used for assembling the cups, a die similar to that shown in 
Fig. 32 pressing the two portions together. The cups are then soldered 



68 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



and this is expeditiously done on the special soldering machine shown in 
Fig. 33. 

The cups are spun around in the machine and the soldering operation 
consists simply in holding a hot soldering iron against the revolving cup, 
the necessary solder being supplied meanwhile. A releasing attachment 
on the handle B enables the cups to be rapidly inserted and removed so 
that output of the simple machine is high. 




1 1 I 




FIQ. 32. ASSEHBLINQ THE 
TIN CUP 



FIQ. 33. ELEVATION OF SOLDEHINO 
MACHINE 



Soldering completes the operations on the powder cups with the 
exception of the necessary inspection , as the loading of the cups is done 
at the government arsenals. 



THE PROTECTING STEEL DISK 

Heavy as are the powder cups for British shrapnel shells, the crush- 
ing force caused by the inertia of the lead balls, etc., before fracture of 
the shell takes place, is such that additional protection is necessary for 
these containers of the explosive charge. This is afforded by a compara- 
tively heavy steel disk of a good grade of low-carbon* steel which is 
forced into the shrapnel shell base immediately over the powder cup. 

The stock from which the disks for 18-lb. shrapnel are punched 
comes in bars about 10 ft. long, 2}^ in. wide and approximately 1^2 
in. thick. Fig. 34 shows the various stages in the manufacture of the 
disks as performed in the Dominion Works plant of the Canadian Car & 
Foundry Co., Montreal, Canada, the first three of which are performed 
with the metal hot. 

First Operation. — The bars, after being heated to a medium yellow 
in an oil-fired reverberatory furnace of the regular type, are presented 
to the press one at a time, the furnaceman supporting the cold end of 
the bar, while the press operator locates the hot end over the die. The 
two men can punch out about 3,500 blanks in 10 hr. 

The press die, which is cooled by the drippings from a water spray 
played on the punch, is a plain cylindrical one, 2J^ in. in diameter. The 
punch has a conical end in the middle of which is a teat, and the function 



Cbaf. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR Ift-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



70 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

of this tool, aside from punching out the blank, is to raise the edges of 
the blank, on the face entering the die, about ^f e ^^' 

The operation is quite severe on the dies and punches, particularly 
the former. An average die will produce about 2,000 blanks before it 
requires closing, while the punches stand up for about 5,000 blanks. 

Second Operation. — The blanks from the first operation are, in the 
second operation, reheated and squeezed between the male and female 
dies shown at H and J, Fig. 34, the lower die throwing up the boss J. 

The dies in this operation are also water cooled, and made of the same 
material as those used in the previous operation, and are usually good for 
from 6,000 to 7,000 pieces. The press, as in the first operation, runs 
continuously, but the output is somewhat less, about 2,800 being the 
average production for 10 hr. 

Third Operation. — ^After the second operation, the disks are tumbled 
to remove the scale, and appear as shown at C, Fig. 34. The blanks are 
then heated for the last time and are subjected to a coining operation, 
the plastic steel being squeezed between the upper die M and the "knock- 
out" L which fits into the bottom of the lower die JV, see Fig. 34. A 
lever inserted in the slot at the base of N ejects the coined disk by forcing 
up the "knock-out" L. 

In this operation the dies are flooded with water, and a vent hole 
in the lower die provided for the escape of the steam so as to prevent 
possibility of fracture. 

The dies for the coining operation are good for about 5,000 pieces 
each, but as the heated blanks can be handled only one at a time the out- 
put of the press is somewhat restricted, about 1,700 disks being produced 
in 10 hr. 

Fourth Operation. — After the coining operation the work has a clean 
"bloom" on the outside, which is left on; that is, the disks are not tum- 
bled after the last forging operation. 

The next operation, shown at X, Fig. 35, is done on a Jones & Lamson 
flat turret lathe. The machine and tools are shown in Fig. 32. The 
work A is held in an ordinary spring collet. The flat centering-drill 
B is first brought into action so that the twist drill C will start true. 
Finally, the tap D is run in. In operation, the attendant chucks a 
disk with the small part of the taper at the inner end of the collet. 
The center drill 5, twist drill C and tap D are run in in rotation. The 
tap, however, is not backed out by power. On reaching the proper 
depth the machine is stopped and the turret drawn back with the 
tapped disk still on the tap. The operator chucks another disk and 
repeats the operations as before, but while feeding the twist drill in with 
his right hand, with the left he removes the threaded disk from the tap. 

The disk must be carefully chucked, for the tube which screws into 
it must be square with the seat, otherwise it willbe^cocked^over and 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



71 



trouble would ensue when the shell is fired, due to the inertia forcing the 
disk to seat properly, with resultant distortion of the tube or powder 
cup or both. 

On this operation 600 can be produced in 10 hr. 

The fifth and last operation is performed on a D. E. Whitton double- 
spindle centering machine, although in this operation only one spindle 
is used. 

The work A is screwed on the rotating spindle. The spindle and work 
are advanced by a lever, not shown. The facing cutter B removes the 






lh/6Threaet^, 
^ Right Hiand 



•'i~H^laS^ 






ac5 



//^V 



k 



LZ.S9 



It 



5 



J 



J 




J 






1 







I fti.<ii* 




FIQ. 35. MAKING STEEL DISKS FOR SHRAPNEL SHELLS 



slight burr raised around the edge in the last forging operation by the 
metal entering the space between the knock-out and the lower die, 
and also finishes the slight fiat surface required on the lower edge. The 
operator also gives the other edge a touch with a file to remove any slight 
burr formed at the space between the upper and lower dies. Pivoted on 
the pin C is a lever D with the front end provided with a toothed cam 
for holding the disk while removing it from the spindle. 

The production of the burring and facing operation is 1,000 in 10 hr. 

Inspection is rigid on the disks. The requirements are fairly close, 
if one takes into consideration the way the pieces are produced. The 
tolerance of 0.02 in. would perhaps be considered large for a re-striking 
operation in an uptodate drop-forge shop; but it must be remembered 
that this is an ordinary blacksmith shop, where large rough work has 
been produced and the machine used is intended for the usual run*of 
plate punching. In Fig. 35 are shown the work, in section with dimen- 
sions, and the inspection gages. 

The gage A (about H in. thick) at E is for ascertaining the shape 
and diameter of the disk top and at F the total depth of the disk. The 



72 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sbc. I 



dimensions being given, the application of the various gages to the disk 
wiU be apparent. 

The gage B, also 3^ in. thick, is for ascertaining at G the shape and 
diameter of the base of the disk (note the fiats in the corners of the 
openings G). At H the thickness of the edges of the disk is gaged. The 
gage C is a thread gage for the central threaded hole. The plug gage D 
is for the recess which receives the top of the powder cup. 

Having passed these inspections a tube is screwed into a disk J, as 
shown in Fig. 35, and with the disk J resting on the lower level of the two- 
surface plate K, is tested for squareness with the square L. 

Owing to the inequality in thickness of commercial bar stock, disks 
are occasionally found, on inspection, to be too thick. These are re- 
turned to the smith's shop and re-struck, the excess of metal flowing 
into the tapped hole in the center, from which it is removed in the re- 
threading operation. 

SHRAPNEL SHELL SOCKETS FOR zS-POUNDERS 

The socket is placed in the mouth of the shell and turned to the desired 
shape. It is made from a very cheap alloy, consisting of 50 per cent, cop- 



^ 







2%" 




(a) 



i. 




(M 




(c) («J) 




(e) 



f-O- 



■ ■ ■ ■ ■ • ' 



(/) 



FIQ. 36. DETAILS OF 18-LB. SHRAPNEI/-BHELL SOCKETS 



per» 40 per cent, zinc, and 2 per cent. lead. This metal is so poor that it 
has been found practically impossible to make satisfactory castings. They 
must, therefore, be forged to the desired form from slugs. For this pur- 



Chap. IVJ TIN POWDER CUPS FOR 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



73 



pose a 300-ton knuckle- jointed press is used, as the pressure necessary 
to complete this work is enormous. A dry furnace for heating is generally 
used, gas being the heating medium. Some, however, prefer the lead bath 
for this part of the work. Either is satisfactory, though the gas furnace 
is a shade the better, as, with the bath, the lead usually gets into the dies. 
The slugs are placed in this furnace, and withdrawn at from 1,200 to 1,400 
deg. .F. At this temperature they flow easily and are not liable to rupture. 
In Fig. 36(a) is shown the socket before and after forging. The 
slug is 213^6 ^' diameter, ^ in. thick and weighs 18 oz. This will 
give some idea of the displacement of the metal. The dies, with the 
exception of the lower bolster, are shown in detail in Figs. 36(6), (c), 
(d) and (e). The lower bolster is shown in (/). In (6) is indicated the 
type of top die, or punch holder, used, while (c) illustrates the top punch. 
In (d) the lower die for forming is shown, and in (e), the ejector block 
which goes into this die. This ejector is operated on by an ejector rod, 
which comes through the hole. A, (d). One blow completes the form, and 
the output of one press and furnace, with two men working, reaches 
approximately 4,000 per 20-hr. day. 




* rT~r rr-n 

^ ^ — ri — r 



■ I 



(a) 





(d) (e) (/) 

no. 37. DETAIU3 OF 18-LB. 8HBAPNELH3HELL PLUGS 



The Fuse Plug. — The fuse plug is the portion screwed into the socket 
just described. It is made from the same alloy. When the shells are 
desired for use in actual warfare, this plug is unscrewed on the battle- 
field and discarded. 



74 SHRAPNEL [Sec. 1 

As the forging of this piece is practically the same as that described, 
the dies only will be shown. The top punch holder is shown in Fig. 
37(a). In (6) is represented the outer sub-punch, to which is added 
the inner sub-punch, shown in (c). These two punches are screwed into 
Af (a). The small square punch shown at B in (c) is made from high- 
speed steel and is designed for easy replacement, as a great many break 
off while at work. In (d) is shown the lower form die, and in (e), the 
ejector block with ejector pin in place. The bolster plate for both plug 
and socket dies is shown in Fig. 36(/), the reason for making the dies 
interchangeable being to save the removal of this piece from the bed of 
the press. In Fig. 37(/) is shown the plug before and after forging, 
dimensions and weights being given. 

The thread shown on the finished work is not done in the forging 
operation, but is produced afterward on the turret lathe. 

BIRCH LOG FUSE PLUGS. 

The throwing out of metal plugs on the battlefield to accommodate 
a time fuse or an impact detonator results in the loss of or damage to 
a great number of plugs; it scarcely pays to collect and return to the 
manufacturer of shrapnel those found undamaged. Obviously a quite 
appreciable waste results, notwithstanding the cheap grade of alloy of 
which the metal fuse plugs are made. Here then was an excellent prob- 
lem for the display of Yankee ingenuity — one economically solved by the 
Estes Co. of New York by substituting hard wood plugs for the more 
costly metal ones. 

White birch, yellow birch, beech and hard maple have been proved 
to withstand successfully exposure to cUmatic conditions without defor- 
mation, and serve quite as well as a protection to the threads of the fuse 
socket and for closing the powder tube opening as did the metal plugs. 
The birch which has been utilized by the Estes Co. comes from the Berk- 
shire Mountains where is also located a wood working plant owned by 
that company. Proximity to the source of raw material is a necessity 
for a plant engaging in quantity production of wooded specialties and 
it is often cheaper to take the plant to the trees than it is to take the trees 
to the plant. The Estes Co. owns its forest and cuts timber according 
to a definite rotation plan which assures a constant and plentiful supply 
of timber — planting and cutting taking place twenty years apart. 

Manufacturing the Birch Log Fuse Plug for 18-Lb. Shrapnel. — The 
logs, which range from 6 to 10 in. in diameter, are ripped into 2^8 in. 
strips and stacked in dry kilns, the usual process of air seasoning having 
had to be accelerated to meet the enormous demand created for the 
plugs. After being thoroughly dried, the plugs are finished to the 
dimensions shown in Fig. 38 in six operations — see operations 1 to 6. 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR Ift-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 75 



'"^^■'Xo.uioo,--' 



'II 



T TUB WOOD rUBE-HOLE FLOQ 



OPERATION 1. 



1. RlpaAWI> 



OPERATION 2. 

1 MIQ8 



Machines Uaed — Portable ripsawing outfits. 
Special Fixtures and TooU^None. 

Production — Depends on size of logs available. Four rip c 
to 200 ft. per minute. 

OPEHATION 2. KILN DRYINO 

Machines Used — Dry Kilns. 
Special Fisturee and Tools — None. 



9 taken at from 150 



Section through Sniper 
showing Knives 



Sawing Sniping 

OPERATION 3. CROSS-SAWINa AND SNIPING 

Machines Used — Combination Sawing and Sniping Bench. 
Special Fixturea and Tools — None. 

Production — One man sawe and snipes both ends of (ram 15,000 to 20,000 pieces 
per day of 10 hr. 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR IS-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 



Conical Driving Chuck 




Action of FoiTning Sequence of Operations 

and Cvt-Off Tools 

OPERATION 4. TDRN PLUCB 

Machines Used — Special formiog and turning lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Turning Knife A; facing cutter B; beveling tool C; 
forming Tool D; cutoff tool D, special conical cup^crew chuck. 

Gagee — Ring gage for diameter of threaded part. ^ 

Production— One lathe and one operator, 8,000 pieces per day of 10 hr. 



0I>Bn*.TtON 5. SLOTTINO 

Machine Used — Saw head and cross-slide. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — 1-in. croes-cut saw A; sliding wood chuck block E 
position stop C 

Production — From one man and one machine, 15,000 pieces per day. 




A-Threading Tool 



Arrangemen+ of Work and Tools 
ing Mochi 




OPERATION 6. CUT THRBSD 

Machines Used— Special threading machine. 

Special Fixtures and Toole — Square notched threading tool A; special self-acting 

Gages — Ring thread gage for thread. 

Production — From one man and one machine, 15,000 pieces per day. 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR 18-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 79 

Following the seasoning of the logs, they are cut into lengths ranging 
from 20 in. to 24 in. and of "sniping" or coning the ends of these sticks to 
fit the cone-shaped lathe chucks and the steadyrests. One operator 
takes care of both steps in this operation and completes a stick in less 
than 2 sec. 

Five cutting tools are combined in the fourth operation, in which the 
sniped stick is turned into plug-blanks at the rate of 8,000 per day for 
one machine and one operator. One end of the stick is introduced into 
a conical chuck threaded upon the inside, which grips by cutting threads 
upon the conical end of the stick placed within it, thus forming a most 
secure combined drive and holdback. The other conical end is placed 
in the steadyrest. 

This rest has a njumber of functions. It carries three tools — a turn- 
ing tool for reducing the square stock to round, a forming tool that pro- 
duces a large part of the plug profile, and the cutting-off tool that servers 
the completed blank from the stick. In making the plug, the steady 
head is first fed along the lathe shears toward the headstock, thus expos- 
ing sufficient of the rounded stock through the circular rest opening* to 
allow of making one plug. The tailstock spindle is next advanced by 
means of a hand lever, bringing the facing tool and the beveling biftck- 
tool into contact with the plug. By pressing a knee-treadle, the lathe 
hand next brings up the forming tool, which swings on a pivot, into con- 
tact with the work. This same movement next causes the cutting-off 
tool to rise and completes the operation by detaching the plug. 

The method of cutting the screw slot, which is done in the fifth opera- 
tion, is quite similar to that employed in slotting metal screw-hqads. 
A saw is used for this purpose, illustrated at A in operation 5. The plug, 
which rests in a simple chkicking block, is pushed against the saw ^nti] 
the sUding block strikes the stop C Fifteen thousand pieces per: day 
from one machine and one operator is the usual production. 

The method of making chucking fixtures such as used in this opera- 
tion is quite simple. It consists in roughing out a recess in the block a 
little larger than the piece to be held, then securing the piece in the proper 
position and pouring melted lead around it. 

Cutting the threads, the last operation in the manufacture of the'fuse 
plugs, is performed on a simple type of lathe, illustrated in Fig. 39. :The 
head and tail stock of this machine swing upon a pivot C, the tailstock 
serving simply to hold the fuse plug in the chuck. Geared to the bead 
spindle is the feed screw D. After the plug is placed within the chuck 
and held by the advanced tailstock spindle, the operator presses down 
upon the tailstock lever, thus swinging the head and the tailstock on the 
pivot C, so that the feed screw comes in contact and engages with the 
single-thread bronze nut E, and at the same time the cutting tool A 
comes into proper relation with the blank to begin its cut. The action is 



Chap. IV] TIN POWDER CUPS FOR la-LB. BRITISH SHRAPNEL 81 

exactly similar to threading with a single-point lathe tool. In the time 
that it has taken to read the description of this operation, the man running 
it would have completed some 40 or 50 plugs, for he turns out 15,000 in 
10 hr. 

K^.y, ;liTkreaebperln.1lhitt»Hh 

Iir'Vi*iii" '\g..' '" 




\^i^a&'-i 



Profile of Head and 
Diameter ^arge Diameter (s+mi) 

na. 40. aAQBs used in urapEcxiHa wooden FUSB.HOiiE flcob 



THBEADINU 



no. 41. DIB iJSED IN i 
Jb^ectlon of Fuse Plugs. — Accuracy within quite narrow Umits 
is required of the wooden fuse plugs, and, though the inspections and 
gagings are not as frequent as in the case of metal plugs, they are never- 
theless insisted upon. Fig. 40 illustrates a set of template gages and 



82 SHRAPNEL [Sbc. I 

thread gage used for the various inspections and very little variation is 
permitted, even though the material worked is wood. 

An Alternate Method of Threading the Plugs. — A western plant also 
engaged in the manufacture of wooden fuse plugs performs the thread 
cutting operation in quite a different manner from the one used by the 
Estes Co. It is in reality a die threading process. The die block A, 
Fig. 41, contains a hole having a continuous thread represented at B 
interrupted only for the admission of the two tools C and D. The front 
tool C makes the preliminary cut and is followed by the threads B, 
which form a lead for the die. The rear tool D cleans out the rear threads 
which are sometimes left a trifle rough by the leading tool C. 



CHAPTER V 

THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL »— MAKING S-IN. RUSSIAN 

SHRAPNEL IN A PUMP SHOP^ 

With its much higher muzzle velocity requiring extreme accuracy in 
all dimensions and weights, Russian 3-in. shrapnel presents quite a differ- 
ent manufacturing proposition from that of the British 18-pounder. 

The Russian requirements are extremely strict, yet the American 
manufacturer has successfully undertaken the work in 30 main operations, 
including the boxing of the finished shells for shipment. Certain modi- 
fications in the regular Russian specifications have had to be made in 
order to realize the output required under the contracts, it is true, but 
the work has been performed in a manner satisfactory to the Russian 
government at a rate exceeding a completed shell every 2J^ min., 
and that in a shop where the manufacture of ammunition was a new 
departure. 

Neglecting fine subdivisions, the various steps in producing a finished 
Russian shell at this plant are as follows: The forgings on receipt are 
given the continuous total count, heat lots are separated and counted and 
the shells are then cut off at both ends. This preliminary work is followed 
by rough-turning and inside finishing, after which come the heat-treating 
operations. After these come the outside base finishing and band groov- 
ing, followed by either the base grinding or nosing, which, although 
consecutive operations, are often reversed in order to accommodate 
shop conditions. Next, the heat-lot number, which has been removed 
by machining, is stamped upon the finished base of the shell, which then 
goes to the chucking lathes to have its nose end threaded and formed. 
The body profile is next turned, followed by a filing and polishing opera- 
tion, after which the shells are washed inside and out and delivered to 
the Governtnent inspectors for the first inspection. This test is succeeded 
by inside painting, the diaphragm is next inserted and the copper bands 
are pressed on. The shells are loaded with bullets and smoke powder, 
the fuse cap is screwed in, the brass plug inserted and the spaces between 
the lead balls filled with rosin, after which the standard weight is estab- 
lished. Next, the rosin filling-holes are plugged and riveted, and the 
shells go to a series of high-speed sensitive drill spindles which drill and 
tap for the cap-holding screws, which are then insert<ed and riveted over. 
The operation which follows is that of turning the copper band to its 
finished size and forming the nose end of the cap. This step is followed 

* John H. Van Deventer, Managing Editor, American Machinist, 

* Ethan Viall. , 

83 



Chap. V] 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



85 



by Qose filiDg and polishiDg, which is succeeded in turn by a final cleaning 
and the last Government inspection. The accepted shells are lacquered, 
the zinc plugs inserted and the shells boxed for shipment. Many of 
these operations, as will be noticed by following the operation schedule, 
are still further subdivided. 



Machines Used 
— Cochran e-Bly 
No. 2-B aawB. 

Special Fixtures 
and Toola — l5-in. 
uwbladesA.i^in. 
thick, Hid- pitch; 
regular-type hold- 
ing-down block B; 
Adaptation of reg- 
ular length stop C. 

Gages — None 
neeesaary after 
length Bt«p is 
lectly set. 

Production—20 
to 25 per hr. per 
machine (on 
double-shell opera- 
tion). One man 
can run 4 to 6 
saws. Cut requires 
3K niiD. 

Note — Saws cut 
at 40 ft. per min. 
Blades require 
chan^g, on an 
average, every 7 hr. 
Cincinnati Bick- 
ford No. 10 auto- 
matic saw sharp- 
ener used for re- 
grinding. Soap- 
water lubrication 
used. When run 
double, as shown. 




the I 



eedii 



operation is elimi- 



OPEBATION 1. CUT OfP B 



Machines Used — Hurlbut- Rogers 4-ia. cutting-ofF machJnea. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Stop collar A in spindle for positioning shell, front 
cutting head B. 

Gages — None. 

Production — 40 per hr. per niacliine. One operator to each machine. Cut re- 
quires 1 inin. 

Note — Cutting speed, 90 ft, per min. Front toot only is used. Feed (through 
belt and worm) approximates 0.003 in. per revolution. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



ROOaH-TUBN BASE END 

Machiaea Used — Special-purpose chucking lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Floatiug shell chuck A, internal expanding nrbor B, 
roller bock-reat box turning-tool C. 

Gages — Go and not go snap gage; limits, 3 to 3.01 in. 

Production — From 25 to 30 per hr. from one machine and one operator. 

Note — Cutting speed, 75 to 90 per min. ; teed, Vi in. Cut requires ?i min. Soap- 
water lubrication used. The forging is located in chucking position by the interior 
mandrel and then gripped by the floating chuck pins as an additional drive. 

Reference^ Chucking lathe, shown in Fig. 43. 




OPEBATION 4. BORE AMD REAII 

Machines Ueed — Special-purpose chucking lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools— Special shell chuck A, Cutting tools: 1 — Powder- 
pocket roughing cutter B, roughing cutters C and D for reamer, outside turning tool 
E. 2 — Rough step cutter F for powder pocket and diaphragm seat, facing tool G. 
3^Pinishmg step cutter H for powder pocket and diaphragm seat. 4 — Reamer J. 

Gages — Double-end limit plug gage K tor diameter of powder pocket, double- 
end limit plug gage L for diameter of diaphragm seat, special limit gage M for depth 
of powder pocket, snap gage tor diameter of open end. 

Production — ^12 per hr. irom one machine and one operator. 

Note — Cutting speed, 70 ft. per min. Hand feed used on all suboperationa except 
No. 1, Reaming speed, 45 ft. per min. 

Reference — Chucking lathe, shown in Fig. 43. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 




Mftchinea Used — Equipment of Strong, Carlisle & Hammoad No. 118 crude-oil 
fired muffle furnaces, blast from Root's positive blower; water-cooled oil-quenching 
tftuks B; oil circulation supplied by rotary pump C. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — 6- and S-ft. shell tongs D, wire-mesb tank basket E, 
overhead trolley and hoist F. 



90 SHRAPNEL (Src. I 

Gagea^None. Pyrometers to control furnace temperature. 

Production — From each furnace, one batch of 50 shells every 35 to 45 min. Three 
men required to handle each heat. One man pulls out the heated shells with the long 
tongB nhile the other two dip them. 

Note — Furnace temperature maintained at 1,420 deg. F. 



OPERATION 6. DRAW 

Machines Used — Equipment of two Strong Carlisle & Hammond No. 118 
oil-fired muffle preheating furnaces and one Frankfort No. 2 crude-oil fired lead pot. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Eight-spindle shell crib attached to melting pot. 

Gages — Scleroacope hardness tester. Hardness ranges from 40 to 46. 

Production — From one pot, using alternate preheating furnaces, three men draw 
2,300 shells per day of 10 hr. One man takes shells from preheating furnaces, placing 
them in the pot. The second man operates the hoist and turns the crib. The third 
man takes shells from the pot and places them on the truck. An additional man is 
required to operate the scleroscope, and one man (the foreman, regulates tempera- 
tures and sees that trucks keep moving. 

Note — The preheating furnaces heat the shells to 940 deg. F. The lead pot 
raises this to the drawing point, 1,040 deg,_F. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



piNtSB PORU bjlsb end 

Mochinee Used — Special-purpose cbuckiog lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Special floating chuck A, hand-wheel-operated, ex- 
panding arbor B for gripping internally. 

Cutting Toole — 1 — Roller-back-rest turner C. 2— End-fftcing tool D, groove- 
forming tool E. 3^Reces8 undercutting tools F and G. 4 — Knurling tool H. 

Gagee — Limit snap gages (or diameters of base and groove, limit templet gage for 
undercut and location of groove from base- 
Production — From one machine and one operator, 12 per hr. Cutting speed, 75 
ft. per min. Hand-lever longitudinal and crosa-elide feeds. 

Note— Soap-water lubrication used. This operation brings the base end of shell 
to a finish. The forming tool E by careful handling will stand a day's run. The end- 
facing tool D b operated in connection with the crossfeed on tool £ for cutting to the 
center of the shell. 

Reference — Special-purpose lathe, shown in Fig. 43. 



Chap. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 93 

Machine Used — Gardner No. 4 double'disk grinder. 

Special Fixtures and TooU — Regular equipment used. Vee-block for shell A, 
length stop B. 

Gages — Straight-edge to teat base for flatness. Swing gage to test for thickness 
of base C. 

Production — One machine with two operators can griad the bases of 250 shells 
perbr. 

Note — This operation is performed both dry and wet. Th^ use of a coolant is 
not necessary, as the amount of metal removed is only one or two thousandths of an 
inch. The heat-lot number is replaced on the shell base after grinding. This opera- 
tion and the following operations are often reversed in sequence to suit shop conditions. 



OPERATION 9. BOITLINO AUn ANNBALINO 

Machines Used — Watson-Stillman hydraulic punching press A, Frankfort crude- 
oil fired lead pot B, galvanized-iron annealing trays C. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Distance stops D, heading die E, locating piece F. 

Gages— None. 

Production — Two men, with one lead pot and one press, head and anneal 240 
shells per hr. 

Note — Flake mica used for annealing. 



OPERATION 10. BOBE, FACE, TURN AND TAP NOSE 

Machines Used — Special-purpoae chucking lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Special shell chuck A. Cutting tools: 1 — Tool for 
rougb-boriag thread seat B, rough-facing tool C, 2 — Finish cutter D for thread 
seat and facing end. 3 — Collapsii^ tap E. 4— Turning and forming tools G and 
H, roller rest J. 

Gages — Thread gage K, go and not go; templet for profile L. 

Production — F'rom one man and one machine, 18 per hr. 

Note — Soap-water lubrication used. The third and fourth suboperations may 
be reversed in sequence if desired. The form of Whitworth thread prevents injury 
to threads in nose by the roller rest in the sequence as shown. 

Reference — Special-purpose chucking lathe, shown in FIr 43. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



0PBRA.TION 11. nNlSB-TUBN BODY 

MachineB Ueed — Special 16-in. engine lathes fitted with form templets for guiding 
crossfeed travel A. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Special split collet chuck 6, special ball-bearing thrust 
tailstock plug C, feed templet D. 

Gages — limit snap gages for roughing and finishing. 

Production — One operator running two lathes finishes 20 shells per hr. 

Note — No lubrication. Cutting spetid, 118 ft. per min. Feed per min., 3 in. 



OPBRATIOK 12. FILB AND FOLiaH 

Machines Used — Special polishing lathes A, with spring-actuated tailatock spindlea 
B. 

Special Fixtures and TooU — Cup chuck C for base end of shell; ball-bearing tail 
center D, same as used on body-finishing lathes in operation 11. 

Gages — limit snap gages for bourrelet and body. Body limits, 2.955 to 2.9fi0 
in. Bourrelet Umits, 2.977 to 2.980 in. 

Production — From one machine and one operator, 20 per hr. 

Note — Body and bourrelet are both filed and then polished with emery cloth, 
from >iooo t* M ooo i". having been left for this operation. 



Chap. V) THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 




98 SHRAPNEL (Sec. I 

Mtuhines Used — Hand operations. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — For Buboperation 4, a special cast-iron expanding 
and riveting block D. 

Gages — For Buboperation 2, a go and not go plug gage A. For euboperaUon 3, 
a ring gage B. 

Production — No definite rate can be put on this or tbe succeeding hand operation 
No. 16. One man and two boys easily handle both operations for 2,500 shells per 10 
hr. 

Note — The red lead is applied just previous to operation 15 and aftei the asphal- 
tum paint has dried. 



OPERATION 14. BLOW OUT AMD FAINT INSIDE OP SHELL 

Machines Used — Spray Engineering Co.'s com pressed -air shell-pa in ting machine A. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — Portable drying racks B. 
Gages — None. 

Production — One machine will coat the interior of 250 to 400 shells per hour, 
depending on the method of handling. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPEKATtON 15. PUT ASBBUBLBD DIAPHRAOM AND TUBE IN SHELL 

Machines Used — Hand operation. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 

Gages — None. 

Production — Included in operation 14. 

Note— The assembled diaphragm and tubes are simply dropfji in by hand. TTiey 
must fit loosely, and tight ones are rejected. The succeeding operation/crimping the 
drive band, must not cause the ahell to pinch the diaphragm, and this acts as a check 
on the distortion of shell wall due to crimping. 



100 SHRAPNEL (Sec. I 

OPKSATION 16. SET OK CRIMP DRIVE BAND 

Machines Used — WmI hydraulic band-crimping machine A, 6 plungers 6 in. in 
diameter, operated from accumulator. 

Special fixtures and Tools — None. 

Gages — None, llie test for crimping is made hy tapping the band with a light 
hammer. 

Production — One machine and one operator produce from 30 to 40 pieces per hour. 

Note — A maximum unit pressure of 1,000 lb. per square inch ia required. 



17. LOAD WITH BALLS AND BMOKO POWDBB 



Special Fixtures and Tools — Ball presaer and guide D. 
Gagee — None. 

Production — Three men and two arbor presses, 250 shells per hr. 
Note. — Pive rows of balls are first inserted, then 13 drama 5 grains of a smoke 
powder composed of 55 parts of metallic antimony and 45 parts of magnesium. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OFBBATION 18. 8TAHT TU8B SOCKET AND HAKB WEIQHT 

Machinee Used — Hand operationa. 

Special Fixtui^a and Tools — Brush E for amearing grease in threads; drift H for 
mserting balls. 

Gages — Scales G for weight; rod J for testing powder tube. 

Production — Three men take care of 2fi0 shells per hour. 

Note — Weight at this operation is held to 13 lb. S.6 ot. plus or minus the weight 
of one of the small lead balls. 



Machines Used — Hand operation. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Hinged chuck vise mounted on pedestal; double- 
ended screw-plug wrench with guide to fit powder pocket. 

G^es — None. 

Production — One man screws down from 40 to 60 sockets per hour. 

Note — The production rate is variable, caused by the variation of threads on the 
fuse sockets as received. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 




6ag« for Ccppar Plug . 



Machines Used — Hand operations. 

^lecial Fixtures and Tools — Special plug screwdriver L, with pilot extenuon to 
fit powder tube; hinged chuck N used as a bench vise in order to provide ample hold- 
ing power. 

Gages — Limit snap gage 0, to test depth and squareness of copper-plug seating. 

Production — Two men handle from 176 to 250 shells per hour. 

Note — Variationa in the threads varies production rate. 



Chap. V] 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



105 
kettlee R 



Machlnea Uaed — H&nd opentions. 

Special Fixtures ajid Tools — Wooden plugs Q for fuse sockets; 
and S, fitted with force pumps. 

G^es — Scales for checking weight, shown at V. 

Production — One operator at each kettle can produce 50 to 60 loaded ahells per 

Note — The rosin kettles are gas-fired and are provided with bandy tapping device.. 



Hsatin^ Screwa InMrting Scrtws 




Driving Scraws Snipping Scraw-Head* Rivttting 

H 22. INSERT PLUaaraa bckews, snip heads and rivbt 



Machines Used — Hand operationa. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Heating pan and gas burner W; tweecer pliers K; 
Yankee screwdriver Y; hand snipe Z. 

Gages— None. 

Production — Two men insert screws, screw down, snip heads and rivet 260 shells 
per hour. 



n»thBd of Centering Shel I ^Biock 

OPERATION 23. DRILL AND TAP FOR HOLDING SCREWS 

Machines Used — Three-epindle sensitive drills. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Stationary centering fixture A; square index block B. 

Gages — None. 

Production^Prom one operator and one machine, 30 shells per hr. 

Note — Speed for drilling and tapping, 1,200 r.p.m.; reversing tapping chuck used. 
Countersink with No. 11 and drill ^2 in. tor tapping; turpentine and white lead used 
as tap lubricant. Drills are run dry. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



Driving S'-rews Snipping H«oids Rivvting 

[ 24. IHSEBT BOLDIira SCRBWa, SNIP AND BIVaT 



Mftchinea Used — Hand operations. 

Special lilictures and Tools — Special wood-block bench vise A; Yankee screwdriver 
I; hand shears C; hammer D. 
Gages — None. 
Production— From three men, 2,500 shells in 10 hr. 



108 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sbc. I 



f'w '-'4.'.' '-T ■";."".' 







opebahon 25. form driyb band, and face and form fusb end of shell 

Machines Used — Converted engine lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Split collet chuck A; nose-forming and end-facing 
tool B; auxiliary tool slide C, with band-forming tool D; steady rest E; hand turning 
ToolF. 

Gages — ^Limit snap gages for diameter of copper band ; templet gage for drive band ; 
templet gage for nose profile. 

Production — From one man and one machine, 30 to 40 shells per hr. 

Note — No tool lubrication used in forming the copper drive band; cutting speed, 
65 ft. per min.; sequence of operations — (1) form band, (2) hand-tool band, (3) face 
nose end and form. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPKRATtON 26. FILE AND POLISH NOSE Of SHELL 

Machinu Used — Special polishing lathes, with cup chucka and baU-bearing, spring- 
actuated tail centers. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 
Gages — Templet gage for noso profile. 

Production^From one operator and one machine, 30 to 40 shells per tr. 
Note — The polishing lathes used on this operation work in Step with a like number 
of band-turning lathes, one of each, back to bock, forming a unit- 
Reference — Special polishing lathe, shown in Fig. 43. 



J 



Blowing out th» ruM Sock«t 
27. RETAP FOB FDeB-HOLB PLUG OBCB BCSEW 

Machines Uied — None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Wooden taper-wedge block viaes A; hand tap. 
Gages— None. 

Production — Two men can handle 2,500 shells in 10 hr. on this operation. 
Note — Compressed air used to blow out the fuse socket; the cork inserted i 
powder tube prior to operation 20 is now removed. 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



28. LACQUER 

Machines Used — Special driving device mounted on bench and driven from Boor 
shaft. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 

Ga^efl — None. 

Production— Three men lacquer 2,500 shells in 10 hr. 

Note — Shell is placed vertically on tipping block D, rotated by band while the base 
is lacquered, then tipped horiiontally and power driven by a leather friction wheel 
running on the copper driving band, while the cylindrical suri'sce is lacquered. 




©rWlng- fust Pli>g Drtving^rub Scr«w 
OPBB&TION 29. INSBET FUSE-HOLE PLUO AND GEOB BCBEW 

Machines Used^None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools— None. 

Gages— None. 

Production — Two men produce 2,500 in 10 hr. on this oper&tion. 



OPEB&TION 30. PACK y 

Machines Used — None. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 
Gagea^None. 

Production— Four men, 2,500 shells in 10 hr. 

Note — After boxing, the cover is sealed by means of a countersunk wax plug, 
shown at A and B. 

The production of 2,500 completed shells per 10 hr, day demanded a 
specialization in tools marked by simplicity and ruggedness. This is 
well exempKfied in the special-purpose chucking lathe shown in Fig. 43, 
a machine which accomplishes much in the way of sustaining the high 
production demanded. 

The machines are driven from a floor shaft and the use of spring- and 
lever-actuated idler pulleys, which, by tightening or loosening the driving 
belt as desired, start and stop the machines without the need of clutches. 
These features, by eliminating stoppages for belt adjustment, are operat- 
ing conveniences which also insure plenty of driving power at the spindle, 
while the unusually large spindle bearings and the low turret mounting 
provide rigidity for fast and heavy cut. 



Chap. VI THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 113 

The transportation and inter-operation Btor^e conveniences naturally 
bear considerable weight in maintaining the output of the plant, for 
floor space is too valuable to permit using it for storage space between 
machines. This problem was solved in this particular plant by the use 
of special trucks, shown in Fig. 44, which, with the addition of detachable 
top shelves, also serve as inter-machine inspection tables. The wooden 
pins of these trucks are so spaced that shells which are "bottled" may be 
laid between them, while shells in a condition previous to this operation 
are placed over the pins. 



no. 43, BPBC1AL-PDBP08B CHTTCKINQ LATHE UBBD FOB SHELL OPESATIONS 

Certain modifications in the order of the operations scheduled in 
the Russian specification also materially assist in speeding up produc- 
tion. Formerly the heat-treating operations headed the sequence, but 
by preceding the hardening of the shells by the inside finishing and out- 
side roughing operations greatly benefited the cutting tools and mate- 
rially reduced the time consumed in the heating operations. The removal 
of the forging skin by machining, although amounting in weight to not 
more than 15 per cent, of that of the rough shell, increased the capacity 
of the same number of furnaces and tables over 30 per cent. The outer 
skin of a steel forging has about double the resistance to the conduction 
of heat of the inner metal of the same piece. 

Another modification of the Russian specification was the suspension 
of the requirement of nickel plating the finished shrapnel shells. This 
refinement was specified as a protection against the rusting of shells in 



114 SHRAPNEL [8bo. I 

storage, but is quite unaecessary when the shells are destiaed for early 
use. 

The problem of balance is naturally more difficult to solve for the 
hand operations than for machine operations. The first heat-treatment 
is a good example of careful planning to avoid lost motions. One furnace- 
man pulls the hot shells from the furnace interior with a pair of long shell- 
tongs, a man on either side of 
him taking the shell which he 
drawa out and plunging it end- 
wise into the oil-quenching 
tank. After one or two end- 
wise motions to insure proper 
cooling, the shell is dropped 
into the tank, falling into a 
wire-mesh basket. The loca- 
tion of the quenching tanks 
with reference to the furnaces 
is 80 well chosen that the two 
quenchers need not move their 
positions, simply swinging their 
bodies as they transfer the hot 
shells from furnace to tank. 
After the entire batch has been 
pulled and while waiting for the 
next batch of shells in the ad- 
joining furnace, the three men 
lift out the baskets and re- 
move the hardened shells. 

The shells after coming 
from their heat-treatment are 
neither sand-blasted nor 
pickled, it having been found 
FIG. 44. PABTLT LoAi>Ei, BHELL TOucK ^^"^'^ ^^^^^ processcs are un- 
wiTH iNBPEcnoN SHELF neccssary. The inside surfaces 

of the shells do not scale ap- 
preciably, due to the fact that the air within them is not in circulation, 
and in fact the exterior of the shells is remarkably free from scale also, 
due to quick handling between furnace and oil bath. 

Remarkably fast forming of tough heat-treated material is done in 
the seventh operation. The cut, which is over 2 in. wide, is taken at a 
cutting speed of 75 ft. per minute; and under this hard usage the tool, by 
careful handling, will stand a day's run without regrinding. Another 
interesting example of forming will be shown in the fifth suboperation 
of operation 10, in which the nose-forming tool H roughs off the 



Chap. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 115 

nose profile. This, however, is not altogether a forming operation, the 
tool being fed parallel with the axis of the shell until the full reduction in 
size is reached. 

This operation was formerly divided into two parts with the purpose 
of putting less strain on the forming tools and thus securing longer service 
from them. Under this procedure, the base end was first rough formed 
to within 10 thousandths in. of finished size leaving the removal of this 
amount of metal together with the knurUng and undercutting for the 
second half of the operation. Experience has shown, however, that the 
additional chucking and handling time offset the wear on the forming 
cutter and as a result, the two operations were combined into one, and are 
now performed as here described. This is an illustration of the fact that 
the best way to do a certain thing can be determined only by trying it 
out, and letting experience dictate the answer. 

The lead bath following the hardening operation is an example of 
the unusually high production made possible by preheating of the shells 
to within 100 deg. of the drawing temperature in the oil-fired muffie 
furnace (operation 5). The lead pot shown in operation 6 takes care 
of drawing the temper of 2,500 shells in 10 hr. — an example of nicely 
timed hand work. The man at the pot rotates the shell filling fixture 
and raises and lowers the weighted spindles with the aid of a hook and 
tackle. The man standing in front of the furnace at the left takes the 
preheated shells from it and places them, one at a time, upon the spindle 
made vacant by the man in the center who removes the shells from the 
pot and places them upon the pins of the special trucks, where they are 
allowed to cool. 

The air entrapped when the inverted shell is thrust into the lead pot 
is vented by the siphon device which acts as a support for the inverted 
shell. 

From the manufacturer's standpoint, aside from* its close limits, the 
Russian shell presents many difficulties which are avoided in the British 
shrapnel. It has one feature, however, which goes a long way toward 
offsetting these, in that the diameter of the hole in the finished shell nose 
is large enough to admit a bar with a cutter that is the full size of the 
finished powder pocket. This means that it is possible not only to finish 
bore the shell before heat-treatment, but also to correct that portion of 
the product that shrinks in heat-treatment and in which the powder- 
pocket diameter and disk seat come under the minimum limit. 

The Russian shell is finished inside as well as outside wherein it differs 
from the British shell, in which considerable of the rough forging skin 
is left in the interior. This seeming drawback serves really as an 
advantage for it would be difficult to maintain the close limits required 
unless the finishing is done. Furthermore the inside finishing has been 
so carefully planned in connection with the nose bottling that it is un- 



116 SHRAPNEL [Sec. 1 

necessary to finish the inside contour of the nose after the shell is closed 
in^ as is required in the British shell. 

One of the noticeable features of the Russian shell is its highly polished 
base. This finish is secured in the eighth operation by means of a Gardner 
No. 4 double-disk grinder. Two operators work on this machine^ one 
at each disk, the shell being merely held in a V-block on the swing table 
and secured by the operator's left hand, his right being used to traverse 
the shell across the surface of the disk. No lubrication is needed to take 
care of the Ught cut, which amounts to but 0.001 or 0.002 in. at the most. 

In the illustration accompanying this operation, the method of 
truing up the special abrasive wheel is shown at the right. Special 
abrasive wheels are shown mounted on this disk grinder, but the ordinary 
type of grinding disk is also used with good success and in fact seems to 
be preferred by the operators. This operation definitely determines the 
thickness of the base of the shell. A careful gaging follows it, the 
apparatus shown at C being used for this purpose. The shell is placed 
over the vertical spindle with its powder pocket resting upon the spindle 
enlargement; and the surface gage, shown at the left, which has plus and 
minus ground measuring surfaces, is passed over the base of the shell. 

Bottling and annealing are combined in the ninth operation. The 
perspective illustration accompanying this operation shows another 
example of nicely timed handwork. Two men are kept busy at each pot, 
one of them working from the pot to the machine and back to the pot 
again, while the other works from the pile of shells on the -floor to the 
melting pot and from the melting pot back to the annealing trays of 
flake mica. The die used on the heading press is not water-cooled, yet 
does its work without causing the shells to stick. 

The operation of bottling and annealing^ is often reversed in order 
with respect to that of grinding the shell base, this depending upon 
shop conditions. II makes no difference whether bottling precedes or 
follows the grinding operation. The rough stock that has been left upon 
the body and bourrelet of the shell is removed in the eleventh operation. 
Each man who does this finishing work runs two engine lathes of simple 
but rigid construction, which are equipped with form-turning templets 
corresponding to the contour of the Russian shell. From each lathe the 
operator gets 10 shells an hour, or a total of 20 per hour per man per two 
machines. This is remarkably fast production, considering the fact 
that the material is heat-treated nickel steel. Fast cutting must be 
done to obtain this result; as a matter of fact the cutting speed is over 
118 ft. per minute, and the Kneal feed is 3 in. per minute. The finish- 
turning operations leave approximately 0.002 in. for the succeeding filing 
and polishing operations. A clever tail-end centering device is used on 
these lathes. It incorporates in its design a plug that fits the finished end 
of the shell nose and a ball thrust bearing that removes friction which 



Chap. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 117 

would otherwise result in heating at this high speed. This same centering 
device is also used on the tailstock of the speed lathe in the following 
operation. 

The speed lathes used in this operation are examples of effective 
simplicity. They are mounted upon wooden beds and driven from below 
through belts tightened with idler pulleys. Brakes are provided to 
bring the head spindles to a quick stop. The tail spindles of these lathes 
are actuated by springs, so that all that it is necessary for the operator 
to do is to release the lever handle, whereupon the ball-bearing centering 
plug forces the shell into the taper cup chuck, where it is held and driven 
by friction. This filing and polishing are confined to the body and bour- 
relet of the shell and do not extend to the nose, which receives attention 
after the fuse-socket plug has been inserted and the screws put in. 

Unlike that of the British shell of corresponding size, the powder tube 
of the Russian shrapnel is not threaded upon the disk end, but is held 
into the disk by expanding the sides of the tube, which are thinned down 
at one end for this purpose. There are a number of distinct hand opera- 
tions required in preparing the disk and tube for insertion in the shell, 
all of which are shown in operation 13. The apparatus used here is 
extremely simple, consisting of a cast-iron hammering block, a special 
punch to protect the upper end of the tube, and a hammer. A steel 
pin the size of the hole in the outer tube is fixed in the hammering block 
at B. At D will be noticed two conical stubs. These are expanding 
plugs. They are used for opening up the end of the tube which is to be 
inserted. One plug is a little larger than the other and is used when the 
tubes run undersize. A small drilled hole in the hanmiering block holds 
a wad of waste saturated with red lead. 

To show the actions making up this suboperation in sequence more 
clearly, the steps have been laid out in a straight Une, beginning with 
the dropping of the disk over the steel pin, followed by the expanding of 
the tube, the dipping of the expanded end into red lead and the final 
riveting of the tube into the disk. The simplicity of the ways and 
means employed enables this operation to be performed at a remarkably 
high speed. 

Coating the edge of the disk with red lead, as shown at 8, is done 
just previously to inserting the completed disk and tube in the shell, 
but not before the paint on the exterior of the disk and on the interior 
of the tube has become thoroughly dried. 

While the preparation of the outer tube and disk has been in progress, 
the shell itself has been thoroughly washed, cleaned and delivered to the 
Government inspectors. In this first official inspection it receives prac- 
tically the same tests as those described for the British 18-pounder. 
Particular stress is laid upon the inspection of the interior of the shell 
at this point, for it is the last opportunity for the Government inspectors 



118 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

to examine this part of the shell, unless they take the completed shrapnel 
apart or saw it in half. Cracks, scratches, scale, or hair lines on the 
interior or outside surfaces of the shell are carefully watched for during 
this inspection. 

The painting of the interior of the shell becomes simply a matter of 
arranging the handling in order to get as high an output as desired from 
the apparatus shown in operation 14. The machine used is a compressed- 
air shell-painting machine made by the Spray Engineering Co., of Boston. 
Pressing the inverted shell over the discharge tube of this apparatus 
causes it to inject a measured quantity of paint, which is forced up into 
the powder pocket by Compressed air. The air is delivered in such a 
way that the paint is uniformly distributed and drops are prevented from 
running down and gumming up the finished thread surfaces. 

One of the conveniences designed to facilitate the handling of shells 
during the painting operation is shown in this operation. It is a 
drjdng rack mounted on wheels, and it may be readily pushed back and 
forth to bring it into convenient location with respect to the painting 
machine. The shells rest upon heavy wire netting, which permits free 
circulation of air to their interiors and helps to dry them quickly. 

In the Russian shell, any disks which fit tightly into the disk seats 
are at once rejected. The disk must be a loose, easy fit and must readily 
drop into its place. It is inserted before the shell goes to the band- 
crimping machine and serves as a check upon this operation, for upon 
coming from this machine the disks must still be free within the shell. 
Any distortion of the metal due to compression would of course be noticed 
by a binding of the disk, and this arrangement is made to serve as a 
convenient gage upon an operation which would otherwise be rather 
difficult to check up. An additional reason for this free fit is to insure 
that the disk and outer tube will be readily discharged from the exploded 
shell and thus serve to back up and give impetus to the discharge of its 
content of lead balls, acting in this way something like the wad back of 
the charge of shot in a shotgun shell. 

Considerable attention is given to the inspection of the copper drive 
band. The metal must be of such a character that it may be folded upon 
itself and may be then flattened with a hammer without signs of breaking. 
It must be capable of being forged in a cold state until reduced to one- 
half of its thickness, without giving indications of tearing. The correct 
seating of the copper band in the band groove of the shell is determined 
after the crimping operation by tapping the band with a hammer and 
noticing the clearness of the ring. In addition to this the inspector has 
the privilege of removing rings from 1 per cent, of the total number of 
projectiles for the purpose of seeing that they are properly seated. 

At the seventeenth operation — that of loading or filling the shrapnel 
— a number of elements are introduced which have considerable effect 



HAP. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 119 

on the further handling of the shell. Owing to the design and construc- 
tion of these parts and the limitations of the requirements concerning 
them, it is no longer possible to handle the Russian shell mechanically, 
but its completion through the next six operations becomes an example 
of handwork pure and simple, quite a bit more so than in the case of the 
British shell of corresponding size, in which loading is a semimechanical 
proposition. 

One of the causes for this difference is the fact that Russian specifica- 
tions call for the insertion of "smoke powder" after five rows of balls 
are introduced into the shell. This composition is a mixture of metallic 
antimony and magnesium, the former producing dense black smoke and 
the latter a brilliant light, so that the explosion of the shell may be 
traced either by day or by night. The purpose of this smoke powder is 
to serve as a guide to the artillery observer who takes care of the range- 
finding, and of course has nothing to do with assisting in the explosion 
of the shell itself. 

Russian shrapnel balls are cast from a mixture of four parts by weight 
of lead and one part by weight of antimony. The diameter of the balls 
is ^2 hi., and the average weight of one is 6 drams. They are tested 
by being struck a slight blow with a hammer and must not crack under 
this test. A shell is supposed to contain from 256 to 265 balls, but in 
some cases in this country special provision reducing the niunber has 
been made by the inspectors, since the density of the metal employed 
made it impossible to get the full number of given-sized balls within the 
allotted space in the interior of the shell. 

In order even to get the reduced number of balls into the shell, it is 
necessary to press them down by means of an arbor press, such as shown 
at C in operation 17. The first pressing down occurs after the smoke 
powder has been introduced, and in some cases a second and even a 
third pressing at certain stages of the filling are necessary in order to 
make the required weight. The tool shown at D in this operation 
is used to facilitate this work. It consists of a plunger having a hole 
through its center, to admit the powder tube, and running in a guide 
the bottom of which conforms to the outside shape of the shell. Con- 
sidering the restrictions and disadvantages under which this operation 
must be handled, three operators do well to produce 250 shells per hour. 

The fuse socket of the Russian shrapnel is shown at / in operation 18. 
It differs in many respects from the British shrapnel fuse socket, and most 
notably in the coarse pitch of the thread that receives the fuse. After 
the thread in the shell nose has been daubed with grease, as shown at E, 
the fuse socket is entered by hand; then the projectile is put upon a 
pair of scales so that the weight may be brought up to 13 lb. 5.6 oz., 
within the limit either way of the weight of one ball. Should the weight 
be found not sufficient, a ball is introduced, as shown at H, this process 



120. SHRAPNEL [Sbc. I 

requiring qonsiderable skill and manipulation. If the weight is excessive, 
there is nothing to do but remove the plug, and take out a ball. It must 
be said that very few corrections need to be made, as experience soon 
teaches those who handle the assembling of shells to judge weight by 
''heft'^ almost as accurately as scales will measure it. 

One of the most essential precautions in hand assembling is to make 
sure that the powder tube has not been distorted or crimped or otherwise 
injured. Therefore as soon as the weight has been found to be correct, 
a rod gage is run down through the powder tube. It must go all the way 
to the bottom of the powder pocket. This gage consists simply of a 
tool-steel rod of a diameter equal to that of the interior of the tube and 
provided with a handle at the top, such as is shown at J in operation 18. 
After the weight of the loaded shell and the condition of the powder tube 
have been found to be correct, the fuse socket is screwed down. This 
process is like the operation of a miniature treadmill and is shown in 
operation 19. The shell is held securely in a hinged vise mounted upon 
a pedestal, and the socket is driven home through the exertions of an 
operator who walks backward in a circle, pulling the pipe extension handle 
after him. One feature of this operation is the wrench used, which is a 
screw plug wrench conforming to the thread of the fuse socket and having 
an extension pilot that projects into and protects the central powder tube. 

A difference in design between the British and the Russian shrapnel 
is noticed in the means used for seaUng the upper end of the powder tube 
to the fuse socket. In British shell the brass powder tube was soldered 
direct to the bronze fuse socket after the loading was completed. In 
the Russian shrapnel the joint is made by means of a copper plug, 
shown at if in operation 20, which screws down within the fuse socket 
and has a recessed central hole that fits over the central powder tube. 
No solder is employed to make this joint, but the plug is screwed down 
in such a way that the powder tube is securely held. For this purpose 
a wrench, shown at L, is employed. It is quite similar in principle to 
that used in operation 19, for screwing down fuse sockets, except that 
it has a screw-slot key projection instead of threads. 

Since this joint is not made tight with solder or other packing, it is 
essential to seat the copper plug squarely against the tube. This is 
tested by means of a gage, shown at Q, which has a double purpose — 
first, to indicate whether the copper plug has been screwed down the 
correct distance; and second, to show whether it is squarely seated. 

A cork is inserted in the powder tube of each shell and remains there 
during the succeeding operations as an insurance against the entrance 
of dirt or other foreign material. Just before the fuse-hole plugs are 
inserted, these corks are withdrawn and returned to the bench at which 
this operation is performed, to be used over again. 

The shell is then filled with rosin, introduced through hole A, the 



Chap. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 121 

larger of the two holes shown in suboperation P in operation 21. The 
smaller hole B is provided for the escape of the air. 

In order to introduce the rosin through such a small opening as has 
been left for it, a force pump is provided on the side of the rosin kettle, 
as shown at i2 in this operation. The nose, or discharge opening, of this 
force pump is made to fit inside of the hole A in|the fuse socket. One 
stroke downward of the pump lever fills the shell with rosin and causes 
a little to flow over, which is necessary to indicate that the shell is com- 
pletely filled. The rosin is prevented from entering the threads by means 
of wooden plugs, such as shown at Q, which fill up the thread nose and 
prevent the necessity of cleaning out these threads later on. The rosin 
kettles are heated by means of gas burners and are arranged to be 
supplied from above by means of a rosin storage supply. 

It is necessary to remove the few drops of rosin which overflow through 
the air outlet, and this is done by means of one or two passes of a hand 
scraper, as shown at X in this operation. Next, the shell is placed upon 
a pair of scales to determine its weight. One advantage of the Russian 
method of filling shells with rosin is the fact that the operator does not 
need to exercise an unusual degree of haste in entering and screwing 
down the fuse socket before the rosin becomes solidified. In the British 
shell it is important that this be done, and the necessity of doing so in a 
hurry does not add to the convenience of the operation. 

The next step following the filling of the shell with rosin consists in 
plugging the rosin-admission and air-outlet holes, this work being shown 
in operation 22. The screws used in plugging these holes are kept at a 
blue heat by means of the apparatus shown at W, it being necessary to 
have them at this temperature in order that they may melt whatever 
rosin remains in these two holes and thus clear the way for themselves 
without the necessity of cleaning the holes out otherwise. An operator 
becomes quite expert at handling these hot screws, having a pair of 
tweezers as an aid in starting them. They are driven home by means of 
a Yankee screwdriver, after which the protruding heads are snipped off 
with a pair of hand snips, and whatever remains is riveted down with a 
hammer. This operation completely seals up the interior of the shell 
and its contents of balls and smoke powder, leaving an opening, however, 
to the powder pocket through the central powder tube, which has been 
and is still during this operation closed with a cork. 

There are a nimiber of checks upon the proper filling of the Russian 
shell. One of these is the weight of the complete shell, which indicates 
whether it contains the required number of balls. In addition to this 
a certain number of shells are unloaded or disassembled, the inspector 
having the right to disassemble not over one-half of one per cent, of the 
entire number of finished shells. Sometimes instead of disassembling 
a shell a section is sawed out longitudinally upon a milling machine, 



122 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

exhibiting the cross-section of the interior of the shell and showing the 
regularity of loading. Points that are observed or looked for in these 
examinations are as follows: The proper fastening of the fuse socket 
to the body of the shell; the correct seating to the upper end of the powder 
tube into the copper plug; the regularity of the powder tube, and whether 
it has been mashed through loading; the proper filUng of rosin and smoke 
powder; the position of the diaphragm in its seat, and whether the proper 
number of balls has been inserted. This latter point is established by the 
actual count of the contents of the disassembled shrapnel. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the fuse socket is screwed down firmly 
in operation 19, the Russian ordinance officials insist on additional pre- 
cautions against possible loosening in the shape of two ^^-in. screws 
that extend through the steel shell into the metal of the fuse socket. 
The drilling and tapping for these screws, as well as for the "grub" 
screw that is to hold the zinc fuse-hole screw plug, is done on multi- 
spindle high-speed sensitive drills and is shown in operation 23. The 
fixtures used in this operation consist of a stationary angle plate screwed 
to the drill table, represented at A, and a number of square index blocks, 
shown at B, These blocks are for the purpose of properly spacing the 
holes at 90 deg. of the shell circumference. They are clamped to the 
bases of the shells by means of the clamping screws, shown at C, which 
are tightened by means of a special socket wrench and which hold the 
split portion of the index block upon the base of the shell. 

The stationary fixture A, while simple, is well adapted to fast produc- 
tion. There are three shell positions on this fixture, each located cen- 
trally with one of the three drill spindles. One of these shell positions 
consists of the central plug H, which enters and fits the hole in the fuse 
socket, and the distance plugs J, which butt up against the outside edge 
of the shell and maintain it at the proper distance from the face of the 
fixture. The thrust of the drill is not taken altogether by plug H, but 
upon a strip that runs across the jig and upon one of the faces of the square 
index blocks. 

The procedure in this operation is to spot a center with a counter- 
sinking drill, shown at E, through the bushing D. Then the shell is 
moved to the second position, in which the hole for the tap is drilled at F, 
Finally, the shell goes to the third position, in which these holes are tapped 
by the tap G in an automatic reversing tapping chuck. Three holes are 
drilled and tapped in each shell. 

A converted engine lathe furnishes the means of performing the double 
operation shown in operation 25, in which the copper band is formed to 
size and shape, and the nose end of the shell is formed and faced. The 
shell is held in a simple spht collet chuck, shown at A, and runs in the 
steadjrrest E, with its outer end projecting beyond this so that the com- 
bination forming tool B may be advanced to face off the end of the fuse 



Chap. V| THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 123 

socket and also to remove the projecting ends of the riveted screwheads 
that remain from the preceding operation. An auxiliary tool slide is 
used for the copper-band forming. It is mounted on the lathe carriage 
at the proper distance away from the facing and forming tool B and 
is provided with a micrometer feed dial by means of which the size is 
determined. 

A hand operation is necessary after the forming tool B completes its 
work, in order to remove the rough edges of the band. This tool is 
simply a fiat file that has been dressed up on a grinding wheel to the shape 



. 45. BELT-DKIVEN e 



shown at F. It is used in connection with the hinged hand-tooi rest, 
shown at G, which is ordinarily flapped back out of the way except when 
hand-tooling, at which time it is brought into the position shown in the 
dotted lines and forms a tool rest. No lubricant is used in this operation, 
which is performed at a cutting speed of 65 ft. per minute with an out- 
put ranging between 30 and 40 shells per hour. 

The same type of simple speed lathe that was used in the twelfth 
operation in filing and polishing the body and bourrelet of the shell is 
brought into use again in operation 26 for filing and polishing the nose. 
One of these lathes is placed back to back with each of the band-turning 
lathes, and the operators of each keep pace together, so that the two opera- 
tions can really be looked upon as forming one unit. The chuck used, 
which is shown at fi, is a simple cup chuck that grips the shell by fric- 
tion and requires no tightening. The tailstock spindle is spring actuated 



124 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

and has a ball thrust bearing at C, similar to that shown in detail on the 
body-finishing lathe in operation 11. These machines are run at a speed 
of 150 r.p.m. They are driven from below by means of a floor shaft 
and started and stopped by means of an idler pulley and an automatic 
brake, which is brought into action as soon as the belt tension is decreased. 
Lathes of this type are mounted upon a wooden base and are quite simple 
in construction, as shown by the one illustrated in Fig. 45. 

But two of the three holes drilled and tapped in operation 23 are used 
for fuse-socket holding screws. In preparing the third hole for the fuse- 
hole socket grub screw that keeps the zinc plug from coming loose 
a retapping operation is necessary. It is shown in operation 27. 
The shell is held in the tapered wood-block chuck, shown at A, while a 
hand tap is run through the threads to remove any burrs that may have 
been put on by the forming of the nose. At this time, also, the fuse 
socket is cleaned out with compressed air, and the cork that has remained 
in the powder tube since the twentieth operation is removed and returned 
to be used over again. 

An ingenious arrangement for painting shells is shown in operation 
28. It is about as effective an arrangement as has yet been developed by the 
shell manufacturers. The device is mounted on top of a work bench and 
consists of a drive shaft A running in bearing B and provided with leather 
friction drivers at various points in its length. The shells are held on 
swivel stands, consisting of brackets, shown at C, and tipping blocks Z>, 
which are manipulated by means of the handle E. The bottom of the 
shell is first painted while in a vertical position, the shell being rotated 
by hand, after which it is tipped over against the leather friction driver 
and the idler (?, which runs upon the copper band, and the painting of 
the outside is completed. The shell is held at its nose, or fuse, end upon 
the tipping block by means of a plug that fits within the hole in the fuse 
socket and permits the shell to rotate. 

After the fuse-hole screw plug has been driven home, it is held by 
means of the setscrew inserted in the small %2''^- hole, the pointed end 
of which bears against the thread of the screw. Russian shells of this 
size are shipped eight in a box in substantial wooden packing cases made 
with locked corners. One of these is shown in operation 30. 

An interesting point is the manner of sealing these boxes so that 
when received on the other side there will be assurance that they have 
not been tampered with. At A is shown a counterbore through which 
one of the cover screws is drilled and countersunk. There are two of 
these counterbored holes in each cover in addition to the other screws, 
which are flush with the top surface. Wax plugs are inserted in these 
counterbores after the screws have been driven home. The plugs are 
heated by means of a gasoline blow torch and then sealed by the official 
receiver of the goods after the case has been packed. 



Chap. V] THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 126 

Factory inspection by no means determines the final acceptability 
of the Russian shells. This final decision is made under what is known 
as a controlling test, in which test specimens are actually fired from guns. 
For each batch of 5,000 shells which have passed the Government in- 
spector located at the factory, a selection of 10 shells is made for a tensile 
test. Three flat longitudinal strips are cut from a cylindrical part of 
the shell, parallel to its axis, immediately above the band groove. The 
test requirements are a breaking strength not under 8,000 atmospheres 
(117,600 lb. to the square inch) and a final lengthening distention not 
less than 8 per cent. 

In addition to these 10 shells which are tested for tensile strength, 
50 projectiles from each batch are given a firing test. After being fired 
without explosive charges in the shell itself, the projectiles are gathered 
and tested by exploding them in a pit, those shells being used which 
have received no damage during the firing test. Ten of these shells are 
thus tested by exploding. An idea of the strictness of the controlling- 
batch test may be gathered by the following requirements: No breakage 
must occur in the bore or in front of the muzzle of the gun during firing. 
There must be no separation of the head from the case of the shrapnel in 
the bore or in front of the muzzle of the gun. No traces of the rifling 
must be apparent on the cylindrical part of the butt of the projectile 
picked up after firing, although weak traces of the rifling'on the bourrelet, 
extending over not more than one-half the circumference, are not con- 
sidered causes for the rejection of the batch. 

There must be no curving of the base of the shell, nor an increase 
of the diameter of its cylindrical part, in excess of one point. Among the 
shells that are given a firing test there must not be over 20 per cent, in 
which the upper end of the powder tube has issued from the socket of 
the copper plug. In addition to this there must be no considerable 
crimping of the central tubes, cracks on these tubes or a penetration of 
the tubes themselves into the powder chamber. 

In the explosion test there must be no tearing off of the bases of the 
shell, and the bodies of the cases must remain entire in at least 70 per 
cent, of those tested. 

As far as the copper drive bands are concerned, there must be no 
tearing off or displacement of these during the firing test, and the rifling 
marks left upon them must have a regular appearance and not be 
broadened. 

If any shell during the firing test breaks in the bore of the gun or in 
front of the muzzle, the entire batch of 5,000 shells is at once uncondition- 
ally rejected. • 

The failure of a test batch to meet some of these requirements does 
not necessarily mean the immediate rejection of the entire lot. The 
manufacturer is permitted to present more test shells at his own expense; 



126 



SHRAPNEL 



EC. I 



but if these do not prove satisfactory, the chances are that he will find 
5,000 unusable shells left on his hands. 

These strict requirements may explain why manufacturers who 
anticipate a factory defective loss of from 2^ to 5 per cent, allow as 
much as 20 per cent, for a rejection contingency. 

MAKING 8-IH. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL IN A PUHP SHOP 
The majority of shops undertaking shell manufacture have been put to 
considerable expense in the purchase of new equipment suitable for the re- 
quired operations and in the refitting of machines on hand. The Hill Pump 
Co., Anderson, Ind,, having a large, well-equipped shop and foundry of its 
own decided to make for itself whatever equipment waa absolutely neces- 
sary, thus avoiding the heavy investment required for special machinery 
and, at the same time, protecting itself against the uncertainty of deliveries. 

IWn)^»aadQ,dn!Mvfttr aHtaba^ ttK^drill holt A tirif. 



lr!OThtKiihrtfbeKmitmirthStaniix^.l>V>t>'tfThrtail,0XS 




The result was the designing and building of two sizes of special turret 
lathes together with all the needed tools and special attachments for the 
lathes. Such of the shop's existing equipment as could be adapted waa 
pressed into service. Thus equipped the Hill Pump Co. proceeded to 
manufacture Uussian 3-in. shrapnel in an exceedingly efficient manner. 
The forgings, in the form of cylinders with one closed end, are received 
from a steel mill. These forgings, as delivered, weigh about 7 lb. 13K 
oz. each, and the work done in this shop reduces them to a minimum of 



Chap. VJ THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 127 

5 lb. 7 02. or a maximum of 5 lb. 10 oz. The shell is showD in section, 
Fig. 46, together with the various measurements and specifications. Some 
of the lots of f orgings have to be pickled before machining, but frequently 
this is unnecessary. 

Disregarding for the time being several inspections, the main shop 
operations proceed in the following order: 

1. Pickling (if needed) 14. Roughing out powder pocket 

2. Cutting off in Uthe 15. Finishing powder pocket, diaphragic 

3. Machining for centering in drilling chainber and seat 

machine 16. Finish facing base 

4. Centering in drilling machine 17. NoBing 

5. Scoring for driver in air press 18. Rough-boring and facing open end 

6. Rough-tuming 19. Finish-boring end 

7. Facing base 20. Tapping 
6. Rough taper boring 21. Profiling 

9. Roughing out diaphragm chamber 22. Grooving for rotating band and 

and seat crimping seat 

10. Rough-drilling powder pocket 23. Dovetailing 

U- Heat-treated 24. Knurling 

12. Finish taper bored 26. Grinding two diameters 

13. Second roughing of diaphragm 26. Grinding end of base 

chamber and the seat 27. Inspection all over 

28. Banding 



I TBOCK PLATFORUS, 



The shell-machining shop is well lighted and well arranged for its 
single purpose. A good concrete floor makes the trucking an easy matter. 
The forgings as received are stacked in double pyramidal piles on wooden 



128 SHRAPNEL (Sec. I 

truck platforms, Fig. 47. Lift trucks of the type shown are used to move 
the work from place to place. Both the forgings and a large part of the 
machined work are thus moved. 

The first machining operation is to trim or cut off the forging to a 
length of 8^(1 in., measuring from the inside. This is done in a Hill 
motor-driven lathe, operation 1. The forging is chucked in a universal, 
three-jawed chuck. The right setting is obtained by a setting rod X, the 
end of which butts against the inside end of the work. This rod is made 
to slide in the holding bracket B, and when in gaging position may be 
locked by a pin that fit^ into an offset slot at C. A trimmed shell is 
shown at D. As soon as the work is set and the chuck jaws are tightened, 
the gaging rod is pulled back out of the way. 

After being cut off, the forging goes to the drilling-machine fixture, 
operation 2, and the plug on the bottom, or "button" is machined off to 
a definite distance from the inside end. One of the forgings is shown at 
A. It is slipped down over the expanding mandrel B until the inside 
end rests on the stop C. After the shell is on the mandrel, it is swung 
up under the bushing yoke and locked by the knurled-head pin D, which 



OPERATION 1. cnrnNQ off end 

Machine Used — Hill motor-drivea lathe. 

Fixtures — Three-jaw universal chuck and extra heavy tool block. 

Gages — Work-setting gage on machine. 

Production — 40 to 45 per hr. 

Lubricant — Soapwater. 



THREE-INCH RU8SUN SHRAPNEL 



OPBaATIOM 2. HACBININO FOR CENTERING OPERATION 3. CBNTBBINa 

Machine Uaed — DriUing machiae. Machine Used — Drilling machine. 

Fixtures Used — Special, with expand- Fixtures Used — Special, with expand- 
ing mandrel holder, drill with very alight ing mandrel holder, combination drill and 
lip angle to provide center. countersink. 

Gages — Stop on end of mandrel. Gages — Stop on end of mandrel. 

Production — 55 to 60 per hr. Production — 55 to 60 per hr. 

Lubricant— Soapwater. Lubricant — Soap water. 



OPEBATION 4. eCORINO TOR DRIVES 

Machine Used — Hannifin air preas, 100 
lb. pressure. 

Fixturee Used — Baseplate with center, 
Bbc-blade scoring tool. 

Gages— None. 

Production — 10 to 16 per min. 

Lubricant — N one. 



5. ROUaH-TURNlNO 

Machine Used — Hill No. 3 motor-driven lathe, 160 r.p.ni. 
Fixtures Used — Six-blade driven in spindle, No, 2 stelUte tool. 
Gagea — Snap, go and not go. 
ProductioD — 18 per hr. 
Lubricant — Soapwater. 



Chap. V) THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



FACING BASB 

Machine Used — Hill No. 3 motor-driven latha. 

Fixtures Used — Regular expanding chuck and tool block. 

Gages— One chuck and two carriage stops, go and not go gage for length. 

Production — 31 per hr. 

Lubricant — Soapwater. 



Machine Used — HiU No. 
3 motor-driveu lathe. 

Fixtures Used — Same as 
shown for operation 6. 

Gages — One chuck and 
two carriage stops, go and 
not go gage for length. 

Production — 31 per hr. 

Lubricant — Soapwater. 



ROnOn TAPER BORING 

Machine Used — Hill No. 3 turret Uthe. 

Fixtures Used — Profiling attachment for turret, singte-point borii^ tool. 

Gages — One chuck and one carriage stop, plug and taper-plug. 

Production — 21 per hr. 

lubricant — Soapwater. 



OPERATION 9. ROCOHINO OUT DIAPHRAGU CHAUBBR A 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPEBATION 10. BOUaH-DRILUNO POWDER POCKET 

M&chine Used— Hill No. 3 turret lathe. 

fixtures Uaed — One special boring tool and one round-CorneTed drill. 

Gagee — One chuck and one carriage stop, flat steel, double end, go and not go. 

Production — 15 per hr. 

Lubricant — Soapwater. 



OPERATION 11. ' 

Furnace Used — Tate-Jouea. 

Special Apparatus — Handling tongs and handled weights, pyrometera and alarm 
bells for timing. 

Production — 1 per min., heated 8 min. each. 



OPERATION 12. DRAWING FURNACE AND LEAD BAT APPLIED PRIOR 

Furnace Used — Tate -Jonea. 

Special Apparatus — Handling tongs and handled weights, pyrometers and alarm 
bells for timing. 

Production — 1 every 2 min,, heated 16 min. each. 

Note — Drawing temperatures vary with different lots of steel. The variations 
are charted. 



OPERATION 13. FINISHINa DIAPHRAGM CHAMBER AND SEAT i 

Machine Uaed— Hill No. 3 turret lathe. 
Fixtures Used — Special head cutters. 
Gagee — I^ug and flat double end, go and not go. 
Production (three operations) — 12 per hr. 
Lubricant — Oil. 



THUEE-INCB RUSSIAN 6HRAPNEL 



14. NOBINO 

Machine Used — Punch preaa. 

Fixtures Used — Cloaing die and slotted bed block. 

Gagea — Two setting stops &t back of holder. 

Production— 300 per hr. 

Lubricant^I«rd oil. 



15. BORING - 

Machine Uaed— Hill No. 3 turret lathe. 

Rxturea Used — Two aingle-point boring tools and Murchey collapeing tap. 

Gages — Stop back of chuck, carrier atop, plug thread gage. 

Production (three opierations) — 25 per hr. 

Lubricant — No. 1 lard oil with 5 per cent, kerosene. 



OFERATtON 16. OBOOVINQ AND DOVETAILINO 

Machine Used — Lathe. 

Fixturefl Used — Special three-cutter tool block, special dovetail cutting device. 

Gages — Three carriage stops, groove snap gage, dovetail gage. 

Production — 31 per hr. 

Lubricant — Soapwater. 



THEEE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



17. 

Machine Used— Lathe. 
HxtuKfl Used — Tool block to hold kauri. 
Gages — Snap gage. 
Production — 60 per hr. 
Lubricaat — Soapwater. 



OPERATION IS. QRINDING TWO 



Machine Used — Landia grinder 
Ilzturee Uaed — None. 
Gagea — Snap, go and not go. 
Production — 10 per hr. 



19. ORINDINO OFF CENTER 

Machine Used — Gardner disk grinder. 
Fixture Used — Special holder on swing cairipr. 
Oages Used — Overall. 

elides in the hole E and enters a corresponding bushed hole in the carrier. 
The expanding jawa of the mandrel consist of two sets, of three each, 
like those at F. They are moved in or out by a sliding taper pin in the 
center of the mandrel, which is operated by a cam movement and by 
the hand and foot levers G and H. The expanding-mandrel jaws are held 
in contact with the taper center pin by bands springs /, which are snapped 
into recesses milled in the jaw ends. The drill J works through a steel 
bushing in the top of the yoke and is ground almost straight on the cutting 
end. Just enough lip angle is ground on it to leave a slightly hollowed 
spot for the center drill to operate in. 

The centering is done with a combination center drill and countersink, 
using the fixture seen in operation 3. This is very similar to the one just 
shown, except that there is no hand or foot lever used. The action of 
swinging the carrier up under the yoke slides the lower end of the taper 
pin over a cam underneath and causes the jaws to expand and grip the 
shell. The carrier is locked in place by a sliding pin A exactly as in the 
other fixture. As the carrier is pulled toward the operator after the work 
is drilled, the action automatically releases the jaws, and the shell may 
be easily lifted off the mandrel. 



Chap. VI 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



139 



For the roughing outside work the shell is held between a tail center 
and a six-point driver in the lathe spindle. To make it easy for the lathe 
operators to set the shells, the driving points are scored into the open 
end of the shells in the air press, operation 4. One of the shells is shown 
with the scored points indicated at A, In doing the work the shell is 
set with its center hole over the locating center B. The scoring tool C 
is then brought down by operating the valve lever D. 

Next comes a lathe operation, which consists in roughing off the out- 
side. The shell is held, between the tail center A and the six-point 
driver B, shown in detail in Fig. 48. Except for some minor 




no. 48. DETAILS OF BDC-POINT WOBK 



features it is thesame as the scoring tool of the previous operation. About 
%2 in. of metal is removed from the diameter of the forging in this 
roughing operation, using a No. 2 stelUte tool in an Armstrong holder. 

For facing the base the shell is chucked as in operation 6. In order 
quickly to set the shells a uniform distance into the chuck jaws, a special 
atop A, operation 7, is used. Another stop B is provided to butt the 
carriage against, and the stop C gives the correct distance for feeding in 
the cross-slide. A shell roughed all over the outside may be seen at D. 

The first machine operation on the inside is to rough taper bore, opera- 
tion 8. The bore is not a straight taper, but from the outside end the 
shell is bored straight for 1.631 in., then taper for 3.60 in. and straight 
again for 1.850 in. The shell is held in the lathe chuck, as at A. The 
boring is done with a single-point tool B, which is shown in detail in Fig. 
49. A stop C regulates the carriage travel. The taper boring is really 
a profile operation, controlled by a master D on the back of the turret. 
This master slides between guides in the bracket E, which is bolted to the 
lathe bed. When other operations are being performed, the master is 
raised up out of the guides and is carried by the turret, to which it is 



140 



SHRAPNEL 



[Skc. I 



hinged. Details of this attachment, and the way it is placed on the turret, 
are given in Fig. 50. 

In Bome cases the taper boring and the next two operations are per- 
formed on the same machine; in others the last two are done on another 
machine, which accounts for some apparent discrepancies in the set-ups 










iSquortHak 



no. 49. DBTAILS OF TAPBB-FOBMlNa TOOL 

shown. This is also true of some of the finishing operations. However, 
for convenience we will consider the taper boring aa a separate operation 
and the two operations of roughing out the diaphragm chamber and seat 
and roi^b drilling the powder pocket as done on another machine. 





-.- «i"./ -« 


L. «/- 




rt 
















^ 


|- 


Jira-ipooKnTl 


^^ 


t 







wi 




S_ WfewV 


.... 


V 


\¥C 


"s^-^ 








^s 











Fia. 50. DETAILS OP TAPBR-TUBNINO ATTACHMENT 

Following the taper boring, the diaphragm chamber and seat are 
roughed out with the tool seen in operation 9 and again, in detail, in 
Fig. 51. 

The rough-drilling of the powder pocket is accomplished with a round- 
cornered drill, operation 10, which is 2J^ in. in diameter and is run in to 
a depth of S^-f g in. 



Cbai-. V] 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



141 



The sheila have now been roughed outside and inside and are sent to 
be heat-treated, operation 11. They are preheated to 800 deg. and are 
then placed in a heating bath and heated to 1,500 deg.; 50 deg. is allowed 
for removal from the bath to the quenching tank. Houghton's quench- 
ing oil at 1,450 deg. is used in the tank. 

The drawing is performed in the heater shown in operation 12. The 
shells are placed in the lead bath and held down by the handled weights, 
shown. They are drawn to 1,050 or 1,100 deg. and allowed to cool in 




no. 51. DETAILS ' 



Oriqinol Form 
e aovQmnQ tool fo 



the air. The degrees of heating and drawing vary somewhat with the 
different lots of steel, and each lot has to be tested separately and treated 
accordingly. A chart on the wall shows the operator what treatment to 
give certain numbered lots. 

From the heat-treating the shells are trucked back to the machine 
shop, where the first machining operations are done on the inside of the 
shells. 




The first operation is finish taper boring, the machine and tools being 
the same as previously shown. Oil, however, now serves as a lubricant, 
and the production is 15 per hr. 

The diaphragm chamber and seat are semifinished with a tool similar 
to the roughing tool. The powder pocket is rough-tooled out, as may be 
seen in operation 13, with a tool shown in detail in Fig. 52. These two 
tools are followed by a combination finishing tool illustrated in detail 
in Fig. 53. This tool finishes the diaphragm chamber, the seat and the 
powder pocket all at once. The base is finish-faced, as in the roughing 



142 



SHRAPNEL 



[Ssal 



operation, the production being 40 per hr. The heat number is then 
restamped on the base, and the shell is ready for nosing. 

The nosing operation consists of closing in the open end of the shell, 
operation 14. This is done cold, using a little l^rd oil to lubricate the 
closing die. The end is closed in to about 2^j^4 in., the main body of the 
shell being 3.01 in. in diameter. The cloaing-in extends back about 



r 




1 




PIO. S3. DETAILS 



DIAPHRAOU CHAMBER t 



1^6 !"'> the measurements being outside and only approximate. Details 
of the nosing die are shown in Fig. 54. 

The next three operations are completed on the same lathe. The 
shell is chucked as in operation 15, and the nose is rough-bored and faced. 
It is then finish-bored and tapped. For this work No. 1 hard oil is em- 
ployed, with about 5 per cent, kerosene in it to make it run right. 

A centering plug with a crosshandle for driving purposes is screwed into 
the shell, giving it two center holes to locate it between centers. It is 
then placed in a lathe fitted with a heavy tool block carrying three cutting 
tools that profile the shell as they are fed along parallel to it, turning the 




f NOSING DIB 

shell to three different diameters in different sections of its length. De- 
tails of the tool block used are given in Fig. 55. The production is 27 
per hr., with soapwater as a lubricant. 

The grooving and dovetailing for the rotating band are done in the 
machine shown in operation 16. Besides the band groove, a groove is 
also cut for crimping in the edges of the cup that holds the propelUng 



Chap. V] 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



143 



charge. Besides these two grooves, the base edge is chamfered. The 
two grooves and the chamfer are cut with three tools at once, set in the 
block on the front of the carriage. The clamping top is removed from 
this block in order to show the position of the three cutters. The 
grooves and the chamfer are indicated on the shell at -A, B and C The 
dovetailing is cut with the special crosstool device on the rear of the 
carriage. This device is shown in detail in Fig. 56. The operation of 
the dovetailing cutters leaves a slight ridge in the center of the groove for 
the knurling operation. 




>7* 






% 







Fia. 55. DETAILS OF PROFILINa TOOL BLOCK 



From the grooving lathe the shells go to the lathe illustrated in opera- 
tion 17, where the bottom of the rotating-band groove is knurled. 
The knurl is seen at A and the work at B. 

The shells are ground on two diameters in front of the band groove, 
operation 18. Next, they go to the grinder, shown in operation 18, 
where the buttons are ground off the bases. A shell with the center 
button still in place is shown at A and a ground one at B. The grinding 
fixture is simple and consists of two V-blocks and an adjustable end stop. 
A screw clamp holds the shell in place as the operator swings the work 
back and forth past the wheel. 

After this last grinding the shells are thoroughly inspected all over. 
Careful check is kept in the shop also by inspectors as the shells pass from 
one machine to another. In addition to this the machine operators have 
gages to use where needed. Some of the rough and shop gages are shown 
ing Fig. 57 and some of the finish gages in Fig. 58. 




FIO. 66. DETAILS OF THE DOVB-TAILING TOOL 




Fia. 57. ROUGH OR SHOP oaoes 
A — Rough cut bottom; B^Fioish cut bottom; C — Rough taper; D — Rough taper; 
E — Fioiah taper; F — Fioish taper; G — Lower cylinder; H — Profile; I — Rough powder 
pocket, depth; J — Finish powder pocket, depth; K — Powder pocket, go and not go; 
L — Overall rough. 



Chap. V] 



THREE-INCH RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



145 



The copper rotating bands are received all ready to slip down over 
the shell. This work is done by hand, or sometimes the bands need to be 
lightly tapped down. The shell with a band in place is set into a West 
banding machine at the rate of 95 per hr. The holder is just high enough 
to guide the copper band into the groove as the jaws close in around it. 




FIG. 58. riNAL GAGES 

A — Bottom thickness; B — Go and not go plug; C — Ring diameter; D — Powder 
pocket depth; E — Wall thickness indicator; F— Go and not go diameter snap; G — 
Profile; H — Powder pocket, go and not go; I — Diaphragm chamber go and not go; 
J— Dovetail; K— Overall. 

An expanding plug or mandrel is placed inside the shell to prevent any 
possibility of distortion or crushing. This mandrel is shown in detail in 
Fig. 59. Here the taper center A is seen projecting slightly from the end 
of the expanding sleeve B, The mandrel is dropped into the shell until 
the shoulder C rests on the nose. The handle D is then held with one 
hand and the handle E turned with the other. This action draws in 




FIG. 59. THE EXPANDING MANDREL 

the taper center expanding the sleeve and supports the inside of the shell 
just under th6 band groove, effectually preventing the groove from 
bulging inward. 

This is the last operation in this shop, as the rest of the work is done 
elsewhere. After the final inspection the shells are shipped out. 

10 



CHAPTER VI 

MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL' 

On account of their size and the accuracy of finish demanded, the 
manufacture of 12-in. shrapnel shell presents many interesting problems, 
which are well exemplified in the processes employed in making the 
Russian shell detailed in Fig. 60. Some twenty-five main operations are 
entailed, an economical sequence of which follows, together with dia- 
grammatical views of the more important operations following the center- 
ing of the billets: 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. Lay o£f ends of billet for center and center punch. 

2. Square center and countersink. 

3. Rough-turn and cut blanks to length. 

4. Rough-bore. 

5. Second bore. 

6. Bore powder chamber and bore for diaphragm. 

7. Fit in diaphragm. 

8. Nose. 

9. Turn inside form. 

10. Open end faced and thread cut to suit adapter. 

11. Fit in adapter and turn part of outside and machine contour 

12. Face back end and turn rest of body on outside. 

13. Turn channel and knurl. 

14. Force on copper band. 

15. Turn copper band to shape. 

16. Final inspection. 

17. Remove plug, adapter bottom and adapter. 

18. Fit in spider to hold powder tube central. 

19. Fill in bullets and rosin. 

20. Remove spider, place on adapter, fill with bullets to required weight. 

21. Insert adapter bottom. 

22. Fill with powder through powder tube. 

23. Fill powder tube with pellets. 

24. Final weighing. 

25. Screw in plug and grease ready for packing. 

' Robert Mawson, Associate Editor, American Machinist, 

146 



CHi». VIl MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 147 



i^ 



^* 




K 



OPKOATION 3. ROCQH-TTRNING ANB CUTTINQ THE BLANKS 

Machine Used — Bement-Milea lathe, using hi^H' width cutting-off tool. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 
Gages — None. 
Production — i in 12 hours. 

Lubricant — Turn dry and use 50 per cent, lard oil and 50 per cent. keroBeoe oil 
when cutting off. 

Note — Between grindings of tool — Two. 

Lathe operates at 6 r.p.tn. with a feed of 0.125 in, per rev. 



OPERATION 4. BOnOH BORINO 

Machine Used — Bement-Milea lathe. 

Special Fixtures— Steady rest, supports for boring bar, boring bar, head and cutter. 

Gages — None. 

Production — One in 8 hours. 

Lubricant — ' ' Exanol . " 

Note — ^Between grindings of tool — Average two shells. 

Note—Lathe operates at 30 r.p.m. and feed of 0.014 in. per revolution. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING I2-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



6. SECOND BORiNa: powdeh chaubeb and seat fob diaphkaoh 



Machine Used — Specially designed lathe. 

Special Fixtures — Holding chuck for shell. 

Gages — Depth and contour. 

Production — One in 7 hours. 

Lubricant — " Exanol. ' ' 

Note — Average number of sheila between grindings of tools — One. 

Lathe operates at 30 r.p.m. with a feed of 0.014 in. per revolution. 




OPEKATION8 7 AND 8. 

Machine Used — Nilee-Bement-Pond 2,S00 lb. steam hammer. 
Special ^xhires Used — Crud&«il furnace heating four at once, special tongs for 
ha n dli n g work, truck to convey shells to hammer, special top and bottom dies and 
trucks to machining department. 

Gages — Contour. 

Production — Steam hammer and four men, four shells per hour. 



9. TURNtNO INSIDE PORU 

Machines Used — f itchburg and special. 
Special Fixtures — Chuck, boring bar and radius attacbmeata. 
Gages — Form. 
Production — One in 4 hr. 
Lubricant — N one. 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 3 shells. Lathe operates at 20 t.p.n 
of Hs in. per revolution. 



Machines Used — Fitchbui% and special. 
Special Fixtures — Chuck, facing and thread-cutting tools. 
Gages — Depth. 
Production — One In IH hr. 
Lubricant — None. 

Note — Between grindinga of tool, 4 shells. Lathe operates at 20 r, 
of Hi in. per revolution. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-lN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



U. FORmNa THE oirrotDB 

Machines Used — Fitchburg and special. 
Special fixtures — Chuck, link and radius attachments. 
Gagea— Fonn. 
Production— One in fi hr. 
Lubricant — N one. 

Note — Between grindingi of tool, 6 ahells. Lathe operstea at ! 
I. feed. 



12-A. FACING BACK END OF BBELL 

B Used — New Haven, Boye ft Emmes and special. 
Special Fixtures — Threaded chuck and steadyrest. 
Gaged— Length and soap. 
Production — One in 3 hr. 
Lubricant — None. 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 1 shell. Lathe operates at 20 r.p.m. with feed 
of He in. pet revolution. 



12-B. TDRNINQ BEST Of SODT 

M&chinefl Uaed — New Hsvea, Boye & Emmea and special. 
Special Fixtures — Chucks. 
Gages — Snap. 
Production — One in 2 hr. 
Lubricant — None. 

Note— Between grindings of tool, 2 shells. Lathe operates at 20 r.p.n 
of }^e in- per revolution. 



OPERATION 13. 

Machines Used — New Haven, Boye & Emmea and special. 
Special Fixtures — Two chucks and steadyrest. 
Gagca — Snap and form. 
Lubricant — None. 

Note^Between grindinga of tool, 2 shells. Lathe operates at 20 r.p.m. with feed 
of }it in. per revolution. 



CaAP. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPERATION 14. COMPKEBBINO THE COPPER BAND 

Machine Used — Niles-Bement-Pond steam hammer. 

Special Fixtures — Diea fitted to eteam hammer; special screw bar and cUmp for 
turning shell between dies; trucks to convey between forge and machine shop. 
Gages^None. 
Production — Six per hour. 



15. 

Machine Used — Boye A Emraes. 

Special Fixtures — Threaded-plate chuckaad form tool. 
Gagea — Form. 

Production — One shell per hour. 
Lubricant — None . 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 2 sheila. Lathe operates at 150 r. 
feed is by hand. 



OPERATION I. UACBtHINO THE ADAPTER — FORMING INBIDB, PACING AND THREADING 

Machine Ueed — Lodge & Shipley. 

Special Fixtures — Chuck, link and attachment to lathe. 
Gages — Form. 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 1 piece; speed and feed of lathe, 42 r.p.m. with 
feed of f{a in. per revolution. 



OPERATION II. MACHIKINO THE ADAPTBE FACINO BUALL END, BOKIKQ 

Machine Used — Lodge A Shipley. 

Special Fixtures — Chuck, fl&t twisted drill and counterbore. 
GagfiB — Thread and foim. 
LubricBJit — None. 

Note^Betweea grindingB of tool, 2 pieces; Speed and feed of lathe, 42 r 
with feed of He i"- per revolution. 



111. MACHTNINO THE 

Machines Used — Boye & Emmes, Lodge & Shipley. 
Special Fixtures — Standard chuck, drills and turning tools. 
Gages — ^Radius, depth and form. 
Production — One in 2 hr. 
Lubricant — None. 

Note — Between grindinga of tools, 2 pieces; speed and feed of lathe, 42 r.p.tn. 
with feed of Ks io- per revolution. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPERATION IV. UACHININO ADAPTER BOTTOU 

Machines Used — Lodge & Shipley, Boye & Emmes. 
Special Fixtures — Standard chuck and jig. 
Production — Four per hour. 
Lubricant^None. 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 25 pieces; speed and feed of lathe, 110 r. 
with feed of )-f« in. per revolution. 



OPKRATION V. MACH'NIKG ADAPTER PLUG 

Machines Used — ^Lodgc & Shipley, Boye & Emmcs. 
Special Fixtures — Chucks and turning tools. 
Gages — Ring and thread. 
Lubricant — N one. 

Note — Between grindings of tool, 5 pieces; speed and feed of lathe, 110 r 
with feed of Hs in- P^i' revolution. 



OPERATION 19. FIU. WITH BALLS AND B08IN 

Equipment — Spider, funnel and roain-pourmg pan. 
Production — Two men, 2 per hr. 



OPERATION 20. FILLING ADAPTER WITH BALLS AND ROBIN 

Equipment — Plug to fit in top of powder tube and rosin-pouring acoop. 
Production — Two men, 6 per hr. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



OPERATIONS 22 AND 23. LOADINO WITH VOWDEB 

Equipment — Funnel to suit adapter end of shell. 
Production — One man, 3 per hr. 



PINAL WBIOHINO 

Equipment — Hook in shell nose; crane and scales. 



OPERATIOK 25. BOXtNO THE SHELL 

Equipment — Crane, truck and packing case. 

The steel from which the blanks are made comes in billets averaging 
from 9 to 12 ft. in length and approximately 12^ in. in diameter. Its 
, chemical analysis is: Carbon, 0.47 per 

tfr,7//bre.ic<^>screns ^g^^ . manganese, 0.68 per cent.; phos- 

phorus, 0.022 per cent. ; sulphur, 0.035 
per cent. The physical analysis is: 
Tensile strength, 90,000 to 110,000 lb. 
per sq. in.; elastic limit, 50,000; elonga- 
tion, not less than 8 per cent.; reduc- 
tion of area, not less than 21 per cent. 
For the operation of rough-turning the 
outside of the billet and cutting the 
blanks to length, which follows the 
centering operations, the billet is held • 
on the centers of a lathe and driven 
with a dog attached to the faceplate. 
The bar is rough-turned to 12^6 in. 
and cut into lengths of about 27J^ in., 
no gage being used. 

The blank is then held in the 
special chuck, Fig. 61, for the next 
operation, which ia rough-boring to 
5|^ in. in diameter. The boring bar, 

head and cutter for this operation are 

1 1, ,^;_ J p:^ shown in Fig. 62. The depth gage, 

U —IS-- >J which is of the pin type may be seen 

no. 61. BOLDiNo cHDCK°poB in pig. 63. The bar is supported and 

guided through special clampa fitted 

on the lathe carriage. A detail of this attachment is given in Fig. 64. 

It will be observed that the guide clamp is fitted with a !J^-in. key 




lit', liir jo! 121 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-lN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 




Boring Bar Chuck 

na. 62. detail of bobino bar, e 



b»i/tr«*?S. 




na. 64. clamp for 



160 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. 1 




H 8' 



FIO. 65. BTEADTREST FOR BORING 










1/ ^ 



»o 



! \i© i \ 



'^V 



k-J^Aiaw-d 



Cu+her Head 




--:_--! \ 



I 



^^ 



^. 



•76»75""- 



T 









Y 



-i-^' 

'^/» 



■J 



CuHer 

FIG. 66. BORING CUTTER AND HEAD 



L/. 






U- 



-Si07 



Q 



T?i. 



IF- 



^1 
<N4 



FIG. 67. 



.-.Si'.. J 

DETAIL OF BORING CUTTER 



!<#'♦. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-lN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 161 

that is set into a keyway machined in the boring bar, thus holding the 
bar from rotating. The outer end of the shell is supported by a steady- 
rest, a detail of which appears in Fig. 65. 



'> 1 




r-*~-+-*"-*i 



Roughing Cu-Har fbr 



no. 68. ctrrTER and chuck fob 



For the next operation the blank is held in a chuck similar to that in 
Fig. 61. This operation is opening out the bored hole to 7.6875 in., 
using a boring bar like that in Fig. 62 and the head and cutter of 
Fig. 66. This tool is fed into the shell to the same depth as the roughing 
cutter — 243^ in. The cutter is then removed 
and the 9.07-in. tool, Fig. 67, inserted in the 
same head. This cutter is then fed into the 
shell for approximately 16 in., measuring 
from the open end. 

The next operation — the sixth — is per- 
formed with the shell in the same setting 
on the lathe. The powder chamber is rough- 
and finish-bored with a bar similar to that in 

Fig. 62 holding the head and cutters. Fig. 68. The gage, Fig. 63, is for 
testing the depth of the bored hole. The machined contour of the 
powder chamber is measured by the gage shown in Fig. 69. 

The next suboperation is machining the surface to suit the diaphragm. 
A boring bar similar to the one in Fig. 62 is used, holding a head like that 




illustrated in Fig. 66. The boring cutter appears in Fig. 70. The 
gage for testing this bored hole, so that the correct depth of powder 
chamber wUl be obtained, is illustrated in Fig. 71. 






k'J 



a CTTTTBR FOB DIAPHRAGM 



The lathe employed in boring the powder chamber and machining 
for the diaphragm is shown in the view of the work in operations 5 and 6. 




FIQ, 71. OAOE FOR DEPTH OF POWDER C 

Before the shell is removed from the chuck, the front end is chamfered 

down for about 3 in., thereby facilitating the nosing-in operation, which 

r« - —-F7' H 



-34- 



foUows. The shell at this stage is detailed in Fig. 72. For the nosing 
operation, for which it is transferred to the blacksmith shop, the shell is 



Chap. Vl] MANUFACTURING 12-lN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



163 



heated in a special crude-oil furnace. The furnace is designed to heat 
four shells at once, and the approximate temperature is 1,600 deg. F. 
The average consumption of crude oil is 10 gal. per hr. 

The operation of inserting the diaphragm and nosing is shown in 
operations 7 and 8. After a shell has been heated to the desired tempera* 




DETAIL OF NOSINQ DIES 



ture, it is gripped by tongs, and transferred by means of the truck to 
special dies attached to a steam hammer. The diaphragm, the manu- 
factiuing of which will be described is then forced inside the shell. A rod 
placed in the hole bored to receive the powder tube holds the shell 




FIO. 74. BORING BAR — INSIDE OF SHELL 

squarely. The shell is then placed in the furnace and heated a second 
time. When the correct temperature is reached, the shell is again placed 
between the dies of the steam hammer. The tup of the hammer carrying 
the upper die is then forced down on the end of the shell until the correct 



DOsing is obtained. The dies, Fig. 73, are simply fed down on the heated 
shell until their horizontal edges meet, no gage being used for testing the 
diameter, the contour of the dies producing the desired shape. 




3?i ri©^^ ■" 




|o33^ 




©T © ©1 








r^'IS 




o ••» O jol 


!3:£^i:;:=r; 


-•^ ./■...J...-.,C-..U,i 


Fim^tl 


.«r 


■"" '""c„'i;ii' "^ 


\'-i 1 1 i-j 


^ 


i-i W i! Hi 









* > 


i< 


i 






f ''1 J, , iF. 






. 75. DET41L8 OF CONTOUR MACHININO FIXTDRBS 



The nosing gang consists of four men, one of whom is the hammer 
man. One man handles the tongs for placing the shell in the furnace and 
also guides the blank between the 
dies under the hammer. After 
the correct contour has been se- 
cured, the shell is allowed to cool 
in the air; then it is returned to 
the machine shop for the subse- 
quent operations. The first oper- 
na. 76. qaqk and uethod of using it ,- /n\ ■ . .i ■ ■ i » 

TO TEST DEPTH OP BORE ation (9) IS turmng the inside form. 

The shell is held in the chuck. 

Fig. 61. The boring bar and tool are shown in Fig. 74. The bar is 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING li-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 165 

held in the tool carriage of the lathe in the usual manner. The desired 
contour on the ehell is obtained by the guide pin A, Fig. 75, which is 




7f auifiK/ap^ 






PIO. 78. METHOD OF USING THE CIAIU 

attached to the bracket tee B and follows the path 
between the two former cams C. The latter are 
fastened on the cam bed D, which is held on the 
brackets E, fastened on the side of the lathe bed. 
The bracket tee is attached rigidly to the tool car- 
riage of the lathe. The open end of the shell is ^ * 
next faced, the correct length being obtained from ^P 
the powder chamber with a gage and straight-edge, 
as in Fig. 76. The hole is then bored to 8.23 in. 
in diameter, the pin gage. Fig. 77, being employed 

to test the machined bore. I* — ^i'- 

A thread is machined in the bored hole, to suit "o- ™- "^huck fob 

, I'll 1 r f ADAPTBRBNDOrSHBLL 

the partly machined adapter, the manufacture of 

which will be treated subsequently. The adapter is screwed into the 

shell, using a clamp, in the way illustrated in Fig. 78; the chuck, Fig. 79, 







1'^r- 



- Z-J^-- 



■I'/r 



[Q^-Bu^ing.han^iieel "-^i 



^ ■ -J 



is screwed into the end of the adapter and the lathe center set up in the 
counter-sunk hole of the chuck. The outside of the adapter and also 
part of the outside of the shell are then turned to the correct contour. 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



For this operation the link, Fig. 80, is attached to the bracket tee with 
the atud A, Fig. 80, after the guide pin has been removed. The ful- 
crum pin B ia placed in position, fitting into a machined hole in the 
cam bed. The arrangement of the attachment may be seen in Fig. SI. 



5'-6'-. 




The turning tool is held in the carriage of the lathe. As the carriage 
s fed forward with the shell revolving, the link, fulcnimjng on the pin, 




draws the carriage and turning tool on an arc. Thus the desired contour 
of the part is obtained. The gage for measuring the length of the ma- 
chined surface appears in Fig. 82. 



Chap. Vl] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 167 

The gage in Fig. 83 is for testing the machined contour while the shell 
is in the lathe with the chuck in position. Fig. 84 depicts the tool em- 
ployed as the final profile test gage after the chuck has been removed. 

For the next operation the 
first suboperation is machining 
a surface to suit the steadyrest, 
Fig. 64, and at right angles to 
the end already faced. The 
chuck, Fig. 85, is screwed into 
the open end of the shell after 
the adapter has been removed. 
A strap held on the faceplate of 
the lathe comes in contact with 

one of the lugs on the chuck, thus providing the driving medium. The 
chuck, Fig. 86, is placed on the base end, and the shell is adjusted with 




no. 83. OAOB FOR RADtUB OP HEAD 




the four setscrews until it runs concentrically. A surface is then ma- 
chined to suit the steadyrest. The chuck is then removed, and the 




base of the shell is faced to length, using the gage, Fig. 87, in the man- 
ner shown. 

The gage, Fig. 88, is for testing the radius on the corner of the base 



168 SHRAPNEL [Ssc. I 

and for turning the outer periphery. A notch is cut to suit the 0,9-in. 
section and to serve as a guide from which 
the channel will be machined. 

The outer periphery is also turned at 
the same setting to 11.94 in. for a width of 
about 1 in. The gage for the diameter is 
J given in Fig. 89. 

Tl The chuck, Fig. 90, is slid on the turned 

i portion at the base end and the lathe cen- 

ter set up. The steadyrest is thrown back 
out of the way for the next suboperation 
— turning the remainder of the body. The 
gages for the turned diameters are seen in 
U— -i^'-*) ^'88- 89 and 91. 

PIG. 86. CHUCK FOR BABE END ^^ tumlng and knurling the channel the 

OF SHELL shell is held as described for the previous 

operation. It is, however, supported with 
the steadyrest, Fig. 64. The channel is machined with an undercut or 



no. 87. aAGB fob overall of bubll 

bevel, on each side. For this purpose left- and right-hand side tools are 
set at the correct angle and held in the tool post 
of the lathe. The gage for testing the bottom 
diameter of the channel is shown in Fig. 92; the 
width and contour gage, in Fig. 93. 

The next suboperation is knurling the chan- 
nel. The tool. Fig. 94, for this operation is held 
in the tool carriage of the lathe and fed across the 
surface of the turned channel, with the shell re- 
volving, until the desired depth of knurl is secured. 

The sheU is then transferred to the forge shop, 
to have the copper band compressed on. Fig. 95 is a detail of the band 
as received at the plant. 




Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



169 



I 



■ ■ 
II 
l< 



r"\ 



vx/ 



^:1' 




FIGS. 89, 91, 92 AND 103. bnap gageb 



A 


B 


11.46 


/L43 


1231 


1230 


11.91 


11.96 


11.94 


11.90 




<- 3' -^J 



Section A-A 

FIG. 90. CHUCK FOR BASE END OF SHELL 



^.^so 




FIG. 93. GAGB FOR BAND GROOVE 



170 



SHRAPNEL 



ISec. I 



To compress the band on the shell, the band is first slipped on and the 
shell placed between the dies, Fig. 96, which are attached to the steam 
hammer. With the shell in position the upper die is fed down \mtil the 
copper band has been forced, or compressed, firmly into the machined 
channel. 

1^ — 2f' — *~±L_J 

4 . . "SxjL 






I 



^ 



»^l^ 

t 



I 



iA4- 



ki- 



r 



Machine SfeeT^ \^ . 

' - ff' , ^ 

9!j 



-cr- 



1^ 




Fits. 94. THK KNURLINQ TOOL FOR CHANNEL 

The gang employed in compre^f^sing the baud on the shell numbers 
three — one adjusting the crane that supports the shell, one operating the 
hammer and the other turning the shell around between the dies. For 
this purpose the rod that screws into the end of the adapter has a damp 

fitted with handles, as shown. A leather cover is 
slip()eil over the shell, around which the crane sling 
is placeil, so that the turned shell will not be 
damaged. 

The shell is next returned to the machine shop 
for the operation of machining the copper band. 
The ohuok. Fig. 90, is plaoeil on the base end of 
the shoU, and the thivadinl chuck. Fig. 97, is 
:5ct\^wih1 into tho threadiHl end of the adapter. 
Tho doir. Fiii, 9S, is-f:k>tomHl on the threaded 
ohiiok. .\ plate hold by a bi^li on the faceplate 
of tho lathe ovmuos in ci^^ntact with one of the arms 
on I ho dog and ihus furui<hos tho driving medium. 
Tho form tool for niachiiuuc tho band is illustrated 







n 









i"! F^i?" o«.^ 



Tho c*p:^ tor :c<:i:.g :ho n;:uhi!u\l ciMUour v>f tho band is shown 10 
F^c. liW Tho shell is r.ow rca.iy for tl;o ilr.al i::>:xv:iv^n befon? loading. 



•^ • •*• 






For iho r.r.al :r.5ixv:..n: tho she" is !ln^t tostovi \\i:h tho adapts out. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN -SHRAPNEL 



171 



the gage shown in Fig. 101 being used. The powder chamber is then 
measured and also the inside of the shell from the bottom of the powder 
chamber to the top of the adapter seat. 

. tnftrLint gfM 




Uik^-'M ~-.4k'-~ 

no. 67. CHOCK FOR adaptbr e 




na. 98. drivino 



fSti^ Ill 

I 



NOSE END OF SHELL 



The adapter is screwed down home by a clamp, Fig. 77. The long 
g^e illustrated in Fig. 101 tests the overall length of the shell, and the 



outside form is tested with the contour gage, Fig. 102. For the outside 
diameters the snap gages, Figs. 89, 91 and 103, and also the ring gages, 





1 
■i 






" [ &■ 


Doyrel ._^ 


m 


/ ' 


1 ® 


y bfenlBfe 




u i-- J 



FIO. 99. BAND-TORKlNa TOOL 



Pia. 100. OAQB FOB BAND 



fe- 



-AM'- 



tega for Lan^th of Body 






»• -fbr Shall fro 






Figs. 104, 105 and 106, are employed. The final gage for testing the 
shell is the profile form. Fig. 107. 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



173 




UIO 






\y 




/? \Sfte// 



Fia. 102. OTiTBiDB coirrotm qaob 




AfAXf/iUM 


MINIMU/1 


IL94' 


IL90' 


1191' 


iim' 


IZZt"' 


/Z50'' 



FIOS. 104, 105 AND 106. RING GAGES 




40' 



--•H 






U.OS' J- 




r 



I 



FIG. 107. CONTOUB QAOB FOB SHELL 



9§D/am 

|<. l^Diarrt' 




Dotted tines 
hom finished 
vie of nose piece 



U Sf-Diam.- >I 

FIG. 108. ADAPTER FORGING 



rwi 




rC r^. 






■f-ti .) 






L-3i' J" 




CHUCK FOR HOLDING ADAPTER IN THE LATHE 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSUN SHRAPNEL 



175 



The first operation in machining the adapter, operation I in the se- 
quence, is forming the inside, facing the large end and machining the 







'Drilt for % 
Capscnws; 
Jocafefo 
5uif Work 




FIG. 110. — ^BRACKBT TO FASTEN ON LATHE 



thread. Fig. 108 is a detail illustration of the adapter forging. For the 
first operation the rough forging is placed in the chuck, Fig. 109, which 
is held to the faceplate of the lathe with capscrews. The chuck jaws 





FIG. 111. GAGE FOR INSIDE 
OF ADAPTER 



FIG. 112. RING THREAD GAGE 



A are tightened against the forging by means of the setscrews B, thus 
holding the par^ securely. It will be observed that the jaws are operated 



indepeDdently, enabling the operator to hold the forging in the chuck bo 
that it will be concentric. 




FIO. 114. ADAPTER THREAD PLOQ OAOB 




{)rtai1 of Thrsodt.X 



The link, Fig. 80, is set up and operated in a similar manner to that 
described for machining the inside of the shell. As the tool carriage is 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-lN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 177 

fed forward with the adapter revolving, the link, drawing the carriage 
on an arc, machines the desired contour on the inside of the part. 

The special bracket to hold the link is fitted to the side of the lathe 
bed, as in Fig. 110. An illustration of the set-up for performing the 
machining operation is shown in diagrammatical form in operation I. 
The gage for testing the machined contour is illustrated in Fig. 111. 

The link is thrown out of contact, the shoulder 
of the large end is faced and the thread machined, *r»»w/*(*>*- 

using tools held in the tool carriage in the usual 
manner. The ring gage for testing the thread 
may be seen ia Fig. 112. 

The adapter is screwed into the chuck. Fig. 
113, which is held on the faceplate of the lathe. 
The hole is drilled and tapped at the small end 
of the adapter, the tools being held in the tool 
carriage of the lathe. The gage for testing the 
machined thread is shown in Fig. 114. The tool U y/' J 

carriage is set over approximately 7)^ deg., and p,a 117. j,otob dwll- 
with an ordinary turning tool the beveled surface ino jdapthb bolh 
on the end is machined. 

The gage for testing the overall length and contour at the end of 
the adapter and the manner in which it is used are illustrated in Fig. 115. 

A detail of the finish-machined adapter may be seen in Fig. 116. 
The outside of the adapter is machined while it is in position on the shell, 
as has been described. After the adapter has been completely machined, 
a hole is drilled for the fuse setscrew. The jig employed for this purpose 
is shown in Fig. 117. 



no. 118. FINIBH-MACHINBD DIAPHRAQU 

The diaphragm is made from a steel forging, a detail of a finished 
piece being given in Fig. 118. The first operation, for which the forging 
is held in a universal-type chuck, is turning part of the outside and 
forming radius. The outside is first turned with the tool carriage thrown 
around approximately 43^ deg. The front edge is faced with the tool 
carriage set squarely, the test gage being shown in Fig. 119. The radius 
tool, shown in the same cut, is fastened in the tool carriage and the radius 



178 



SHRAPNEL 



ISec. 1 



machined on the corner. The gage for testing thb radius is also shown 
in Fig. 119 as well as the gage for testing the entire contour. 

The diaphragm is then reversed and held again in the same chuck 
for the second operation — turning the rest of the outside, drilling and 
counterboring the hole. The gage and the method in which it is used to 
test the depth of the counterbored hole are shown in Fig. 119. 



fSMe/ 




13l 

&oge for Ou+sida of Diaphragm 



>y^\. 



Depth 6oge for Di 



The adapter bottom, Fig. 120, is made from 2-in. bar stock. It is 
held in a universal-type chuck and turned to size and the thread machined. 
An 0,43-in. hole is drilled through the cent«r and then counterbored to 
0.68 in. for 0.15 in. deep. A part is cut off 0.30 in. wide, thus making 
an adapter bottom. The counterboring and cutting-off operations are 
carried on alternately to make the parts. 

The gage for testmg the thread 
may be seen in Fig. 121. The pin 
spanner wrench holes are drilled in 
the adapter bottom, using the jig 
shown in the same cut. 

The plug is made from 3%-in. bar 
stock, the first operation being turn- 
ing the outside to 3^-in. diameter and forming the shoulder. The 
shouldered portion is threaded to suit the adapter, testing with the gage 
shown in Fig. 121. The plug is then cut off by a parting tool in the 
lathe carriage, the width of stock on the large diameter being ^ in. 
The head of the plug is formed to shape, being screwed in the chuck, 
Fig. 121. This chuck is held in a standard three-jawed chuck secured to 
the lathe spindle. The form tool, Fig. 121, is held in the lathe carriage 
and fed against the revolving plug until the desired contour is obtatoed. 




Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



179 



The ring gage, Fig. 121, tests the 3.4-iii. diameter of the head. 

The plug is held in the chuck. Fig. 121, and the slot machined on a 
mill er A detail of the 6aiBh'machined adapter plug is given in Fig. 122. 
In Fig. 123 is illustrated the key used to insert the adapter plug in the 
adapter. 





Chuck for HotdhgPkia 

Fia 121 



OAQEB AND TOOLS 



The powder tube, Fig 124, is made from seamless tubing and is cut 
to length with a hacksaw The elements are finally carried to the as- 
semblmg department, readj to be placed in the shell. 

After the shell has been finally mspected and passed, the powder tube, 
adapter, adapter bottom and plug are inserted. The shell is then trans- 
ferred to the loading department. The plug, adapter bottom and adapter 
are there removed. The spider, Fig. 125, is screwed into the thread at 



180 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



the open end of the shell. It will be observed that the spider is made 
with an i^g-in. hole, which the powder tube fits, thus holding it central. 
The shell receives }i-in. diameter balls, composed of lead and anti- 
mony, for about 4 in. of its height. Melted rosin is then poured over 




no. 122. ASAPTEB FLUQS 



the balls until they are entirely covered. On top of this is placed about 
6 oz. of smoke compound. Another 4-in. layer of balls and rosin is then 
added in a simUar manner. This operation is repeated until the balls 
and rosin come to approximately }4 in. from the top of the open end of 



w 



6' 



Fia. 123. FLua key 

the shell. The balls are fed into the shell through a funnel and the rosin 
is poured in as shown in operation 19. 

The reason for placing the balls and rosin in the shell in layer form 16 
to insure their cementing into a solid mass. As the shell is so large, if 



r- 



Co/d drcrtm Seamhss sfe«/ Tubmg 
y\a 125 POWER tube for 12-in bhrapnel 

the balls were all mserted and then the rosin poured m the probability 
is that the rosin nould not reach between all the balls before solidifying. 
Under such conditions the mass nould not be homogeneously held to- 



Chap. VI] MANUFACTURING 12-IN. RUSSIAN SHRAPNEL 



181 



gether; and when the shell was fired, it would act in a biased manner and 
its "flight" would not be true. 

Further, as all air is expelled from the shell by the rosin filling the 
gaps between the balls, the explosive charge has less room to expand 
and the shell, besides being fired with a truer aim, also bursts with greater 
force. To insure the best results, it is found that the melted rosin should 




be at a temperature of from 365 to 400 deg. F. Then the crevices between 
the balls are properly filled. The spider is next removed, and the threads 
on the inside of the shell and adapter are covered with red-lead paint. 
The adapter ia screwed down, using the clamp, Fig. 77. More balls 
and melted rosin are added until the shell weighs 729 lb. 



^^^ 




I 








^^^^ 




i 


j^ic>^ 




Ujyzto«*J 


no. 126. BPAHNBB WBKNCH FOR 


no. 127. 


FUNNEL FOR LOADIKO 


ADAPTIK 







The adapter bottom is then placed in the adapter by the aid of the 
wrench, Fig. 126. It will be noticed that this tool is provided with a 
"tit" that enters the powder tube. The purpose of this ia to hold the 
tube central while the bottom is being screwed down. The shell is left 
for about 4 hr., so that the rosin will properly solidify and cool. 

The funnel, Fig. 127, is then screwed into the end of the adapter. 



182 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

Powder fed into the funnel passes through the powder tube into the 
powder chamber. The funnel is afterward removed, and powder pellets 
are put into the tube. One purpose of the pellets is to prevent the powder 
grains from coming back against the fuse threads if the shell should be 
turned over. This precaution eUniinates accidents that would result 
when the fuse is inserted, if powder grains were resting on the threads 



and the fuse was screwed down against them. The primary purpose of 
the pellet is, however, to convey the spark from the fuse to the powder 
chamber. 

The plug is next screwed into the shell, which is then ready for the 
final weighing, after which the shells are covered with axle grease, to 
prevent rust, and are packed in individual cases, A detail of the packing 
case is given in Fig. 128. 



CHAPTER VII 

MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT^MANU- 

FACTURING SHRAPNEL PARTS ON AUTOMATIC MACHINES* 

—AUTOMATIC PRODUCTION OF SHRAPNEL PARTS— 

A BRIDGE SHOP TRANSFORMED INTO AN ARSENAL 

A shop possessing the standard equipment of engine lathes, turret 
lathes and automatics, with the addition of comparatively few pieces 
of special equipment, the necessary fixtures and tools, all of which can be 
built with the shop equipment, is in a position to undertake the rapid 
production of shrapnel shells, and to earn a good profit thereby. A high 
grade of mechanical ability with good common sense is the only other 
requisite. 

British shrapnel shells, those of the 18-pounders, were so manu- 
factured in such a shop — the value of the scrap machined from the 
shells more than compensating for the cost of building the special ma- 
chines, special tools and fixtures. The sequence of the principal opera- 
tions performed, which will be described in some detail, was as follows: 

OPERATION 1. PUNCHING DRIVING SLOT 

Machine Used — Any punch press. 
Fixtures — ^Length stop and holder. 
Gages — ^Length — First inspection. 
Production — 1 man, 1,000 in 6 hr. 

OPERATION 2. BORING POWDER CHAMBER 

Machine Used-^Any heavy drill press. 
Fixtures — Special drills, gages, etc. 
Lubricant — Soda water. 
Production — 3 rain. each. 

OPERATION 3. CENTERING SHELLS 

Machine Used — Old Jones & Lamson turret. 

Fixtures — Air drill, facing cutter, center, center holder, facing tool block, expand- 
ing mandrel. 

Gages — Flat steel templet. 

Production Time — 4H niin. « 

^ Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinist, 

' J. P. Brophy, Vice-President and General Manager, Cleveland Automatic Machine 
Company. 

183 



184 SHRAPNEL [Sbc. 1 

OPERATION 4. TURNING 017T8IDE OF SHELL 

Machine Used — Ordinary lathe. 
Cutting Speed— 42 ft. per min. 
Production — 7 min. each. 

OPERATION 5. ROnOHINO OUT BAND GROOVE AND CHAMFERING CORNERS 

Machine Used — ^J. & L. turret lathe. 
Production — 2J^ min. each. 

OPERATION 6. CUTTING OFF AND FORMING OPEN END 

Machine Used — Cleveland automatic. 
Fixtures — Forming tools. 
Gages — ^Templets of form shown. 
Production — 9.5 per hr. 

OPERATION 7. CLOSING IN NOSE 

Machine — ^Home-made hydropneumatic press and heating furnaces. 

Fixtures — Dies and tongs. 

Gages — Templets. 

Production — 2 men, 1,400 in 12 hr. 

OPERATION 8. BORING AND TAPPING NOSE 

Machine Used — Bardons A Oliver turret. 
Fixtures — Chuck and steadyrest shown. 
Gage — Plug thread gage and nose form. 
Production — ^3 min. each. 

OPERATION 9. SCRAPING INSIDE OF NOSE 

Machine Used — Any suitable turret or engine lathe. 
Fixtures — Cross slide and form tool. 
Gage — Templet or contour gage. 
Production — 2 min. each. 

OPERATION 10. GRIND OUTSIDE OF SHELL 

Machine Used — Heavy grinder. 

Fixtures — Heavy saddle. 

Tools — Plain face wheel for body, formed wheel for nose. 

Production — 8 men, 1,400 shells in 22 hr. 

OPERATION 11. CUTTING THE WAVES 

Machine Used — Old Fitchburg lathe. 
Fixtures — Cam, tool block, air spring. 
Gage — ^Usual templet. 
Production — 3 boys, 1,400 in 10 hr. 

OPERATION 12. CUTTING OFF ENDS 

Machine Used — No. 4 Cincinnati miller. 

Fixture — Holder for shells. 

Gages — Templets. 

Production— 2 men, 1,400 in 22 hr. 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 185 



OPEBATION 13. VBNTINa WAVE OROOVES 

Machine Used — Specially arranged air hammers. 

Fixtures — None. 

Gages — None. 

Production — Man and boy, 1,400 in 12 hr. 

OPERATION 14. BANDING 

Machine Used — Special 30-ton press. 

Fixtures — N one. 

Grages — None. 

Production — Man and boy, 1,400 in 12 hr. 

OPERATION 15. FORMINQ THE BANDS 

Machine Used — Special rotary miller. 

Fixtures — Formed cutters. 

Gages — Templets. 

Production — 3 men, 1,400 in 22 hr. 

The first operation is to cut in the open end of the shell a notch that 
is used in driving the shell during subsequent operations. This work 
is done in an ordinary punch press, something as shown in Fig. 129, 
the shell being supported in a holder C under the punch B and located 




l/y/y>yyyyyy/^y/yvy/^^^^^ 



L 



yz^z^Tzz^z^y/. ////y///////////////y///y///y//////y/////////////j 




FIQ. 129. PUNCHING DRIVINQ SLOT 

by the rod D. In this way a uniform distance is secured between the 
bottom of the forging and the punch slot. The stop D is loosely mounted 
in the supporting center. 

Occasionally a shell is too long to be handled on the driving mandrel, 
and in such cases the surplus metal is punched oflf by simply rotating 
the shell under the punch for a complete turn. Then the driving slot 
is punched in the usual manner and is ready for machining. A pre- 
liminary inspection takes place during this operation, one man handling 
1,000 shells in 6 hr. without difficulty. 

The second operation bores the powder chamber under the spindle 



186 SHRAPNEL [Sec. 1 

of a heavy Baker drill, the vertical boring bar centering itself in the 
forced cavity. Soda water is fed in through the center of the bar itself, 
this operation requiring 3 min. 

An old Jones & Lamson turret has been utilized for operation 3, and 
it also performs the three suboperations of facing the center projection, 
centering and counter-boring, and facing the back end of the shell. The 
turret is not revolved during these operations, but is locked in a fixed 
position on the bed. 



FIG. 130. CENTERING SHELLS 

Fig. 130 shows the driving mandrel A with the centering jaws H 
and the driving key I. Bolted to the turret is the substantial tool block 
B with the locking device C, which is in reality a tool holder. The drill 
for centering and countersinking is shown in position. It is an air drill 
fitted with a special spindle sleeve that fits into the block B and has a 
flange that allows the clamp C to hold it against the thrust of drilling. 

As soon as the center has been drilled, the clamp is removed by simply 
turning the thumb-latch shown, and the facing tool E is substituted. 
This is in turn removed and the tail center F slipped into place and held 
by the clamp C. This center has a screw that allows the tail center to 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 187 

be forced against the work as bard as may Beem desirable and is used 
during tbo suboperation of 
facing off the back end. The 
side tool that does this facing, 
shown in the tool block G, has 
a sliding movement across the 
turret, through a rack and 
pinion, the latter being oper- 
ated by the lever J. This 3 
arrangement gives a good g 
lever^e and makes it easy " 
for the operator to face the | 
ends. This operation takes g 

The fourth operation is g 



s 



the turning of the outside of 
the shell nearly its whole 
length, the turning tool run- < 

ning up practically to the ^ 

notch cut for driving. This S 

cut is handled by two tools § 

in an ordinary lathe, so that g 

each travels only half the o 

length of the shell. A cutting B 

speed of 42 ft. per min. is 3 

maintained, this operation S 

requiring 7 min. « 

The shells are held on a 2 

special equalizing expanding | 

mandrel during the turning g 

operation, illustrated in Fig. ° 

131. This mandrel holds the ^ 

shells at two points of their '^ 

length and equalizes the | 

pressure so as to insure equal 
bearing and equal driving 
power. It also centers the 
shells along their entire 
length. It is shown attached 
to almost any type of screw 
machine or other lathe, the 
headstock being omitted and 
only the faceplate and end of the headstock shown, the rest being un- 



188 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



The mandrel consists primarily of the inner rod A canying the Wedge 
5, which is turned taper as shown, and the tube C with its wedge Z). 
Both C and D operate separate sets of jaws, three in number in each case; 
and as will be noticed, the inclines are in opposite directions. 

The spools E and F run free, the latter being feather-keyed to the 
lathe spindle at K and revolving with it, but free to move endwise both 
on the key and with the spool G. The chucking lever controls the move- 
ment by means of the sliding spool (?. When this is moved, it pulls 
back the rod A and pushes forward the tube C, or vice versa, by means 
of the toggle levers shown. This movement forces the jaws up the incline 
and tightens the shell on the mandrel. Should one set of jaws take hold 




FIG. 132. DETAIL OF TRIMMED SHELL 

before the other, they act as the stationary member and the other cone 
forces out the second set of jaws until all bear equally. This is a par- 
ticularly interesting device that can be adapted for many other uses. 

Next comes the roughing out of the band groove, operation 5, done 
on a Jones & Lamson turret, which also chamfers the corners, the pro- 
duction time being 2}/^ min. 

The ends of the shell are cut oflf and formed for closing in, in the sixth 
operation. This is done on Cleveland automatics, which happen to be 
available. Considerable experimenting developed the proper shape of 
nose to be closed into the desired shape for boring and tapping. The 
dimensions are shown in Fig. 132, where it will be observed that the 
open end of the shell is beveled back 10 deg. After being closed, this 
bevel is turned in and simply requires a little trimming to fit the fuse or 
adapter. 

The closing in of the nose is done on the hydropneumatic press, 
Fig. 133. This press has a 12-in. air cylinder with a possible stroke of 
12 in. The hydraulic ram is 3 in. with a 12-in. stroke. A 7-in. stroke 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 189 

is sufficient to close the shell nose. The form die comes to a positive 
stop OQ the base which clamps the shell. This secures a uniform nosing 
and eliminates the necessity of turning afterward. Two men handle 
1,400 shells, the daily output, in 12 hr. The diaphragms are slipped 
inside before closing the nose. 



no. 133. HOUEUADB 

The nose is bored and tapped in a Bardons & Oliver turret, equipped 
with special holding chucks and steadyrests. The boring and facing 
tool is shown at A, Fig. 134, the nose of the shell resting in a revolving 
support. This sleeve B forma the inner race of the double ball bearing 
and takes care of both the radial and the end thrust, while the felt washer 
keeps out dirt and chips. It will also be noticed that the outer case C 
projects so as to act a^ a guide for the boring and facing tool. 

The tool A is provided with a shoulder that makes contact with the 
collar D and compresses the spring a^ the tools feed into the shell. The 
opening E provides escape for chips. This guiding the tool with relation 
to the shell insures the hole being concentric with the outside, which is 
quite an important point in inspection. 



190 



SHRAPNEL 



IS£C. 1 



The tapping is done in the same fixture and at the same setting. 
This complete operation takes 3 min. 

After the boring and tapping of the nose the inside of the Shell just 
beyond the thread is scraped out with a round-formed cutter, Fig. 135. 




DBTAII-8 OF FIXTUBE FOR TAPPINO N03B 



This is a circular forming cutter of the regular type, held from turning 
by the serration shown at the end, where it bears against the tool rest. 
The cutter is mounted on a Jones & Lamson cross-slide, the shell itself 
being held in the draw-in chuck and the special bearing. Fig. 136, The 



.■Forming Tool 




contracting sleeve A clamps the jaws on the back end of the shell, the 
front end being supported by the steel quill B, which is mounted In the 
cast-iron block C The spring plunger D regulates the pressure on the 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 191 

thrust bearing E and also prevents the front race from turning. The 
threaded collar F holds the other end of the quill in position. 

The next, or tenth, operation is to grind the shell all over, a very heavy 
wheel saddle weighing 400 lb. being employed for this purpose. A 



formed wheel is used for shaping the nose of the shell, the straight part 
being ground by a plain-faced wheel 6 in. wide. The grinding allowance 
is 0.015 in., and eight men — four men to each shift — grind 1,400 shells in 
22 hr. 



FtO. 137. LATHE FITTED FOR OPERATION 10 

Waving in the groove already roughed out in operation 5 is done in an 
old lathe, as indicated in Fig. 137. The nose of the shell is supported in 
a sort of bell chuck A and held in position by the strap shown in front of 
it. The cam is on the faceplate B, while C is a stop to locate the position 



192 SHRAPNEL tSia I 

of the waved tool D, which ia held in the compound rest set parallel with 
the lathe ways. 

When the spring action of the pneumatic cylinder E is necessary, the 
cock F, swung on the quadrant between the two pins shown, admits air 



la. 138. MILUNO t 



to the cylinder and forces the roller on the lathe carriage against the cam 
on the faceplate. When the spring is not needed and it is desired to 
move the tailstock or the carriage, the cock F is swung into the other 



Chap. VIlI MAKINGSHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 193 

position, which shuts off the air and opens an escape vent from the 
cylinder. With this arrangement, three boys can handle 1,400 shells in 
10 hr., or about 45 shells per hour for each lathe. 

The projection on the closed end of the shell is next milled off, as 
Bhown in Fig. 138. The fixture is a simple one that goes on a No. 4 
Cincinnati knee-type miller and holds ten shells at one setting. It 
will be noticed that these shells are held by five separate straps, these 
being used so that aa soon as a section has passed the milling cutter the 
milled shells can be removed and others put in their places. In this 
way almost continuous milting can be done, two men handfing the 1,400 
ahellB in 22 hr. 



na. 140. cuTTiNa off bands 

The device for cutting the air grooves across the waves is illustrated 
in Fig. 139. The shell A is acted on by the three air hammers BBB, 
the piping connections being shown. Needless to say, these vent or 
nick the waves very rapidly, as fast as a man can handle the shells. The 
handle C controls the air to the hammers. 

At D are a single air hammer and a simple holder for the shells. 
They are solely for use in case the triple arrangement gets out of order 
from any cause. Should this occur, all that is necessary is to connect 
the air hose at E and go ahead. 

The banding is handled in a somewhat different manner than usual, 
both the machine for cutting off the bands and the one for pressing them 



=J® 




Fia. 141. Pneduatic 



Chap. Vii] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 195 

into place beiug built especially for this job. The cutting-off machine 
is shown in Fig. 140, with a tube in place at A and with the four milling 
saws B properly spaced for the width of band desired. The backrest C 
is shown thrown down and holding the four rings, which have just been 
cut off. It e£FectuaIIy supports the rings being cut against the thrust 
of the milling saws; and when the cut is completed, lifting the latch E 
releases the rest and allows the four rings to be easily removed. This 
backrest is located in position by the surface D. The cutters are fed 
into the work by the handwheel F. These four saws are but ^2 ^• 
thick, so that the waste of copper is very slight. The machine cuts 180 
bands per hour and while this may not be as fast as in some other cases. 



fia. 142. 

the saving in copper probably more than compensates (or any loss of 
time. Furthermore they are very true to length. 

The banding machine. Fig. 141, is operated by air at the regular shop 
pressure of 100 lb. to the square inch. This acts on the 14-in. piston A 
in the cylinder B, giving a total pressure of 30 tons to the square inch. 
By means of the toggle F, pressure is transmitted through the rod C to 
the head D, which slides on the four round guides H and also the central 
plunger P. The toggles E, working in the thrust blocks F, force the six 
steel jaws G against the copper band, compressing it into the band groove 
from all sides. This press is very quick acting, and five or six strokes 
are usually employed, turning the shell slightly each time, as is usual. 
One man and a boy band 1,400 shells in 12 hr. The main dimensions of 
the press are given in Fig. 141, 

Instead of turning the bands as usual, this shop found it advisable 
to build two special millers, Fig. 142. These are simple affairs, as can 



196 



SHRAPNEL 



[SbcI 



be seen, consisting of a work-holding spindle carrying a wormwheel A 
and being driven by the worm B. The shell, with the band in place, is 
slipped into the hollow spindle and held by a draw-in chuck operated by 
the wheel at the end. The shell is located by the swinging stop C, which 
drops out of the way as soon as the shell is in position. The milling 
cutter D, which is formed to give the shape of the copper band, is driven 
by an independent belt and can be moved either longitudinally for loca- 
tion or fed into the work by the crossfeed wheel E. This method of 
finishing the bands, the last operation, has been found very satisfactory, 
three men and two machines finishing 1,400 bands in 22 hr. 



MANUFACTURmO SHRAPNEL PARTS ON AUTOMATIC MACHINES 

In time of war, speed of production is of the utmost importance and 
this depends, naturally, largely upon the rapidity in producing the parts 
which ordinarily take the longest time to finish, i,e,, the shrapnel cases, 
the fuse bodies and the fuse caps. These parts can all be efficiently 
machined on properly equipped automatic turret lathes at a surprisingly 
high rate of production. The following descriptions and illustrations 
of the operations entailed give the actual time required for each of the 
specified operations. 






i^rr.-, 



•iiiiipi( 



FIG. 143. A SHRAPNEL CASE 
FBODUCED FROM THE BAR 



FIG. 144. A SHRAPNEL CASE 
PRODUCED FROM A FORGING 



The Shrapnel Case. — The case is the most important part of all, and 
requires the most time to produce. It is made either from steel forgings 
or from the bar; in the first instance two chuckings are required, and in 
the latter only one. 

Fig. 143 shows the appearance of shrapnel cases produced from bar 
stock, and Fig. 144 that of cases made from forgings. Both are shown 
as they come from the machine. 

The process of machining 3-in. cases from the bar is clearly shown 
in Fig. 145. The tool set-up is illustrated in Figs. 146 and 147. The 
tools in these illustrations are lettered similarly to those in the machining 
diagram. Fig. 145, as a convenience in following the operations. 

The tooling arrangement and operations for producing 3-in. common 
shrapnel cases from forgings are shown in Fig. 148. The machine upon 
which this work is done is a 4}^ model A Cleveland automatic equipped 
with a rotary tilting magazine and an air-expanding arbor to grip the 



Ch4P. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGXJLAR SHOP EQtUPMENT 197 
(BartUd) 



W TURRET Hole 



fUBiigh HbIi, tarn avtsia* t/lamtftr en^ yrooytj 



■3V TURRET HOLE 
(finish petidtr potirf ami coun ftrben for /tp) 




ij (Knurl artd cat off) 



no. 145.. HACHiNiNa a 3-in. shbapnel case pbou bar stock 



FIO. 146. PIRST OPERATION IN MAKING 3-lN. BHBAPNEL C 



no. 147. LABT OPBRATtOH IN MAKINO 3-IN. BHRAFNGL CASES PROU BAB STOCK 



Chap. Vn] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 199 



\ 



f orgings on the inside for the first chucking. This arbor is arranged with 
two sets of jaws, of three jaws each, gripping on either end of the case, 
and are controlled by a double-acting taper shaft working directly on the 
jaws. The end of the arbor also serves as a gage stop, as it seats on the 
bottom of the powder pocket. 

After the first chucking, the case is heated and upset at the mouth end 
before completing the operations in the second chucking. 



I r TURRET HOLE 



.CONVEYDR.(N07 shown) 



\V TURRET HOLE. CONVEYOR. 




Z'fl* TURRET HOLE 

(Itu^hium Oyfsich l>kmiehr) 




(not shown)' 



2V TURRET HOLE 

fvrfhreaef^ face to ki^) 




3 V TURRET HOLE 



AND CROSS SLIDES 

(face sofkfend, form band 

and crimping grooves) 





SMadj^rei^ 



4*0^ TURRET HOLE 



ts 



31»TURRCT HOLE 

(rthtsh diaphraam seat, hok for 
fhntadfihamfkr corners. Cross 
slide iOQ/ Hnishes facing »d) 

(idpfbr , 
Thiead) 

4V TURRET HOLE 




/^ 5t!« TURRET MOLE s^h TURRET HOLB 

IQiempH-io remove case fhrnerbor^nefsfiomtf ( Bemom frvm chuck; no fsfiown) 

FIRST CHUCKING 2**-^ CHUCKING (time 34'min.) 

(TIME 9%»MIN.) 



FIO. 148. MACHININQ A 3-IN. FORQED BHBAFNEL CA8B 

It will be noted, from reference to the production time for the forged 
case in Fig. 148 as compared with the case produced from the bar shown 
in Fig. 145, that there is considerable machining time saved with the 
forged cases. This, however, does not account for the forging time which 
must be added to make a true comparison between the two methods. 

Shrapnel Heads. — Shrapnel heads vary consiberadly in proportions 
according to the nominal size. This is indicated in Fig. 149, which shows 



200 SHRAPNEL [Sec. I 

3Ko~'°- ^^^ ^ii^- heads. The tool set-up used m coanection with these 
pieces ia shown in Fig. 150. 

Shrapnel heads are produced from 20-carbon cold-rolled-steel bar* 
stock. All operations are completed in one chucking, and are as shown 



no. 140. 3.8-IN. AND &-IN. BRRAPHEL HEADS 

in Fig. 151. An interesting feature in conoection with the machining 
of this piece is the employment of a cross-slide eountcrboring attachment 
which gets in its work on the fifth turret position. This consists of a 
lateral slide mounted in front of the cross-slide and carrying a head with 



FIO. 150, THE BBT-UP FOR PRODUCING SHRAPNEL HEADS ON A CLEVELAND AUTOMATIC 

inserted formed cutters. The attachment is operated by a push-and- 
pull rod in the fifth turret hole. Provision is made for stopping and lock- 
ing the cross-slide in the proper location for this attachment to operate 
this being cared for by an adjustable cam and roll stop, the latter, 



Chap. Vii] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 201 




202 SHRAPNEL [Sic. I 

mounted on a block in conjunction with the flat forming-tool post, the 
stopping cam being clamped on the camshaft. 

Fuse Bodies and Fuse Caps. — The fuse bodies are made of bronze 
stampings or brass castings and the fuse caps of bar-brass stocks. - Both 
of these parts are machined on a full automatic turret lathe, equipped 
with a tilting magazine atid an air chuck, such as illustrated in Fig. 
152. The air chuck A is screwed on the spindle in place of the regular 
chuck hood. It is fitted with three removable jaws, B, which receive 
pads that are shaped to suit the work. A connecting rod fitted to the 



BQUIPPED WITH UAQAZIKE AND PNEUMATIC CBUCK POR PBO- 
DUCINQ FUSE BODIES AND FUSE CAPS 

piston in the air cylinder is attached to the chuck jaws B and the admis- 
sion of air to either side of the piston, controlled by the camming of the 
machine, opens and closes the chuck. 

The mE^azine L is fitted with a link M which has bushings conforming 
to the shape of the -work handled. When the magazine tilts after the 
conveyor N has removed the piece operated on, the lever P comes in 
contact with a pin which indexes the Unk belt and advances the next 
piece of work. 

The fuse body requires two chuckings, both of which are handled by 
the automatic magazine. The operations on this piece are shown in 
sequence in Fig. 153. The fuse cap in its first chucking is handled in bar 
form, and in its second chucking is held in the pneumatic chuck and fed 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 203 

by the automatic magazine. The method of machining the fuse caps, 
*~ order of operations, is shown in Fig. 154. 



m 




SLANK 



''" 'y,^:-M. 



f' ■■;. 

y/ ■'/■■ 




(DrtUanti 
Turn) 



1*^ TURRET HOLC.COMYEYOR. 
(N0T6HOWN) 



2"» TURRET HOLE 







bore) K^;,^-^-: 










(Thread) 



d'^TURRET HOLE ANP 
aRCULAR TORHER 



•tH 



4*" TURRET HOLE 




(/tffcess) 




ildp) 



5™ TURRET HOLE 6"" TURRET HOLE 

FIRST CHUCKIN6.(0UTPUT I7 PER HOUR) 



1^ TURRET HOLE. COMYEYOR.(HOT 6M0WN) 

{C'trcuhr J^'^'S^*^ 

hrmlng) ^tndCbore} 

ftfnrond 
C'borw), 

2"'TURRET 
HOLE 





$■• TURRET 
HOLE 




CThrtCki) 



4"* TURRET 
HOLE 



5EC0ND CHUCKING. (OUTPUT 30 PER HOUR) 



FIG. 153. MACraNING A FUSE BODT (bEONZB STAMPING OH BRASS CASTINO) 



AUTOMATIC PRODUCTION OF SHRAPNEL SHELL PARTS 

Special automatic turret lathes equipped for handling the first and 
second settings in the manufacture of shrapnel shell heads and fuse parts 
are employed by the New Britain Machine Co., New Britain, Conn. 
The multiple spindle machines, when two settings are employed, pro- 
duce work within a limit of 0.004 in. of being perfectly concentric and 
in thread cutting the agreement is within one-eighth turn. Among the 
operations performed on this highly developed tool may be mentioned 
the following: 

Machining Fuse Heads. — The machine steel fuse heads, shown in 
Fig. 155, are finished in one setting on special seven spindle chucking 
machines, known as size No. 73, illustrated in Fig. 156. The fuse head 



204 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



blanks weigh 15 oz. each and are operated upon by the tools in the 
sequence indicated in Fig. 157. The work is threaded externally and 
internally and the ends are machined. 

The blanks are held on threaded draw-back collets. The end A, 
Fig. 155(6), is machined in the following order: The hub is drilled, 
counterbored, tapped, turned on two diameters, necked and threaded; 




)((5^^/>) 



FIRST TURRET HOLE 



{DrilhCbort 




under'' 
cutfaee) 



{Coutdtrkore 



a"** TURRET MOLE AH& 
CIRCULAR FORMER 



5 TURRET HOLE 





(Ifecess) 




•TH 



4'" TURRET MOLE 



B'^" TURRET HOLE 
(lap and cutoff) 

FIRST CHUCKIM6.( OUTPUT. 50 PER HOUR) 
l*T TURRET HOLE. COHVErOR.( NOT SHOWM) 





(Counterbcrt) 



2"^ TURRET HOLE AND 3"» TURRET 

CIRCULAR rORHER ' HOLE 

SECOND CHUCKINO.COUTPUr I90 PER HOUR) 



no. 154. MACHINING ▲ FUBB CAP (bAR BBASS) 



and the flange is faced, grooved and turned. The finished pieces weigh 
13 oz. The tools operate at a cutting speed of approximately 40 ft. 
per min. The production is 52 pieces per hour. 

Machining Shrapnel Heads. — The tools — first setting — ^used for 
machining the 4.7-in. shrapnel head, Fig. 158, are shown in Fig. 159. 
The parts are made on a size No. 24 four-spindle chucking machine. 
These parts are cold-drawn steel stampings; the blanks weigh 42 oz. 
and are machined in two settings. The weight of the finished piece is 



Chap. VU] MAKING SHELI£ WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 206 

31 oc. The firet setting is on the eod A, which is faced, chamfered, 
grooved, bored and tapped. For these operations the pieces are held 
in two-jaw chucks arranged with stop plugs, Fig. 160, which fit inside the 
forms of the pieces, thus locating them accurately. This method of 




w£mr Boz. 

(b) 



locating is necessary, as the distance from the inside concave surface to 
the outside face must be accurate. The production is 62 pieces per 
hour. 

For the second setting the pieces are held on threaded drawback 
arbors by the thread formed at the end A. The tools used on the large 



FIO, 156. SEVEN-SPINDLE AUTOMATIC 

end are shown in Fig. 161. The operations are facing, chamfering, turn- 
ing, necking, counterboring and threading. It will be noticed that the 
tools used for the first and second spindles are piloted in draw-back arbors 
to insure the machined surfaces being concentric. The production for 



Chap. VII] MAKING 8HELI£ WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 207 

this setting is 94 pieces per hour. The cutting speed is approximately 
120 ft. per min. 

Machining Sliell Heads. — When machining the heads used on 18-lb. 
high-explosiTe shells, the tools shown in Figs. 162 and 163 are used. 
The blanks, which are made as shown in Fig. 164(a), weigh 2 lb. 2 oz. 



< 



R0U6H BUNK idOZ. "^ 

FINISHED PIECE 31 QZ. 

HO. 158. 4.7-lN. SHBAPNBL HEAD 

each. They are machined to the form shown in Fig. 164(6), the weight 
of the finished piece being 1 lb. 12 oz. These parts are made from brass 
forgings and are machined in a size No. 24 four-Bpindle chucking machine. 
The first setting is for machining the ends A. The pieces are gripped in 
two-jaw chucks and the ends faced, formed three diameters, bored, 
recessed, and threaded two diameters. The production is 120 pieces per 
hour. The parts are then placed on threaded draw-back arbors 




Et SHBAPNEL BEAD 

which fit into the internal threads formed for the second setting. The 
machining operations consist of facing, turning, necking and threading. 
The production for this setting is also 120 pieces per hour. When 
machining this part the approximate speed of the tools is 80 ft. per 
minute. 



208 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 




OD 

n 

H 
Pi 

OD 
O 

» 






■J 

I 

(9 



C^ 



^ 



















.^^••^ '■' 



t 



'■^:*. 






i--- 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELI£ WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 209 







210 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 




llJb- 



■ I 
I 

.-4- 
I 



r-ii-f^^li-L I r^ 



_ J 



ii-trTr«-j_, I I 

-i — r 





Chap. Vll] MAKING 8HELI5 WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 211 



H 




a 



<fe 



n 



m. 









212 SHRAPNEL [SbC. I 

Making Shrapnel Sockets. — When machioing the shrapnel socketa, 
Fig. 165, the tools shown on Figs. 166 and 167 are used. These parts, 
which are made from solid brass forgings, are manufactured on a Eoze 
No. 24 four-spindle machine. The rough blank weighs 13 oz. The 
first setting is on the end A, Fig. 165. The blank is sohd, the parts being 
gripped in two-jaw chucks. The machining consists of facing, boring, 



T' 



^ KSrORGIfiG 

WI&HT215.20Z. W£imiLB.IZOZ 

W (6) 



recessing and tapping. The pieces are held on arbors located by the 
thread formed in the end. The production is 160 per hour. 

In the second setting three diameters are turned, the end formed and 
necked and the outside threaded. The production for this setting is 
also 160 per hour. 



Hi ^' 



5H/ISS FOIfSlh i 

mU6H UL/INK 1302 
fiNISHED PIECr II OZ 

Fin. 165. EURAPNEL SOCKET 



The tools operate at a speed of 116 r.p.m. for both settings. 

Producing Time-fuse Noses. — The time-fuse nose pieces are made 
of brass forgings of the form shown in Fig. 168(a). These are then ma- 
chined in one .setting to the contour shown in Fig. 168{fe) on a size No. 
33 five-apindlc machine, using the tools shown in Fig. 169. The rough 
blanks weigh 4 oz. each and the finished parts, 3J^ oz. For these opera- 



Chap. VID MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 213 



-^ 







,-j 



I 







■-H 



;--r— 1 



S-Q 



\ 

I 
f 




pa 
M 

o 

QD 
GQ 

3 

p: 



< 
p; 
n 

OQ 

o 

o 

I 

H 
oo 

a; 



CO 

CD 







214 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



I 



't- 




is 



^ 




£q 




I 






1 




H 

8 

GO 
CO 

n 



5! 

m 

OQ 

o 
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55 



bb'"^ 



OQ 



o 

H 










Chap. VII] MAKING SBDEI15 WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 215 



1>s^- 





o 

p 

§ 



n 



8 

O 



o 



o 




H 

OQ 

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Chap. VII] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 217 

tions the forgings are held in two-jaw chucks. The inside is faced, formed, 
recessed and tapped. The production is 225 pieces per hr., the cutting 
speed being approximately 80 ft. per minute. 

Making Projectile Priming Plug. — The tools used for making the 
projectile priming plug, Rg. 170, are shown in Fig. 171. These are made 
from brass forgings on a size No. 33 five-spindle machine. They are soUd 
and weigh 6 oz. each. The pieces are gripped in two-jaw chucks and the 
outside and inside operations are completely finished. The outside is 
turned, formed, necked and threaded. The inside is formed out with 
hollow mills, drilled, counterbored, necked back of tap and tapped, the 
tap and outside thread being of diff^ent pitch, but both threads being 
cut simultaneously by means of a specially designed combination tap 
and die head which allows the tool of steeper pitch to advance inde- 
pendently of the other. 




/ ^%Z 

?4 7M6^/?J- /....^^^ V J 



Hi TfiPER I 'd 



I4THREJJDS^^^, 



3R/J55 FOROm 

WEIdRTdOL 

FIG. 172. TIME-FUSE BODY 




/ 



Production on this piece is 180 per hour; weight of finished piece, 3 
oz., and approximate cutting speed of tools, 100 ft. per minute. 

Machining Time -fuse Bodies. — Time-fuse bodies, which are made 
from brass forgings, come to the machine in the form shown in Fig. 172(a). 
They weigh 13 oz. each They are machined to the shape shown in 
Fig. 172(6), using for the two settings the tools shown in Figs. 173 and 
174 on a size No. 23 four-spindle machine. 

For the first setting the parts are gripped in two-jaw chucks and the 
end A is bored from the soUd, reamed, recessed and tapped, and the out- 
side taper turned, faced and threaded. Although not so shown, this end 
is also internally threaded. The production for this setting is 55 pieces 
per hour. For the second setting the pieces are held in threaded draw- 
back collets which fit into the threads formed in the previous setting. 
The head and stem are turned and faced, and the stem is chamfered and 
threaded. The production is 120 per hour. The weight of the finished 



218 



SHRAPNEL 



[Sec. I 



parts is 8 oz. each. For the machining operations on these parts, the 
tools operate at a cutting speed of approximately 80 ft. per minute. 




Making Time-fuse Rings. — The time rings shown on Fig. 175 are 
made of brass forgings. The rough blanks for the pieces weigh 6 oz. 



Chap. VIII MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 219 

each, and the finished parts, 4 oz. The operations are performed in one 
setting OD a size No. 23 four-spindle machine, using the tools shown on 




— — laJl 







e^ 





Fig. 176. The parts are gripped in two-jaw chucks and then the end A 
is faced, drilled and coimterbored. The production is 240 per hour, and 
the cutting speed of the toola approximately 80 ft. per minute. 



Chap. VIl] MAKING SHELLS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 221 



A BUDGE SHOP TRAHSFORHED INTO AN ARSENAL 

The Dominion Bridge Co., of Montreal, Canada, devoted one entire 
department in their large plant to the production of 15 and 18<lb. British 
shrapnel and installed and arranged the tool equipment of this shop 
solely with the view of handling the work expeditiously and with as 
little back tracking and lost motion as possible. As this shop was 
planned and arranged for the special task of shrapnel shell manufacture 
it presents an interesting example of the processes of manufacture in 
a special shop with special equipment. 

The General Amuigement <^ Machines, Etc. — The general arrange- 
ment of the machines in the shell department is indicated in Fig. 177, by 
which the general course of work, from the rough forging to the finished 
shell, can readily be followed. 



The sheila are first cut off and rough-faced on cutting-off machines. 
They then go to the first-operation flat turrets, where the work on the 
outside of the case is cared for; then to the battery of second-operation 
machines, where they are bored. After this the shells are taken to an 
inspection table, where they are given a preliminary inspection before 
heat-treating so that defective shells may be discarded without incurring 
further expense. 

The next operation is the heat treatment, gas furnaces being used for 
the purpose. This is somewhat outside of customary practice, but it 
leaves the shell in first-rate condition with very little scale. The harden- 
ing tanks contain whale oil, which is circulated and cooled in coils running 
through inclosing water tanks. In addition to this it is found necessary 
to agitate the oil by means of compressed-air jets. 



Chap. VII] MAKING SHELl£ WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 223 

Following thia he&t treatment, the noses of the 
sheila are brought to a low red-heat by immersion 
in a lead pot, after which they are "bottled" 
under a punch press. The chill produced by this 
process is removed by annealing, after which the 
shells go to the sandblast room, where the recess 
which contains the "wave" is cleaned out. 

Next comes the third flat-turret operation, in 
which the inside and outside of the nose are ma^ 
chined. From here the shells go either to grinders 
or to body-finishing lathes — both processes being 
employed at present — where the outside and the 
curved nose of the shell are brought to the correct 
finished sizes. The copper driving bands are next 
fitted and squeezed, after which the shells proceed 
to the band-turning lathes, from there going to 
the filling department, where they are filled with 
shot and rosin and have the fuse socket screwed 
home. 

The next operation is finishing the socket, 
which is cared for on brass-finishing turret lathes. 
Next comes the final inspection, after which the 
shells are painted and shipped. 

The Flat-turret Operations.— Fig. 178 shows 
the various stages of the shell as it comes to and 
goes from the flat-turret lathes. 

At A is the rough shell with its end cut off, B 
represents the completion of the first operation, 
C shows the shell bored and turned taper, and D 
represents the completion of the third flat-turret 
operation, in which the inside of the nose is com- 
pleted and the outside is roughly shaped. One of 
the most difficult problems is to securely grip the 
shell internally for the first operation. Fig. 179 
shows the construction of the driving and centering 
arbor which was finally devised for this purpose. 

A Difficult Operation Handled Simply.~The 
action of the fiat turrets may be followed very 
readily by inspecting Figs. 180, 181 and 182, in . 
which the successive operations are represented 
by diagrams. The most interesting part of the ' 
first operation is undoubtedly the forming of the 

FIG 179 DETAILS 

waved ribs. An idea of the nature of the wave q, thb centerinq 
may be had from Fig. 183. The construction of mamdeel 



the tool used for this purpose is shown in Fig. 184. It operates when 
the roller is forced against a wave cam mounted upon the chuck of the 
machine. 




FIC. 180. FIRST TLAT-rnRKET OPERATION 



Fiti. 181. SECOND rLAT-TnnRET 



The second operation set-up finishes the powder pocket and disk 
seat, and also turns the outside of the nose-end taper for purposes of 
botthng. 



Chap. Vll] MAKING SHELI£ WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 225 

Reisforced Boring Bars. — The constructioii of the boring bars is 
rather unique and is illustrated in Fig. 185. It will be noticed that a 
solid bar extends clear across the turret through two tool holders, thus 




no. 182. THIRD FLAT-TURRET OPERATION 



giving an extremely strong construction as compared with the ordinary 
single support. The other two bars obtain a similar support by being 
mortised into the large bar at their shank ends. 



226 



SHRAPNEL 



[8KC.I 



One of the short bars used for this purpose is shown at A, Fig. 186, 
and at B and C finishing cutters ior the powder pocket and disk seat are 
shown. The roughing cutters are quite similar, except that they are 
gashed for chip clearance. 



^ 



cs 



^ 



FIO. 184. TBE v 



L AND HOLDEK 



710. 185. THE BKINFOBCED BORINO BAR 



FIO. 186. 80MB INTEBESTINO TOOLS 



The third operation on the flat turrets, while appearing to be rather 
complicated, works out well, the curved form of the outside being cared 
for by a modification of the usual flat-tiuret taper-turning device. 



Chat. VIl] MAKING SHEUS WITH REGULAR SHOP EQUIPMENT 227 



no. 187. ARBANGBUENT 




AN EKOtNS LATHE 



PAINTING BENCH 



PRODUCTION BOARD 

DOMINION BRIDGE CO LACHINC.QUE&EC. 

RECOROOFBESTRUK rt&.^S^m 

PRODUCTION 
OPERATION PIECES HOURS WTEPERHOUR 


&ut<;ffa.au:c(< BpuaOn) 


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Fia. 189. DIAQKAU OF THK PRODUCTION BOARD 



228 SHRAPNEL [Sbc. I 

Finish-turning the Case. — The Dominion Bridge Co. finishes the 
body and nose of the shell either by grinding or in an engine lathe. The 
latter method is of particular interest as an ingenious attachment enables 
the work to be accurately and expeditiously performed. 

The arrangement is shown in Fig. 187 in which the template A is 
made with the exact shape of the profile of the projectile and a roller on 
the cross-slide is kept against this by means of a weight, the cross-feed 
screw being disconnected and tool adjustment made with the compound 
rest. After being annealed, the shells may be turned at a speed of from 
40 to 50 ft. per min. and a feed ranging from 40 to 60 per inch. 

A Simple Painting Bench. — A simple and effective painting bench is 
used for holding the shells while applying the priming and finishing coats. 
It is shown in Fig. 188 and consists of a number of incHned spindles of 
such size that the powder tubes of the assembled shells will slip over 
them. The painter then rotates the shell upon the spindle with one 
hand while applying the paint brush with the other. 

Production. — The average time consumed in turning out one com- 
pleted shell at the Dominion Bridge Co., including the handling time and 
one or two minor operations, such as sand blasting, annealing, etc., is 
very little over one hour. The piecework system of payment is practised 
and production is further stimulated by a large *' Production Board" 
upon which records of the best runs are posted daily. A fac-simile of 
one day's record is shown in Fig. 189. In the right-hand column, the 
production rate is recorded and the betterment of this record is enthu- 
siastically aimed at. 



CHAPTER I. 
CHAPTER II. 
CHAPTER III. 

CHAPTER IV. 
CHAPTER V. 
CHAPTER VI. 
CHAPTER VII. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
CHAPTER IX. 
CHAPTER X. 
CHAPTER XI. 



SECTION II 

HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 

Bt 

E. A. SUVERKROP 

Paos 
What a High-Explosive Shell Is and Does 231 

Forging Blaneb fob 4.5-In. High-Explosive Shells 236 

Manufacturing British 18-Pounder High-Explosive 
Shells 251 

Manufacturing British 4.5-In. High-Explosive Shells. 312 

Manufacturing British 8-In. High-Explosive Shells. . . 366 

Operations on British 9.2-In. High-Explosive Shells. . 389 

Operations on the British 12-In. Mark IV Howitzer 
Shell 399 

Manufacturing Russian I -Lb. High-Explosive Shells. 412 

Manufactxtring Russian 3-In. High-Explosive Shells. 442 

Manufacturing Serbian 120-Millihetbr Shells 460 

Manufacturing French 120-Millimeter Explosive 
Shells 494 



229 



CHAPTER I 

WHAT A HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL IS AMD DOES'— EXPLOSIVES 

USED WITH HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS'— STEEL FOR 

HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 

The modern high-explosive shell is an elongated hollow projectile 
which is filled with some kind of high explosive, called a bursting 
charge, which is fired by a fuse provided in the nose of the projectile. 

Materials of Construction and Shape. — In order to get the rotating 
motion necessary for precision the projectile is provided with a soft 
copper band near its base. This band has a diamet«r of from Ho to 
^0 of an inch greater than the caliber of the projectile and the force 
of the explosion forces the band to conform to the lands and grooves of 



the rifling in the bore of the cannon. This not only assures proper rota- 
tion, but the soft band is thus made to fill the entire cross-section of the 
bore and therefore to act as a gas check to prevent the powder gases 
from escaping around and in front of the projectile. 

These copper rotating bands are forced into an undercut groove, cut 
around the projectile near the base. The band of copper is hammered 
in and the ends of the band beveled and scarf jointed or in the smaller 
caUbers the band is cut from copper tubing and is forced into the groove 
by hydrauhc pressure. Longitudinal or irregular cross grooves are made 
in the seat for the rotating band to prevent its rotation separately from 
the projectile. The outer surface of the rotating band is smooth for 
small cahbcrs and is grooved for the larger calibers, to diminish the 
resistance of forcing the rotating band into the grooves of the rifling, 
as well as to provide space for the metal forced aside by the bands. 

All shells have the same general shape, consisting of a cylindrical 
body with a pointed or ogival head, which shape for the head has been 



232 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

found by experience to be most advantageous in decreasing the wind 
resistance of the projectile in its flight and in increasing its penetration 
when it is fired against armor. The length of the projectile varies from 
2)4 to 5 times the caUber of the gun. 

The projectile does not have the same diameter as the caUber of the 
gun. The bourrelet, see Fig. 190, which is just behind the ogival head, 
has a diameter of about 0.01 in. less than the bore of the gun. The 
rotating band, as has been described, has a diameter greater than the 
bore of the gun until the force of explosion reduces it to take the lands and 
grooves. 

Between the bourrelet and the rotating band the diameter of the pro- 
jectile is about 0.07 in. less in diameter than the bore of the gun. This is 
to facilitate and cheapen the cost of manufacture, and to prevent any 
greater bearing of the projectile in the bore than is absolutely necessary 
for accuracy of fire. 

Fuse and Charge — For field work the shells are manufactured to take 
a nose fuse, which may be a time fuse or a percussion fuse or a combina- 
tion of the two. In the first instance the fuse will explode after the lapse 
of the desired number of seconds. A percussion fuse is one which will 
explode only when the projectile meets with sufficient resistance, which 
of course is the case when fired at material objects. The combination 
fuse is a combination of the two methods and insures the explosion of the 
shell when it falls, even should the time device fail. 

The high-explosive shell carries from about 3 per cent, to 30 per 
cent, of its weight in high explosive, the amount depending upon the use 
for which the shell is destined. A smaller percentage is used when the 
shell is to be fired at men than when the purpose is to demolish a structure 
or destroy opposing artillery. 

The most common size for use with infantry is the 3-in. shell. There 
is a logical reason for fixing upon this size. Experience has shown that, 
under average conditions, a horse cannot pull more than 650 lb. and be 
as mobile as the rapidly moving troop column. Six horses are provided 
for a 3-in. battery and the limit of weight within the required degree of 
mobility is therefore 3,900 lb. This is just about the weight of the 3-in. 
field gun, together with the carriage, limber, equipment and a reasonable 
amount of ammunition. 

Artillery of position, consisting of gims permanently mounted in 
fortifications, use high-explosive shells of very much greater caUber and 
much different character. The projectiles are designed for use i^ainst 
armor plate, and range up to 16 in. in diameter. 

In seacoast projectiles the detonating fuse is invariably placed in the 
base of the projectile instead of in the nose, as in the ctee of mobile 
artillery. Time fuses are never used with this type of projectile. There 
are three types of seacoast projectiles, viz. : Armor-piercing shot, armor- 



Chap, l] WHAT A HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL IS AND DOES 233 

piercing shell and deck-piercing shell. The first is intended to perforate 
the armor and to be exploded in the interior of the ship by a compara- 
tively small bursting charge. The armor-piercing shell is not expected 
to affect complete perforation of the armor, but is expected to make some 
penetration and continue destruction by exploding against the partially 
ruptured plate. The deck-piercing shell is fired from high-angle-fire 
guns, has a nearly vertical fall and is intended to pierce the Ughtly 
protected decks of vessels. 

Unlike the high-explosive shells of mobile artillery, the coast-artillery 
shells do not have the same sharp point or nose. They are equipped with 
a cast-iron cap, see Fig. 190, which increases the penetration of the pro- 
jectile when it strikes the armor. The function of this cap is to prevent 
the deformation of the point of the projectile at the instant of contact 
with the armor plate. The advantage of this cast-iron cap is so great 
that an 8-in. capped projectile fired at a 3.5-in. plate effected complete 
perforation at a specified range, while a similar projectile uncapped, fired 
from the same range, indented the plate only 3^ to 1}4 i^- 

The wind resistance due to this blunt cap is very great and the new 
shells are being equipped with a balUstic cap or wind shield which is 
attached in front of the cast-iron cap and continues the taper of the 
ogival head and makes a long-pointed projectile. This so reduces the 
loss of energy due to wind resistance that in some cases the penetration is 
doubled. 

Explosives Used with High-explosive Shells. — ^Cotton is the basis of 
the most important propulsive explosive used in modern warfare, viz., 
smokeless powder, which is also called nitro-cellulose, the principal 
ingredients of which consist of cotton or cellulose, nitric acid, sulphuric 
acid, ether and alcohol. The manufacture of this explosive is complicated 
only from a mechanical standpoint. There are no chemical mysteries 
about it. 

Smokeless powder in the chamber of a gun is not intended to be 
detonated, but to be exploded by a progressive combustion, the result 
of which is determined by the characteristics of the gun or the service 
expected of it. The rate of the combustion depends upon the amount of 
surface exposed, hence the perforations in the powder grain which give 
this added surface. 

Cellulose the Basis of Smokeless Powder. — Nitro-cellulose is a general 
term appUed to products resulting from the action of nitric acid on cellu- 
lose, in which the organic cellular structure of the original cotton fiber 
has not been destroyed. Guncotton is a nitro-cellulose of high nitra- 
tion, consisting of a mixture of insoluble nitro-cellulose with a small 
quantity of soluble nitro-cellulose, and a very small quantity of unnitrated 
cellulose. The chemical name for guncotton is tri-nitro-cellulose, and the 
formula is Ci2Hi404(N03)6. 



234 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec II. 

In the manufacture of nitro-cellulose, by varying the strength and 
the proportions of the nitric and sulphuric acids, their temperature and 
the length of time that the cotton is in them, a number of different 
products are obtained varying in the rate at which they will burn and the 
effects produced, and in the degree to which they are soluble in various 
solvents. This gives many different grades of explosives to which various 
names are applied at the will of the manufacturer and which are capable 
of a wide latitude of adaptability to different requirements. 

Cordite is a British smokeless powder consisting of 37 parts of gun- 
cotton, 58 parts nitroglycerin and 5 parts vaseline. This powder gives a 
very high muzzle velocity with a low pressure in the powder chamber, 
but the temperature of its explosion is so high that it causes a rapid 
erosion of the bore of the gun. Therefore, another form of this powder, 
known as Cordite M. B., in which the ratio of the guncotton and nitro- 
glycerin are reversed, has been made, which overcomes these disadvan- 
tages. This illustrates the possibilities of different combinations of the 
same materials to effect different purposes. 

Benzol, Toluol and Trotol. — Benzol is a coal-tar distillation product 
comprising a mixture of benzene with variable quantities of toluene 
and other homologues of the same series which are obtained commer- 
cially by distillation of coal-tar products, principally as a byproduct from 
coke ovens. The product known as " crude benzol " is further fractionally 
distilled, and by this means separated into pure benzene, toluene and 
other true chemical compounds. Benzene is CeHe and toluene is CtHs. 
A 90 per cent, benzol is a product of which 90 per cent, by volume dis- 
tills before the temperature rises about 100 deg. C. The composition 
of a 90 per cent, benzol is about 70 benzene, 24 toluene, and 4 to 6 of 
lighter hydrocarbons. Toluol is an impure form of toluene, so alike 
that the difference is only detected by a slight discoloration on the 
addition of sulphuric acid. 

Toluene possesses the property of rendering oxygen very active and 
when treated with nitric and sulphuric acid and heated for several days, 
yields tri-nitro-toluene, an explosive of a high order which is superseding 
the use of picric acid as a base for shell fillers for artillery use. 

Picric-acid Shell Fillers. — Benzene, a redistillation product from 
benzol, is used in the manufacture of carbolic acid or phenol; this in turn 
is the basis of picric acid, which latter is the base of most of the high 
explosives used at the present time. When phenol (carbolic acid) is 
treated with nitric acid, a nitrate called tri-nitro-phenol is formed. Its 
only use is as an explosive. It is not only an explosive in itself but more 
particularly is used as an ingredient of special explosive mixtures. Most 
of the new so-called shell-filler explosives are either picric acid or mixtures 
of picric acid salts called picrates. Among these are ecrasite (Austrian), 
lyddite (English), melinite (French), shimose (Japanese), etc. The 



Chap. I] WHAT A HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL IS AND DOES 235 

exact compositions of these are secrets carefully guarded by the different 
governments. 

Picric acid, although a powerful explosive, forms in connection with 
lead, iron and some other metals very sensitive and dangerous com- 
pounds. This is true to such an extent that it is dangerous to paint 
the interior of a shell — which is to be loaded with a picric-acid derivative 
— with a paint which has either red or white lead in it, and it is also 
dangerous to use red or white lead in screwing in a base plug. Trotol 
does not have this disadvantage. 

Both picric acid and trotol are safe to handle and are loaded into the 
shells either by hand, in which case they are tamped in soUdlywith 
wooden rammers and mallets, or they are compressed into the shell 
cavity by machinery. 

Owing to their relative insensitiveness, a very strong detonator is 
required in the shell to cause their explosion which, unlike the slower 
explosion due to the inflammation of propulsive powders, is desired to be 
as instantaneous as possible to produce the greatest shattering and 
destructive effect. 

STEEL FOR HIGH -EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 

The steel for high-explosive shells can be produced either by the 
"acid-openhearth" or the "stock-converter" process. When produced 
by the stock-convertfer process, nonphosphoric pig iron must be used. 
The steel must be of the best quality, homogeneous, free from flaws, seams 
and piping. Apart from the iron the following chemical elements may 
occur in the percentages given in the table herewith : 



Carbon 

Nickel 

Silicon 

Manganese . 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus. 
Copper 



Minimum 
Per Cent. 


Maximum 
Per Cent. 


• • ■ ■ 


0.65 


■ • • ■ 


0.50 


• • ■ ■ 


0.30 


0.40 


1.00 


• • » • 


0.04 


• • • » 


0.04 


■ • • • 


0.10 



CHAPTER II 

CASTING STEEL FORGI|7G BLANKS FOR 4.6.IN. EXPLOSIVE 
SHEIXS^FORGING THE BLANKS FOR 4.6-IN. HIGH- 
EXPLOSIVE SHELLS^FORGING BASE-PLATES 
FOR HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS' 

The bodies of high-explosive shells larger than 3.3-iQ. in diameter 
are customarily made from forged blanks, while shells 3.3-in. in diameter 
and smaller can be most economically made from bar stock. Before 
taking up the actual processes of manufacture of high-explosive shells, 
therefore, it is advisable to consider the making of the blanks for the 
larger shells,- so that the subsequent chapters devoted to the manufac- 
ture of specific shells may be Umited to a description of the machining 
operations on the blanks or stock as received at the machine shop. 

The Canadian Steel Foundries, Ltd., at their plant at Longue Pointe, 
Montreal, Canada, casts ingots for 4,000 British 4.6-in. howitzer shells 
every 24 hours, and the methods employed in this foundry, as well as 
the forging operations conducted at the Dominion works of the Canadian 
Car & Foundry Co., Ltd., to which the forging blanks are delivered, 
typifies highly efficient and economical practice. 

The ingots are cast in metal molds, procedure which, to the man 
familiar with iron-foundry practice, would be expected to chill the steel 
and to make necessary a long annealing operation to render the metal 
machinable. 

As a matter of fact there is no chilling effect — that is to say, no harden- 
ing due to casting in metal molds, although there is a chilling effect 
in the sense that there is a shortening of the cooling time. No annealing 
is necessary however, the ingots, as soon as possible after casting, being 
knocked out of the molds and sent to the machine shop. 

The government requirements for this steel are the same as those for 
the bar steel used for the production of the forgings for the 16- and 18-lb. 
shrapnel. It must have a yield point of at least 19 long tons; tensile 
strength between 35 and 49 long tons and elongation of 20 per cent. 
The carbon must be between 0.45 and 0.55 per cent.; nickel under 
0.50; manganese between 0.4 and 1.0; sulphur and phosphorus under 0.05. 

The Mixture. — ^A steel fulfilling these demands is obtained from the 
following mixture: 

About 20 per cent. Chautauqua or similar low-phosphorus pig iron, 

^ E. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American MachinisL 

236 



Chap. Il] CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 237 

40 per cent, openhearth scrap steel and the balance low-phosphorus 
heavy-melting scrap steel. The steel is produced in two 30-ton furnaces 
by the acid openhearth process. These are fired with ordinary fuel oil 
at a pressure of 80 lb. per sq. in. and air at 100 lb. per sq. in. - 

The consumption of oil is very low, amounting to 33 or 34 gal. per 
ton of melt. The time necessary to melt a charge is about 5 hours. 

The Ladle. — ^The entire charge of 25 tons of steel is run from the fur- 
nace into the 40-ton bottom-pouring ladle, which is made of heavy boiler 
plate lined with firebrick. The plug which stops the hole in the bottom 
of the ladle is made of graphite, conical in shape with the end entering 
the hole somewhat rounded. These graphite plugs will stand up for 
about 300 openings and closings before erosion makes them useless as 
stoppers. 

The Molds and Rotary Tables. — ^To avoid moving the traveling crane 
supporting the heavy ladle, the ladle is brought to a convenient position 
and held stationary while the molds, mounted on a circular rack table, 
are rotated under the ladle by the manipulation of a hand wheel operating 
the turning mechanism. (See Fig. 191.) 

The molds are 33 in. long with a 4i^e-in. hole. The wall is IH ^^' 
thick; the trunnions rectangular, 3 in. square, with a 2-in. square opening 
in them and projecting 2 in. from the side of the mold. 

The runner cups rest on the mold and are 9H ^^- diameter at the bot- 
tom, tapering to 8}i in. at the top. They are 4 in. deep, and the pouring 
hole is 6 in. diameter at the top, tapering to 3 in. on the end next the 
mold. 

The circular tables, of which there are four, are 16 ft. 8 in. inside 
diameter and 18 ft. 4 in. outside diameter. Fifty machined rectangular 
surfaces provide accommodation for 50 molds. 

Pouring. — The 40-ton ladle is picked up by the crane and suspended 
over one of the molds in the position shown in Fig. 191. The man at 
A is provided with heavy blue-glass goggles and directs both the men at 
the turning gear and the valve operator (not shown), who manipulates 
the opening and closing of the valve in the ladle through the lever B. 
The entire heat is run off in about 55 minutes. 

Losses in Casting. — Forty per cent, of each ingot (or 13 in. of the 
long ingots) is cropped off. This part contains the "pipe" due to shrink- 
age, which measures 2 to 3 in. diameter at the top and tapers to nothing, 
generally in considerably less than the 13 in. mentioned above. Another 
cause of loss is seizing in the mold. 

The losses due to shrinkage and other defects amount to only about 
3 per cent. 

Emptying the Molds. — When the ingots have set satisfactorily, but 
while they are still quite hot, the molds are emptied, preparatory for 
the next heat. The molds are lifted by the crane and usually the ingots 



i 

HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [8w. II 



Chap. II] CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 239 

readily, slide out. Those that do stick can readily be loosened by striking 
the mold with one or two blows from a hammer. In cases where the 
ingots cannot be dislodged by the hammer, they are forced from the 
molds by the aid of a large Bertram hydraulic press. 

First Inspection. — While the ingots are still hot, they are loaded into 
heavy tote boxes and taken to the inspection floor, where they are care- 
fully examined for cracks or other defects which would render them 
useless. 

The heads of the ingots, through the base of which the shrinkage 
"pipe" passes, are then broken off, leaving the end smooth enough for 
the reception of a ''false center." This consists simply in a centered 
steel cap which is slipped over the end of the ingot and secured by two 
setscrews. 

Parting the Blanks. — The ingots are of such length that two shell blanks 
are secured from each casting, the blanks being parted in heavy axle lathes. 

The government specification for shell blanks produced in this way 
requires that one-sixth of the cross-sectional area shall be left for breaking, 
so that the fracture may be inspected. Five heavy lathes on which 
simple chucks, with a hinged clamping member and swing-bolt, have been 
mounted on each side of the central driving head are run night and day on 
the cutting-oflf job. The parting tools are forged from Firth high-speed 
steel 1 X 2 in section, and vary from % to 3^ in. wide in the cut. The 
speed of the work depends on the hardness of the stock, which varies 
slightly from heat to heat. The depth of cut is approximately 2 in. 
The feed is by hand and is all that the tool will stand. 

Breaking Out the Blanks. — After being taken from the parting lathes, 
the ingots are laid on the floor with one end resting on a 3 X 4-in. piece of 
timber, and the blanks broken out with the end of a 3-ft. sledge. The 
rate of production is about 2 sec. for each blank. 

Second Inspection. — ^After breaking, the blanks and crop ends are 
loaded into separate boiler-plate tote boxes. The crop ends are returned 
to the foundry for remelting and the blanks go to the government inspec- 
tion tables. Each table is manned by two inspectors and two helpers. 
It is a piece of 2-in. pine, 12 in. wide and about 6 ft. long, supported on 
well-braced trestles. 

A helper takes a blank from the tote box and lays it on the table. 
One of the inspectors rolls it along the table, examining it carefully for 
cracks. It is then inspected on the ends for possible "pipes" and defect- 
ive fractures; having been inspected, the second inspector at the end of 
the table stamps it. Two inspectors and two helpers can pass blanks 
at the rate of about three to four per minute. 

Removing the Buttons. — ^The round projection left at the point of 
fracture is removed by planing, shaping and, if there is not too much metal 
to remove, by grinding. 



RIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIiS 



In Fig. 192 ia shown a Bertram open-aide planer working on this job. 
The heads on the cross-rail serve the double jig A, which holds 40 shell 
blanks, white the side head takes care of the 20 blanks in the single jig B. 



Two sets of jigs are used, and while one set is on the planer, the other is 
being emptied and refilled with blanks. After planing the buttons off 
one side, the jig A is turned over and the jig B is turned end for end to 



GRimilNa BUTTONS 



present the buttons on the other side to the tools. The output for 10 hr. 
on the planer is 450 shell blanks. 

Where the buttons are not too thick, they are removed by grinding 
on the machines shown in Fig. 193. The shell blank is "chucked" 



Chap. II] CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 241 

with the wedge A, and the truck rolled in under the abrasive wheel until 
its wheels are stopped by the bar B. The direction of rotation of the 
wheel keeps the truck against the stop. The operator applies pressure 
to the wheel by leaning on the two bars C. By this method from 150 
to 175 ends per man can be ground in 10 hr. 

Analyses and Tests. — Two sample ingots for analysis are usually 
taken from each heat. One of these is obtained when about one-third 
of the heat has been run off, and the other at the end of the run. In 
case of necessity, a complete analysis can be run through in an hour, but 
there is generally plenty of time to run the analysis before the ingots 
are ready to be cut into blanks. 

Drillings are taken from the test-block and analyzed for carbon, 
sulphur, phosphorus and manganese. The carbon content is ascertained 



FIG. 194. 42-CAADON STEEL AS CAS 

by the combustion method as the color method gives only an approxima- 
tion, except when the standard has been given exactly the same treat- 
ment as the sample. 

In Fig. 194 is shown a reproduction from a photo-micrograph of the 
metal in an ingot containing 0.42 carbon, 0.28 silicon, 0.72 manganese, 
0.032 sulphur, 0.031 phosphate. 

In Fig. 195 is shown a sample taken from one of the shell blanks 
after forging. Forging has brought the yield point up to 19.2 long tons. 
The tensile strength is 40.7 long tons, just about the same as in the un- 
forged casting. The elongation is 25.7 per cent. 

Drillings for analysis are also taken from several blanks from each 
heat. A ^-in. drill is run in IJ^ i". in the cut end, so there will be no 
scale to influence the analysis. 

Chemical and physical tests are made of each heat, both by the works 



242 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



chemist and by the government. Records are kept of each and every 
melt. The metal, as cast, must also withstand a compression test. 

The test piece is in the shape of a cylinder the 

height of which is equal to the diameter. This 

cylinder must stand compression to one-half 

the height without showing cracks. 

g In the table, Fig. 196, are shown analyses 

< and physical properties of four heats, running 

* from 0.38 to 0.42 per cent, carbon. The phys- 

p ical tests were made from test-bars cut from 

o 

^ forged shell blanks and the analyses were found 
g to prove out as described. 



i 



g 



r< 



^o 



<^ 



e< 






PQ 



o»: 



^ 



CA 



FORGING THE BLANKS 

As received at the Dominion works of the 
Canadian Car & Foundry Co., Ltd., the blanks 
from the Canadian Steel Foundries, Ltd., 
measure 4%-in. in diameter by 9-in. in height. 
They weigh from 46 to 48 lb. each, the varia- 
tion being due to slight differences in diameter. 
A difference of He i^^- ii^ diameter on a blank 
of this size causes difference of about one pound 
in the weight. Center-punch marks on the 
end of the blank indicate the melt number 

I, ^ and also whether it is a test blank which is to 
S G ; ) § be forged. If the latter, it must pass both 

chemical and physical tests before the rest of 
the blanks bearing that melt number are 
shipped from the foundry. All blanks have 
the melt number stamped with ordinary steel 
stamps on their sides, but as this would be 
obliterated by the forging operations, the heavy 
center-punch marks are necessary. During 
forging they are distorted, but they appear on 
the rim after the final forging operation and 
can be readily deciphered. 

Piercing. — The first forging operation is 
piercing and this is done under a Bertram 
steam hammer with the tools shown in Fig. 197. 
The blanks are placed with a scoop 25 or 
so at a time, in a reverberatory furnace using 
oil at 30 lb. pressure, with air at 80 lb., for fuel. 
Once the furnace is hot, the blanks reach the forging temperature 
in about 45 minutes. Three men handle the piercing operation — one 





Chap. II] 



CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 



243 



furnaceman, a hammerman and a blacksmith. When the blanks have 
reached a full yellow heat, the fumaceman takes a long won hook and 
tumbles one out on the floor in front of the furnace. He then seizes it 
with a. pair of pick-up tongs and drops it into the die, the hole in which 
is large enough to let it drop clear to the anvil face. He next takes the 
punch guide and places it over the blank. The smith, in the mean' 
time, has taken the punch in a pair of pick-ups and entered it in the hole 
in the guide punch. The hammerman, guided by a nod from the smith. 




flBSr OfV/UTHM IX 




PUNCH AND DIB AND CBARO- 



makes two or three strokes with the hammer. With the hammer in 
raised position the smith quickly removes the punch and plunges it 
for an instant in water. As the hole now started is capable of acting as 
a guide for the punch, the guide is removed by the fumaceman and 
dropped in a tub of water. Just l>efore the smith replaces the punch in 
the hole in the work, the hammerman throws a pinch of soft-coal dust 
in ahead of it. Again guided by a nod from the smith, the hammerman 
strikes four or five blows. The gas generated from the coal dust, blow- 
ing out around the punch, prevents it sticking in the work. The punch 



244 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

is again removed and dropped in water. The furnaceman dow presses 
down on the k)ng die handle and the die and work are lifted clear of the 
anvil. WhUe thus raised the hammerman places a steel disk about 4 
in. diameter and 1 in. thick under the work in the die, which is then 
lowered so that the work within it rests on the steel disk. A single stroke 
of the hammer on the die top drives the die down past the work, and the 
disk forces the work into the large part of the tapered hole in the die. 
The furnaceman now turns the die over with the bandies, the finished 
first-operation blank drops out of the die and is picked up by the smith 
and thrown into an iron tote box. 

The entire operation of piercing the blank consumes but about 1 min. 

The die is a steel casting machined to the dimensions shown in Fig. 

197 and will stand up for about two days before it has to be re-dressed 

inside. Re-dressing becomes necessary because of upsetting and getting 

smaller, not, as one woidd expect, because it gets larger. The punches, 

Fig. 197, are made of about 80-point car- 

l' '^, ■ *] bon steel, and last from four to five days. 

They usually fail because of heavy check- 
ing on the extreme end. In Fig. 197 
reference letters are used to indicate di- 
mensions that are correlated. 
, The work after the first operation is 

conical, measuring about 5}>^ in. diameter 
at the top and 5 in. at the bottom. In 
length it is about 9 in., the same as the 
ingot blank, from which it was forged. 
The pierced hole is 3 in. diameter and 
about 4 in., more or less, in depth. The 
average output for a 24-hr. day is 500 
pieces. 
Second Operation. — The second operation is in reality a further 
piercing operation to which is added the effect of squirting. The metal 
displaced by the punch, following the line of least resistance, flows upward 
between the punch and die. 

This operation is done on the 500-ton R. D, Wood flanging press. 
The upper part of this press, carrying the punch, is stationary, while the 
base, carrying the die holder, moves. The die holder is a heavy iron 
casting with accommodation for two sets of dies. The die is a steel 
casting made by the same concern that casts the blanks. It is machined 
as shown in Fig. 198. In the bottom is a countersunk hole to accom- 
modate a 1^-in. rivet that acts as a knock-out. 

The work for the second operation is heated in a furnace similar to 
that used for the first operation. It is, however, provided with an in- 
clined chute down which the hot blanks roll as they are pulled from the 



Chap. H] 



CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 



245 






r-^i--^ 



f^gfM 



?v 



V 



<Jf'^ 



^ 



furnace. The lower end of the chute is within easy reaching distance 
for the pressman. The operation is as follows: The fumaceman pulls 
a hot blank from the furnace with a long hook. A helper, grasping it 
with a pair of pick-ups, places it upright on a block of iron. After scrap- 
ing the scale off, the helper picks it up again and drops it in the die, which 
is about an inch deeper than the length of the first-operation work. He 
then opens the valve and the ram ascends. Just before the work reaches 
the pimch, the smith in charge of the second operation throws a pinch 
of soft-coal dust in ahead of the punch. The work coming upward, strikes 
the punch and is pierced by it. Just before the completion of the stroke 
the excess of metal in the blank squirts upward about 3 in. around the 
punch. The gas generated from the coal dust bursts 
out in a jet of flame all around the punch and keeps 
it from sticking. The stroke of the plunger is posi- 
tively controlled by the two piles of parallel blocks 
coming in contact with the upper platen of the press. 
The ram is reversed, and the die and work recede from 
the punch. When near the end of the downward travel 
of the ram, chains raise a bar, which strikes the knock- 
out in the die and causes it to lift the work and loosen 
it in the die. It is then readily removed with a pair of 
pick-ups and laid to one side. The stroke of the 
second-operation press is 20 in. This operation takes 
a little longer than the first, but an output of 500 
pieces in 24 hours can be maintained. 

These dies also are made from steel castings and 
have an average life of about 1,000 pieces. The punches, Fig. 199, are 
made of the same steel as those for the first operation, and will stand 
up for about 600 pieces. They are secured in the upper platen by 
means of a nut passing over the body of the punch and clamping the 
flange of its seat in the upper platen. 

The work comes from the second, operation, conical in shape, about 
5^ in. diameter at the top, 5 in. diameter at the bottom and about 11^ 
in. high. The hole is tapered, 3 in. at the bottom 3^^ in. at the top. 
The base of the work at the completion of the second operation is l}4 
in. thick. 

Third Operation. — The third and last operation, the final drawing of 
the shell, is performed on an R. D. Wood 500-ton press similar in every 
particular to that used for the second operation. Owing to the length 
of the punch and work the stroke of the press is increased to 30 in. for this 
operation. 

The punch is mounted in the upper platen, as in the previous opera- 
tion. The die holder is bored centrally to receive two dies placed tandem, 
one above the other. The bored die seat communicates with the cored 






K-J-M 



^ 



7- 



FIG. 199. 8E0ONI>- 

opebahon punch 



246 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



recess in the die holder, which is for the insertion of a forked stripper, 
and the removal of the completed work. 

Heating of the completed secondroperation blanks for the final draw- 
ing is accomplished in a furnace similar to those used for the first and 
second operations. The hot blank, on being taken from the furnace, is 
first scraped to remove the outside scale. It is then placed mouth-up 



I i'fiound Sfeei-^ \j | j^Round Steel-^ ^ i/\ 



[ 



iffSPECTORS O/aiALL 
L£tmHGA6£ 

6 



ffCPeCWf^BASE 
TM/CKNESS GA6£ 






l^^^^-^gi^^^^^^^^g 







V//>////////?7/7//////^^ 




L 



H 



PIQ. 200. FIXTURE FOR TESTING AMOUNT OP METAL FOR TURNING 

in the die. The valve being opened, the ram ascends. Just before the 
punch enters the work, the smith throws the usual pinch of soft coal into 
the hole. At the completion of the stroke the work, still clinging to the 
pimch, is in the recess under the dies. The pressman takes the forked 
stripper, inserts it above the work, the ram is reversed and the work 
drops to the lower platen, from which it is taken. The smith then gages 

it with a forked gage similar to that shown in 
Fig. 200. 

With the forging lying on its side, the 
shorter leg is inserted till it touches the bot- 
tom of the hole. The end of the longer leg 
should then be flush with the bottom on the 
outside, the difference in the lengths of the 
two legs, 13^ in., indicating the thickness of 
the base. The forgings are placed in a pile 
and allowed to cool slowly, so as to leave them in workable condition. 
The forging, as completed, is 4% in. diameter by 12% in. long, with a 
base IJ^ in. thick. 

The dies for the third operation, shown in Fig. 201, are cast iron, the 
drawing faces being cast against a chill. Their life varies from one or 
two pieces up to as high as 1,000. A fair average would be 500. They 
generally fail by wearing out, that is, becoming too large, so that they 




anUO) CAST /RON 

PIG. 201. THIRD-OPERATION 
DIES 



Chap. II] 



CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 



247 



I 



4f- 



t-2- 






U2«» 



K-J/-H 



^S5 



y-'>\ 



^ 



do not draw the shell long enough. It will be noted by referring to Fig. 
201 that the upper die is '^i in. larger in diameter than the bottom one. 
When the latter wears too large it is re-dressed by grinding and used as 
an upper die. The punches, Fig. 202, are made of the same steel as 
those for the previous operations and average about 500 pieces; in one 
instance 5,000 were produced with a single pimch. They fail principally 
through bending, which is difficult to offset. 
Care in centering the blank properly in the dies 
is of considerable assistance in keeping the 
punches straight. 

Inspection. — After the forgings have cooled 
they are taken to the government inspection 
tables, which are equipped with the inspection 
appliances shown in Fig. 200. The forging is 
first inspected for length with the overall gage. 
Next, the thickness of the base is tested with the 
forked gage, which is similar to, but shorter 
than, the smith's gage. The relation of the hole 
to the outside and whether the forging will 
** clean up" are ascertained with the fixture 
which is shown in Fig. 200. 

The head D carries a spindle -B, the nose of 
which is tapered to receive the expanding sleeve 

F, which fits in the hole in the forging K, shown 
in section. A hand- wheel G provides means for 
rotating the spindle and work. The head D is 
bolted to a flat piece of boiler plate H, which is 

sufficiently accurate for this work. The height gage / is provided with 
a hardened fixed indicator /. Inspection consists of sliding the forging 
K on the expanding mandrel F. While rotating it with the handwheel 

G, the height gage / is slid on the plate H, the hardened end of / coming 
in contact with the forging at various points. So long as the height gage 
will not pass under K at any point, the forging will clean up. Should 
it pass under, the forging is condemned. Having passed inspection, the 
forgings are loaded on cars and shipped to the machine shop. 



---^ 



i'J^n > 



PIG. 202. THIRD-OPERA- 
TION PUNCH AND DIBS 



BASE-PLATES FOR HIGH -EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



Should a pipe exist in one of the original blanks made from either 
cast bar-billets or rolled bar-stock it is almost certain to be in the forged 
blank. With ordinary British shrapnel this is of no consequence, as the 
explosive charge is contained in a metal receptacle — the cup — ^and there 
is no chance of the flame from the propulsive charge communicating with 
it by way of a pipe. 



248 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEUfi ISbc. II 

With the explosive shell conditions are different. The hollow body 
of the shell itself acts as a container for the explosive charge, and should 
there be a pipe in the shell base, there is imnaediate connection between 
the propulsive and explosive charges. The flame from the propulsive 
charge traversing such connection would detonate the explosive charge 
and cause the destruction of the gun and probably of all the men near it. 

In order to prevent auch possible disaster the high-explosive shell has 
a bored and threaded recess in the center of the base on the outside, to 
receive a base-plate forged from flat steel. The grain of the metal in 
the base-plate therefore runs at right angles to the axis of the shell. The 
base-plate is accurately machined to ht the threaded hole, is screwed and 
riveted in place, and finally turned flush with the base of the shell. It 
thus securely seals any pipe or fissure, should one exist, and prevents 
premature explosion of the charge contained in the shell. 

In the Turcot shops of the Canadian Car & Foundry Co. the blanks 
for base-plate for 4.5- and 5-in. high-explosive shells are made on an 
Acme forging machine. 

The stock used is lX3-in. cut in 3-ft. lengths, which weigh about 27 
lb. These bars are heated four at a time in an oil-fired furnace. 



FIO. 203. TUB WORK DIES AND liCItAP 

The Forging Operation. — An enlarged view of the dies, work and 
scrap appear in Fig. 203. The die A is fixed, while B is mounted in the 
movable slide. The hot bar is fed down past the blanking die C secured 
to the face of A. The die B advances until it strikes the face of A, where 
it dwells till the advancing punch, not shown, blanks a disk through the 
hole in C, pushes it along the tubular opening D, and squeezes it into the 
form E at the end of the stroke. On the completion of the stroke the 
punch and the die B recede and the forged base-plate is removed with a 



Chap, n] 



CASTING STEEL FORGING BLANKS 



249 



pair of tODgs from the die. Two meD cod forge 2,000 of -these base-plate 
blanks in 24 hr. 

The forgings as they come from the machine are rather rough and 
would average as shown at A, Fig. 204. The fins are of course caused 
by necessary clearances between the dies and the punch. These fins are 



no. 204. THREE BTAOBS IN TBK PRODUCTION OP BABE-PLATES 

then readily removed in a bolt cutter. Two men can remove the fins 
from 1,200 base-plates in 24 hr. The work then appears as shown at B 
in Fig. 204. 

Inspection of the Work. — From the bolt cutter the work goes to the 
inspection tables, where the gages shown in Figs. 205, 206 and 207 are 





used. The captions indicate their apphcation to the work, therefore no 
further description of the inspection operation is necessary. 

Here and there an occasional base-plate fails to pass the visual inspec- 
tion, the principal cause being scale or a depression in the center of the 
face. Such base plates are restruck. 



250 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

Restrikiiig Imperfect Work. — The work that fails to paae inspection 
is heated in the furnace B, Fig. 208. The operator takes the hot base- 
plate in a pair of tongs, dips it for an instant in cold water, which causes 



HE 



qu 



■ 156P 

no. 207. OAOB USED fob diameter or the FORaiNO 

the scale to break and fall off, and places it with the shank in the square 
hole in the die A. His helper holds the die between the members C 
and D with the face of the work toward the moving member C. When 
the machine is tripped C strikes the face of work and the rear end of the 



FtO. 308. RESTRIKINQ I 



a BULLDOZER 



die A brings up against the metal blocking D. The work comes from the 
restriking die as shown at C, Fig. 204, practically without scale, and as 
there are no joints or fissures in the die there are no fins to be removed. 



CHAPTER III 

MANUFACTURING BRITISH 18-POUNDER fflGH-EXPLOSIVE 

SHELLS' 

The Dominion Bridge Co., Ltd., Montreal, Canada, undertook, in 
addition to their activities in turning out 18-lb. British shrapnel, to pro- 
duce 4,000 18-lb. high-explosive shells per day. The newer work was 
kept entirely separate, for though similar it was by no means identical. 

A special shop for housing the equipment required for the manufac- 
ture of high-explosive shells (see Table 1) was constructed according to 
the plan shown in Fig. 209. This arrangement permits the rough blanks 
to enter the shop at one end (the left) and, with practically no back- 
tracking, to leave in the form of finished and accepted shells at the other. 

The rough blanks, as received at the steel shop, measure 3J^ in. in 
diameter by 9^ in. in length and possess the following physical and 
chemical characteristics: tensile strength, 78,400 to 87,360 lb.; yield 
point, at least 42,500 lb.; elongation, 20 per cent.; carbon content, 0.45 
to 0.55 per cent.; nickel, under 0.50; manganese, between 0.4 and 1.0; 
sulphur and phosphorus, under 0.05 per cent. 

In their passage through the shell shop, the blanks are subjected to 

some 40 main operations — see sequence of operations and descriptive 

sketches. 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. Removing burrs from blanks. 

2. Rough-drilling blanks. 

3. Centering base. 

4. Rough-turning body. 

5. Rough-turning nose. 

6. Facing and squaring base. 

7. Facing to length. 

8. Boring, reaming, recessing at end of thread and checking outside. 

9. Mill-threading shell nose. 

10. Finish-turning body. 

11. Weighing shells. 

12. Facing to correct weight. 

13. Turning riveting face angle on base of shell. 

14. Rough-turning band groove and rounding edge ctf base. 

15. Undercutting and waving band groove. 

16. Recessing bottom of shell for base-plate. 

17. Drilling fixing-screw hole, 

18. Tapping fixing-screw hole. 

^ E. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American MachinisL 

251 



HIGH-KXFLOSIVE SHELLS 



lis 




w 



il . " "b" ^ 

TM an an im^pid! 

|5«|lll HE III! IM"fflD! 

jA<::|i|iiqisiE |Wi i-M 
rae IB m m m 

|N hi iiinipaiiH 

li HE nil M III! ml il 
»JE 111! III! II II IliU 

l» 1^. li.3 ,-,.1^1 i 

'%m i|ii=iDii|S[iDps?M 



fl 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH IS-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 253 



Tablb 1. Layout of Work; Make and Capacitt of Machines 



Oi>eration 



Number 
of Ma- 
chines in 
Oi>era- 
tion 



T 



Sise and Name of Machine 



Capacity 
per Machme 



Per 
Hr. 



Per 

22-Hr. 

Day 



Total 
Capacity 
in Sheila 



DriU. 



Center 

Rough turn. 

Rough nose. 



Face base 

Face to length . 

Bore and ream 
Thread nose . . . 



I / 



! \ 



Finish turn 



Face to weight 

Round comer, groove. 
Wave and undercut. . . 



Recess base. 



I 



File base to gage, 



Mill base thread 

Drill }^ hole in nose 

Tap H hole 

Marking 

Saw-off square on base- 
plate 

Rough face base-plate 

Rivet base-plate 

Finish face base-plate 

Band press 



Band turn. 



Threading base-plates. . 
Turn base-plates 



3 
10 
3 
10 
2 
6 
1 
4 
3 
12 
4 
6 
2 
8 
4 
1 
1 
1 
3 
6 
6 
9 
2 
2 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 
6 
1 
3 
2 

6 
6 
2 
7 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
8 
4 



2-spindle Bertram 

Dom. bridge drills 

Herbert driUs 

24X10 C.M.C. lathes 

18X8 Mueller 

24X10 C.M.C 

18X8McDougall 

20X6 Gardner 

20X6 Gardner 

3X36 J. &L 

3X36 Acme 

2X24 J. &L 

2X26 P. &W 

Thread millers 

lo Xo vy. JVl.v^ 

18X8 Walcott 

16X6 American 

16X6 Champion 

18X8 Mueller 

20X6 Gardner 

20X6 Gardner 

20X8 Gardner 

2X24 J. *L 

18X8 Mueller 

20X10 C.M.C 

16X6 Gardner 

16X6 Prentiss 

16X6Flather 

16X8Twink 

Thread millers 

4^pindle drill 

Herbert drills 

London air markers . . , 



12 
15 
65 
20 
23 
23 
23 
48 
30 

9 

25 

20 



35 
35 
21 

25 



Racine hacksaws 

20X6 Gardner 

High speed hammers 

20X6 Gardner 

6-cylinder Lymburner . . . 

West Tyre Co 

20X8 C.M.C 

18X12 L. &S 

Jenckes 

Automatic (Bridgeport) 

16X6 S. Bend 



35 

36 
200 

80 
125 

25 

35 

100 

30 

120 

50 

10 
75 



264 
345 

1,430 
440 
506 
506 
506 

1,056 
660 



198 
550 

440 



770 
770 
462 

550 



770 



790 
4,400 
1,760 
2,750 

550 
770 

2,200 
660 

2,640 



1,100 

220 
1,720 



792 
3,450 
4,290 
4,400 

4,554 

4,224 
1,980 



4,752 
4,400 

4,400 



4,620 
4,620 
4,150 

4,400 



4,620 



4,740 
4,400 
5,280 
5,500 

3,300 
4,620 
4,400 
4,620 
5,280 



4,400 

1,760 
4,300 



In addition to the lathes there are on shell work, exclusive of the toolroom 1 
London 18X12; 1 C.M.C. 20X8; 1 C.M.C. 18X8; IJ. &L. 2X24; 1 C.M.C. 20X8; 
1 Gardner 20X6. 



54 HIGH-EXHX)SrVE SHELLS 

19. Sorting Bhella by heat numbera. 

20. Marking Bhella. 

21. First general ahop inspection and hospital work. 

22. Drop-forging base-plates. 

23. Rough'tumiog base-plates. 

24. Finish-turning base-plates. 

26. Filing nicks in edge of base-plat«a. 

26. Assembling baae-plate in shell base. 

27. Driving-in base-plates. 

28. Riveting base-plate. 

29. Sawing-oS square base-plate stems. 

30. Facing base-plate and base. 

31. Presaing-oa copper band. 

32. Turning copper band. 

33. Varnishing. 

34. Baking vamiah. 

35. Gleaning-ofi varnish from outside of shell. 

36. Hand-tapping fuse hole. 

37. Painting with priming coat. 

38. Finish painting. 

3ft. Luting and screwing in plugs and fixity screws and painting plug. 
40. Packing and shipping. 



1. 

Machine Used — Dry grinder. 

Special Tools and Fixtures— Wide rest A set in line with the wheel center. 

Gages— None. 

Production — One man and one machine, 300 per hr. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH IS-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEULS 255 




Machines Used — Foote-Burt vertical drilling machines. Dominion Bridge 
Co.'s air-feed horizontal drilling machines. 

Bertram two-spindle horizontal drilling machines. 

Special Toola and Pixtures — Chuck like A or viae with R- and Ir«crew operated 
jaws for the vertical machines. Centering jig B. Drill setting block C. I'Ka in. 
twist drill D. For horizontal machines I'Kfl ii- hogging drill is used. 

Gages — Diameter gage E. Base thickness gage F. 

Production — One man and 2 vertical machines, 10 per hr. One man and one 
horizontal machine, 15 per hr. 

Note — Drilling compound used as lubricant. 



THE BASE END OF THE BLANK 



Machines Used — Herbert sensitive drilling machines. 

Special Toola and Fixtures — Centering jig A. Combination center drill I 

Gages — Wing cahper gage lo teat if stock will clean up. 

Production — One machine and one boy, 66 per hr. 



HIGH-EXFLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPsaATiaN 4. RotiOH toen 



Maclimes Used — 18- and 24-iii. engine lathes. 
Special Tools and Fixturea — Plug center A, 
Gages — High and low limit soap gages B and C 
Production — One man and one machine, 20 per hr. 
Note — ^Cutting compound used. 



— ^"^^ — 



OPERATION 5. BOUQH TURN THE 

Machines Used — 18- and 24-in. engine lathes. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Former and roller A. 1 
Gages — Profile gage C. Over-all length gage D. 
Production — One machine and one man, 23 per hr. 
Note — Cutting compound used. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH Ift-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI£ 257 



r — ^•■•- 

I- ■■ --'D • - 

OPERATION 6. PACE THE BASE SQUARE WITH THE BODT 

Machines \]eed—r20 in. by 6 ft. engine lathes. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Heavy combination chuck A; roughing tool I 

Gagea — Length gage D, square C. 

Production — One man and one machine, 48 pieces per hour. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 






OPERATION 7. PAC2 



Machines Used — 20 in. by 6 ft. engine lathes. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Heavy combination chuck A; roughing tool I 
atopD. 

Gage — Length gage C. 

Production — One man and one machine, 30 per hour. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



i 



3.67Z- 

Gage H, Length over All 

leeir- ---j. 



at 



© 



Oage I, Inside Okmiand bollam Rodiu* 




h- — Z.4IS'- 

3.6iS'- 

OogoK.DiamandAngls ea«.irpi«6 

of CodofShall ■ ftrMrMdingSii 

FuM Hgia 



-J.6ZS' 




' itS'iI Opsration 



Chaf. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPEBATtON 8. BORE, REAU, RECBSe AT ENI> Or THREAD, AND CHECK OUTSIDE 

Macbinea Used — 3X36 Jones & Lamson flat turret lathes. 

^>ecial Tools and Pixtuies— Twist drill and holder A; roughing reamer B; bevelii^ 
tool C; undercutting tool D; outside checking tool E; finish reaming and bottom 
forming tool F; siiing reamer G for thread space. 

Gages — Gage H for length; gage I for inaide diameter and Bottom rad; gage J, 
fuse hole recess; gage K, diameter and angleof end of shell; gage L, thickness of base; 
gage M, depth of check on end of shell; gage N, plug gage for threading aiie of inude 

Production. — One man operating one machine, average 10 shells per hour. 
Note — Cutting compound used. 



□PSBATION 9. HILUNQ THE INTEBHAL THREAD IN THE BRBLL NOSE 

Machines Used — Holden-Morgan thread millers. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Gage — Plug thread gage A. 

Production — One man and one machine, 25 noses threaded per hour. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



SrachakMhMftJ^ 




OPERATION 10. 

Machines Used — Engiiie lathes, 16 and IS in. swing. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Plug driver A; female driver B attached to 8 
faceplate; former and roller C at the back of the lathe. 

Gages — High and low body diameter g^ea D and E; profile of bead F. 
Production — One man and one machine, 20 per hour. 
Note — Gutting compound used. 




OPERATION 11. WEIQHINa THE S 

Machine Used — Ordinary weighing scales. 

Special Toob and Fixtures— None. 

Gages — None. 

Production — One man and one set of scales ci 

Note — About 10 per cent, of the shells are co: 



1 weigh about 100 shells per hour, 
ect weight. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDEE HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIlfi 




OPERATION 12. FACE TO 

Mocbiaes Used — 20-]a. engine lathes without tailstocks. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Combination chuck A; facing tool B. 
Gages — The scales act as gages for this operation. 
Production — One man and one machine, 36- shells per hour. 



f X )^^ " . -"^ I Oiamtter of riveting 
T;Z?._2S.'.....J^ ' Angle 

OPERATION 13. TURN THE RIVETINO FACE ANOLE ON THE BABE OP THE SHELL 

Machine Used — 20-in. engine lathes without tailstocks. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Combination chuck A; compensating gage B; angular 
tooIC. 

Gage — Angle gage D. 

Production — One man and one machine, 50 shells per hour. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 



HIGH-EXFLOSIVE SHELU 



DUf<,n«frBm6a« Banrt Sroov. 

to Dnving>6cind Groov* , 

Cage 9, Rough-Driving Boind Width 

OPERATION 14. ROUaK TOBN DHIVTNO BAND OROOVB AND RODND BDQB or BASE 

Machines Used — 20-iii. engine lathes without tailstocka. 

Special Tools and Fixtuies — Combination chuck A; fixture on saddle holding 
the stop B and rollers G; cross-sUde carrying the grooving tool E and edge-rounding 
toolF. 

Gages — Rough driving band groove gage G; distance from base of driving band, 
gage H; gage for diameter of driving band groove I. 

Production — One man and one machine, 35 shells per hour. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 



Chap. IUJ BRITISH IS-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPERATION 16. tlNDBRCDlTlNO AND WAVING 

Machines Used — 20-in. by S^t. engine lathes. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Universal chuck A. Waving cam B. Under- 
cutting attachment C, Waving attachment D. 

Gages — High and low snap gages E and F. Gage G, distance from base to 
driving-band groove. Gage H, width of driving-band groove. 

Production — One man and one machine, 21 per hr. 

Note — Cutting compound used. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPERATION 



Machines Used— Jones & Lamson 2X24 flat-turret lathes- 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Jones & Lamson collet chuck A. Stop B. Recess 

roi^hing tool C. Finish-boring and facing tool D. 

Gages — Gage E, thickncBs of base. Gage F, diameter of recess. Gage G, 

flatness of bottom of recess. 

Production — One man and one machine, 25 per hr. 
Not« — Cutting compound used. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



17. DRiLUNQ nxiNO-scKsv bole 



Machmes Used — Sensitive drilling machiaes. 
Special Toola and Fixtures — Drill jig A. 
Gages^Diatance of fixing screw from top, gage B. 
Production — One boy and one machine, 50 per hr. 
Note — Drilling compound used. 




OPERATION 18. TAPPINO THE 



Machinefl Used — Sensitive drilling machines. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Jig A. Tapping attachment B, K-" 

Gages — None. 

Production — One boy and one machine, 80 holes per hr. 

Note — Oil used as lubricant. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI^ 



OPERATION 19. BORTINO BHELLS BY HEAT NUMBER 

Machinea Used — None. 

Special Arrangements — Tote boxes and trucks. The floor A is 
squares marked with current heat numbers as shown. 
Gages — None. 
Note — 14 series of 250 shells in 10 hr. by 8 men. 



OPERATION 20. 

Machines Used — London air marker A. 

Special appliances — Pont of steel type B. 

Gage«— None. 

Production — Two men and one machine, 125 per lir. 



Chap. IU] BRITISH 18-POUNDKK HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEI12 



miBT aCNBRAL SHOP INSPECTION AND HOBPITAL WORK 

Ma«hinee Used^Uithes for filing off marking bum and reaming noses of damaged 
shells. 

Special Appliances — Tanks for hot caustic soda and for hot water. 

Gagea — Alt gages that have been used in the operations which have preceded thia 
operation. 

Production — 8 inspectors and 4 men in the hospital gang put through 350 shells 






{W 



22. DBOP-ronaiNa base platvs 

Machines Used — Billings A Spencer and Bliss drop hammers. 

Special fixtures and Tools — Oil furnaces, trimming press and dies. 

Gages — Diameter and thickness gages A and B. 

Production — One man, one furnace and one hammer, 110 pieces per hour. 




BA8B PLATSS 



Machines Used — I6-in. engine lathes. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Socket driver A; disk center B; tumii^ tool O. 

Gflge»— Snap gage D. 

Production — One man and one lathe, 175 to 200 per hour. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPERATION 24. FINIBH-rURNIWa BABE PLATES 

Machines Used — Engine lathes. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Drav-in collet A; facing tool B; formed tool C; for 
the engine lathes the special stop D and turning tool BI. 
Gages — Snap gage E; angle gage F; height gage G. 
Production^ — One man and one machine, 76 per hour. 



25. 



i IN EDQE OF BASE PLATB 



Machines Used — None. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Machinist's vise A; half-round file B. Hand opera- 
Gages — None. 
Production— One man, vise and file, 60 per hour. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




BASE PL^Ti: IS 8HBL1. BABE 

Macbinea Ufled^None, 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None; hand hammer only used to enter the plates u 
the shell. 

Gages— None. 

Production — One man, about 200 per hour. 

Note — No Pettman cement used with this type of base plate. 



OPERATION' 27. DRIVE IN THE BASE FIJITES 

Machines Used — Murphy pneumatic riveters. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tilting post A; hollow punch B to cleat the shank of 
the base plat«. 

Gages — None; the hand hammer is used to test the work. 
Production — Two men and one macbiae, 200 per hour. 



HIOH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPEBATION 28. RIVET BASE PLATK 

Mftchinea Used — Htgh-epeed hammers. 

Special Toob and Fixtures— Slide sad post A. 

Gages — None; the hand hammer is used to test the work. 

Production — One roan and one machine, 30 per hour. 



OPKHATION 29. SAW OFF BQUAHE STEMS 

Machines Used — Racine power hacksawing machines. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 

Gages — None; the boy operator works ss close to the shell base as he ci 

Production — One boy and two machines, 120 per hour. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH IMPOUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 81 



MtMShiDes Uacd — Engine lathes 20 in. by 6 ft. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Combination chuck A; facing tool B. 

Gages — None, 

Production — One man and one machine, 30 per hour. 



OPERATION 31. BANDING 

Machines Uaed — Triple-cylinder hydraulic pumpH; accumulator; banding press A. 

Fixtures and Tools — Bench B; hand hammer C. 

Gsgcfl — None. The hand-hammer test is used on the bands. 

Production — From one banding press and three men, 330 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




COPPKR BAND 



Machines Used — ^Lathes. 

Tools and Fixtures — Special collet chuck; cup center for tail-atock; formed tool 
A; scraper rest B; scraper C. 

Gages — Gage D from rib to baae; E, form ol driving band; F, outside diameter of 
driving band; high and low gages G and H for rib; ring gage I, base of shell; low snap 
gage J for driving band; K and L, high and low for groove in driving band. 

Production — One machine and one man, 110 per hr. 

Note — Soluble oil and water used as lubricant. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




M&chmes Used — Bowser tank A. 

Special AppliaaceB — Draining screen B; thread-protecting bushings C; bushing 
wrench D. 

Gages— None. 

Pioduclion — Five men can screw in bushings and Tarnish 3,000 shells in 10 hr. 

Note— Shells drain on B for 10 min. 



(alternative a): tabnighino 

Machines Used — None. 

Appliances — Vamiah pot A; special long-handled brush B; sheet-steel shp bushing 
C, to protect the fuse-hole threads. 
Gages — None. 
Production — One man, 100 per br. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION i 



Machine Used'—Vamish -spray ing machine. 

Special Appliances — None. 

Production — One man, one machine and two helpere, 250 per br. 



OPERATION 33. (altebnativb c): VARinsBiNa 

Machines Used^Hand-operated atomizer A connected to shop air Borvice. 
Special Appliances — Roller shell support B; gloves for handling the hot shells. 
Production — One man and one atomiser, 100 per hr. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH i»-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



34. BAXINQ TBB TARNIBH 

Muhines Used — None. 

Special Appliances — Two furnaces A holding two and four trays B respectively; 
thermometer; clock; trucks C. 

Production — With both funutces, 200 per hr. 




OPERATION 35. CLEANINO VABNIBH OFF OUTBIDBS 

Machines Used — None. 

Appliances Used — Benches; scrapers; waste; bushing wrench. 

Production — One man, 25 shells per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI5 



OPEBATIOIf 36. HAND TAPPING THE FUSE HOLE TO FINISHED SIEE 

Machines Used — None. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Hinged vise A; adjustable tap B; tap wrench G. 
Gages — High and low plug gage with angular seat on one end. 
Production — One roan, 30 per hr. 



OPERATION 37. FAINTINO THE 

Machines Used — Motor-driven turntables A. 

Tools and Accessories — Benches and drying cupboards; flat paint brush B; paint 
pot of white paint C. 
Gagea — None. 
Production— Six boys, 16 scries (2,760 sheila) in 10 hr. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 3 

Machines Used — The same as in operation 37. 

Toola and AccesBoriea — The same as in operation 37, eicept that the paintfor the 
body ia yellow and tor the band green. A narrow brusli ia uaed for the band. 
Gagea — Gage A tor position of the green band; ring gage B over painted body. 

Production— Eight boys, 15 series (2,750 sheila) in 10 hr. 



Machines Used — None. 

Tools and Accessories— Square-end wrench A; screwdriver B; luting and yelloi 
paint; paint brush; luting brush. 
Gages— None. 
Production — See operation 40, as this is a part ot that operation. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



Machioes Used — None. 

Tools and Accewories — Cases holding six shells each; screw-driver. 

Gages— None. 

Production — Twenty men can screw Jn plugs and fixing screws, paint tops of plugs, 
put in cases 3,220 shelb and screw down the case lids ready for shipping. This work 
is under the BuI>ervision of a man from the Canadian Inspection Co. 

A modification in the usual construction of the shell was here inaugu- 
rated which greatly simpli&ed manufacture and stimulated production. 
The base plate, instead of being threaded and screwed into the base was 
made with a beveled edge and simply inserted into a plain cylindrical 
blind hole in the base. Here it is firmly riveted in place with the riveting 
flange left on the base for that purpose. This practice necessitat«d 
slight alterations in dimensions worked to during certain operations 
(noted in the table in Fig. 210) but the finished shell differs in no respect 
as to weight, dimensions, etc. 

The first operation on the shell blanks, which are cut to length before 
they are received at the shell shop, consists in grinding off the burr left 
by the cold-saws. This is removed, as it might prevent the blank from 
centering properly in the chucks in the first machining operation. For 
this work an ordinary dry-grinder is used with a wide rest for the work, as 
shown in operation 1. A man can remove the burrs from about 300 
blanks per hour. 

The drilling operation, which follows, is, from the viewpoint of time 
consumed, the most important of the machining operations. Three 
different makes of machines are used for this operation. There are 
nine 24-in. and eleven 25-in. Foote-Burt heavy-duty drilling machines, 
three 2-8pindle Bertram horizontal drilling machines and sixteen Domin- 
ion Bridge Co.'s air-feed horizontal drilling machines. 

Two Foote-Burt drilling machines are attended by one operator. 
Their nominal output is 5 pieces per machine per hour. A man can, 
however, do a little better than this, but in many of the shops where 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH Ift-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 279 




III 






i"* ;? 






i 



M 



S I* 



280 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS . [Sec. II 

these machines have been forced there has been more or less trouble with 
breakage, so it has been found more economical to run slower. 

The Dominion Bridge Co/s air-feed drill is a recent development. 
It is simple and rugged in construction, driUs a more accurate hole than 
the vertical machine in about a third of the time and costs very much 
less. The machine is shown in Fig. 211, together with the drill used. 
The air cylinder is 7 in. in diameter and is supplied with air at 90 lb. per 
sq. in., giving a total pressure of about 3,500 lb. on the piston and drill. 
The piston rod is 4 in. in diameter and at its forward end is secured to 
the sliding saddle. A taper reamed socket in the extreme end accommo- 
dates the drill shank. The drill is hollow, and lubricant under pressure 
is admitted to it through a connection in the sliding saddle. The main 
spindle of the machine is 6 in. in diameter. At the forward end is a 
heavy combination chuck for holding the work. The rim of the face- 
plate that carries the chuck is used as a brake drum, the band of the 
brake being controlled by a conveniently located lever. In front of 
the rear spindle bearing is a ball thrust bearing to take the drilling pres- 
sure. With one of these machines a man can drill 15 blanks per hour. 

After the blanks are drilled the work is inspected for diameter of 
hole and thickness of base by one of the four inspectors assigned to the 
drilling department, who uses the gages shown in the second operation. 
Work that passes inspection is stamped by the inspector as indicated 
in the operation. The checker now credits the driller with the number 
of pieces drilled, the truck gang is notified and the work loaded on trucks 
and transferred to the next operation. 

The next operation is centering. The center must conform as nearly 
as possible with the axis of the hole, not the outside of the piece. The 
details of the jig are shown in Fig. 212. The work is sUpped over the 
vertical post, the jig closed and locked. 

By referring to Fig. 212 it will be seen that the weight of the piece 
and the drill pressure throw three radial locking pieces which prevent the 
piece from turning. At the top of the center post is the wedge-like 
plunger A, A helical spring normally keeps it up in the position shown. 
Three radial jaws B are disposed 120 deg. from each other around the 
conical part of the plunger A. When the drilled blank is placed over the 
post it forces the plunger downward, and it in turn forces the three 
radial jaws outward. These simultaneously center the work with rela- 
tion to the hole, grip it and prevent it from turning during the centering 
operation. The scheduled time on this operation for a boy is 65 blanks 
centered per hour, but this operation has been done at the rate of over 
81 blanks per hour for a period of 10.5 hr. 

After centering, the work is again inspected to see that there is enough 
metal all around for the shell to clean up properly in the subsequent 
operations. The inspection gage is a set wing gage with a ball point. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 281 






Kl^l-^ 




U ^/-»->l 




i 



I 



o 

S 
o 
n 

T 



I 



OQ 



00 

3 

n 
o 

Q 



CI 



282 



H1GH-£XPL0SIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 



The checker tallies the work, after which the truck gang collecta and 
distributes it to the machines on the next operation. 

The next operation, rough turning, is done on 24-in. by 10-ft. engine 
lathes. In the spindle nose there is a plug center to fit the hole in the 
shell blank, and on the nose a driver plate. An ordinary lathe dog is 
tightened on the open end of the shell blank, the hole in the blank entered 
on the plug center and the center in the base entered on the tail center. 
The tool is an ordinary roughing tool; the cut is run toward the headstock 
as far as the dog will permit. The operator has two snap gages for this 




operation. They are 3.330 for the high and 3.320 for the low. The 
scheduled output for this operation is 20 pieces per hour. However, if 
the steel in the blanks is not too hard and the tools are of good steel and 
well-tempered, a man can average 28 pieces per hour. 

The next operation is roughing the nose. This work is done on 18- 
and 20-in. engine lathes. An ordinary lathe dog is tightened on the base 
end of the blank. The live spindle carries a 60-deg. center and driver 
plate. The tail spindle carries a plug center with a thrust collar so that 
it will turn easily. In the tool post there is an ordinary roughing tool. 
The crossfeed of the tool is made with the compound slide. The length- 
wise feed is under the control of a former at the back of the lathe. 

The feed of the lathe for this operation is away from the headstock. 
Two cuts are taken with an ordinary roughing tool. The first one starts 
at the point where the roughing cut in the former operation left off, but 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 283 

not quite to the same depth. The second cut is started a little way back 
on the parallel part of the body and to the same diameter as the rough 
body size. The scheduled output on this operation is 23 per hour, but 
with everything going right a man can get out 28 pieces per hour. 

The work is now inspected to see if the contour of the nose is correct 
and if the length overall is right. 

For the sixth operation short, heavy engine lathes are used. These 
are of 20-in. swing with 6-ft. bed, with no tailstock and are equipped 
with heavy combination chucks. The operation just cleans up the base 
and does not use any gage. The scheduled output for this operation is 
48 pieces per hour. 

After facing, the work is inspected for squareness with the body and 
also for length, as subsequent operations, if not actually finishing opera- 
tions, are more nearly allied to finishing operations. It therefore becomes 
necessary to bring the blanks to uniform length. Those blanks which, 
with the base squared, are of the correct length, pass direct to the boring 
and reaming operation. Those which are found by the inspector to be 
too long are checked and transferred by the truck gang to the length- 
facing operation. 

This seventh operation is done on lathes of the same size and make 
as those used for facing the base. They are equipped in exactly the 
same manner, except that they have a stop in the chuck for the base of 
the blank. 

The blank is chucked with the base against the stop in the chuck. 
The tool is an ordinary roughing tool, and with it the operator takes one 
or more cuts to remove the excess of metal from the nose of the blank. 
The length gage is the only gage used. This operation takes a little 
longer than the previous one, and 30 pieces per hour is the scheduled 
production. 

The eighth operation is the first of the finishing operations and 
consists in finishing the hole to diameter and depth, cutting the annular 
recess at the rear of the location for the nose thread, turning the check 
on the outside of the end and finishing the angle on the inside of the nose. 

This is one of the jobs on which the turret lathe has been retained, and 
it requires altogether seven tools and five turret stations for completion. 

The work is held in the regular Jones & Lamson collet chuck. The 
first tool used is the twist drill. The size of this drill is of.no great conse- 
quence; any driU about ^ in. in diameter will do, as its work consists 
merely in removing the metal in the center to nearly the finished depth 
of the hole. The drill is carried in an ordinary socket in the turret. 

The second turret station carries the reamer B, shown in Fig. 213. 
It is in reality a four-fluted roughing reamer that is provided with one 
pair of end-cutting lips to remove the metal at the end of the hole to the 
depth cleared by the twist drill. 



284 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



The third station of the turret carries three tools. One tool turns 
the bevel on the inside of the nose, another tool cuts the recess inside the 
shell at the point which will later be the extreme end of the thread and 
the third tool turns the check on the outside of the nose. It will of 
course be understood that the headstock is fed over for these cuts. The 
fourth station of the turret carries the finish-boring tool F, shown in 
Fig. 213. This tool finishes the bore and faces the end of the hole. The 
fifth station carries a Pratt & Whitney adjustable reamer that finishes 
to size the part of the bore which later will be threaded. This completes 
the eighth operation. The scheduled time is 10 pieces per hour. When 
the operator removes the finished work from the chuck he inverts it 
over an air jet, turns the air on and blows the chips out. 




Tool B 



f~ 7 ,^ • -• ■^•■■iilJj-!"'"' -^"••■•"i'ifiiii4ii|tJ >4 

F--r.<...f.i.if.uM.(i(i..,,i.ii;;;; ^il(i()iliiiliijiijiiiiii)jijiiii(il i 

*- h-.-...fi(iiiiiitiiiiiiiiuiirii^ 



Holder for Tool B 



Holder for Tool F 





Li j^!- 4t.../it.4^. 

Tool D 

FIG. 213. SOME OF THE TOOLS FOR THE FINISH-BORING OPERATION 

ON THE TURRET LATHE 



The ninth operation is threading the nose. This is done on Holden- 
Morgan thread-milling machines. In the eighth operation the check 
on the outside of the shell was finished to accurate dimensions and con- 
centric with the bore, so this is taken as a locating point for the forward 
end of the shell. The spindle of the thread-milling machine is arranged 
so that it clears the shell contour 12, as shown in Fig. 214, at S in the small 
broken section. A plate T attached to the forward end of the spindle 
Sand acts as a seat for the checked end of the shell. The other end of the 
shell is centered by the conical spindle plug, A, of the machine. This 
method results in accurate work and very few discards. 

The exterior of the spindle of the machine, with the exception of a 
short section about midway of its length, is a plain cylinder without 
flanges, so that it is free to slide endwise in the bearings at each end of the 
main head of the machine. About midway between the bearings the 
spindle has an external thread. This thread is of the same pitch and 
**hand'' as the one it is intended to mill in the nose (or base recess) of the 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH IS-POUNDER mOH-EXPLOSlVE SHELLS 285 

shelL Between the bearings is a half-ntit B, which is fitted to a slot 
running from front to back of the machine at right angles to the axis of 
the spindle, so that it has no side-play in relation to the head, that is 
to say, in line with the spindle axis. 

This half-nut B is hinged at the back; at the front there are a swing- 
bolt and a nut C to clamp it in operation position in mesh with the thread 
K, Fig. 214, when it is desired to cut a thread. 

The hob D consists of what is virtually a stack of disks of the shape 
of the standard Whitworth thread 14 pitch. In other words, it is a Whit- 
worth screw without lead. In appearance, with the exception of having 





JNghHtantH ScrtWf 
l4Thnadsp9rfneh 



prrfneh 




"^Forward 
Bearing 



^ear Bearing ^ 

FIQ. 214. SPINDLE OF NOSE-THREAD MILLER 



no lead, it is just like an ordinary hob, is fluted and has cutting clearance; 
in some cases, to afford extra chip space, it is provided with the type of 
teeth used on the Eccles tap. In length it is a thread or two greater 
than the length of the female screw it is to cut. It is mounted on a 
carriage, which affords it lengthwise motion to pei-mit it to be moved in 
and out of the hole in the nose, crossf eed to obtain the correct depth of 
thread, and clamps so that when located in cutting position it can be 
rigidly held. The scheduled time for threading is 25 pieces per hour, but 
as high as 29 have been done. 

The tenth operation is finish turning and it is done on engine lathes 
of 16- and 18-in. swing, with 6- and8-ft. beds respectively. The threaded 
plug and driver A, shown in detail for the tenth operation, is screwed into 
the nose of the shell. Secured to the driver plate of the lathe is the slotted 
female driver B, which receives the flattened end of the driver A, The 
base end of the shell is supported on the tail center. At the back of the 



286 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



lathe is a former similar to the one used in the fifth operation for rough 
turning the nose; but in this case the former is the full length of the work, 
and its nose end is toward the headstock. Each operator is supplied with 
several of the male drivers A and also with a vise, as shown in Fig. 215, 
to hold the shells while inserting and removing the drivers. As the cut 
is a comparatively long one the operator has ample time during the cut 
to place and remove the drivers from the work. Here, as in the roughing 
operation on the nose, the tool is fed to depth by the compound slide. 



I 



i^-> 



.74 

— .4 — 



I 



MSerscpfw 



^<5 



iis^q 



DrilMHofesfbrf Ph 



Ff 



1^ Hokibrd/TurrKd 










'« 

^ 




hdk/ir/ Pin 




fvrUseonfhe Ori/iing Machines, Hmst Chucks have 'y'tkms 

FIG. 215. DETAILS OF HINGED CHUCK 







1 Bol+vw+h 
DirHerf ly Kuf 



One cut finishes the work. The scheduled time for finish turning is 20 
pieces per hour. The operator uses a ring gage 3.290 in. in diameter, 
which he tries over each piece after it is turned. This is the high limit 
for diameter. 

Diameter gages are used on the body, the limits being 3.280 and 3.290 
in. respectively. The inspector also gages the shape of the nose with the 
contour gage. 

Up to this point in manufacture the shells are kept as near as possible 
to the high limits. They now undergo the first weighing operation. The 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 287 

actual weighing is done by an employee of the shop, but the operation is 
under the eye of a Government inspector. The shells are weighed on 
ordinary scales and the amount which they are over 15 lb. 2 oz. 8 dr. is 
chalked on the side of the shell in ounces and fractions and an amount 
of metal equal in weight to these chalked figures must be removed from 
the base in the twelfth operation. 

The schedule output on this facing to weight is 35 shells per hour. 
Having been adjusted to weight, the shells are taken by the truck gang 
to the next operation. Facing to weight is day's work, and the operation 
is not checked. 

The thirteenth operation is one which is necessary with the base 
plate only. Those shells which have the threaded base plate do not 
undergo it. The work is done on 20-in. by 6-ft. engine lathes. No tail- 
stock is used. The shell A is gripped in a heavy combination chuck, 
the nose of the shell bringing up against a stop. Owing to the fact that 
the shells in the twelfth operation have, in order to bring them to specified 
weight, been turned slightly varying lengths and will therefore not all 
project an equal distance from the chuck, some sort of self-accommodating 
gage is in this operation a manufacturing necessity. The gage B (opera- 
tion sketch) fulfills the requirements, is simple in construction and pro- 
duces results that are sufficiently accurate. It is secured to the tool 
slide. The hinged member can be swung out of the way if desired. 
The forward end is slotted to accommodate the roller. The angular 
tool C is J^ in. nearer the chuck than the roller, thus gaging a cut J^ in. 
deep irrespective of the length of the shell. 

The operation of turning the "face angle" (for riveting) is as follows: 
A shell is chucked, then the operator brings the carriage toward the 
chuck till the roller touches the face of the base of the shell. With the 
carriage held in this position the angular tool C is fed across the face of 
the work till the stop is encountered. The scheduled time for this 
operation is 50 pieces per hour. 

The fourteenth operation is rough turning the groove for the wave 
and rounding the edge of the base. This work is done on 20-in. by 6-ft. 
engine lathes with a special set-up of tools. 

Mounted rigidly on the cross-slide of the lathe is the block which is 
connected with the crossfeed screw, but for the purpose of crosswise 
adjustment only. Once the block is set in the correct position, the cross- 
feed handle is removed and the gib screws are set up hard to prevent 
shifting. Rigidly secured to the top of the block is a fixture supporting 
a sliding member which carries at the front a rough groove-forming tool 
and at the back an edge-rounding tool. The sliding member is provided 
with a rack that is engaged by a pinion on the lower end of a lever shaft 
which controls the movement of the slide. Rigidly secured to the sup- 
porting fixture is a member which acts as a housing for the shaft and also 



288 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS ISbc. II 

carries the stop and rollerE that bear on the plain part of the shell behind 
the groove and prevent it from hfting during the grooving operation. 
The operation of cutting a groove is very simple. The shell is 
chucked, and the carriage is brought forward till the stop beai^ on the 
base of the shell, thus determining the distance from the base to the 
groove. The carriage is then clamped, and the operator pulls the lever 
toward him till the stop for the grooving tool is reached. He then pushes 
it away from him till the stop for the edge-rounding tool is encountered. 
The first movement roughs the groove, and the second rounds the edge 
of the base. The carriage is now undamped and run back and the work 
removed. 

The scheduled time for the fourteenth operation is 35 pieces per hour. 
The shop inspection covers the diameter of the driving-band groove in 
the rough, the limits for which are 3.090 and 3.110 in. However, but a 
single gage is used here, 3.100 in. in diameter. The distance from the 
base to the driving band is between 0.73 and 0.77 in., but the high hmit 
alone is used. The width of the driving-band groove in the rough, is 
between 0.885 and 0.915 in. 

The method of applying the driving band to British shells is much 
more elaborate. The groove is dovetailed on each side, and depending 
on the size of the projectile, two 
or more wave ribs, as shown in 
Fig. 216, are turned in the bot- 
tom. When the copper band ia 
pressed on, the wave ribs embed 
themselves in. The object 
sought is to assure that, at the 
moment of firing, the friction 
between the band and the shell 
^ nJ^i??^ "-2?*' ^'^^ ^^ sufiicient to overcome 

PIG 216 WAVE RIBS FOK HioH EXPLOSIVE ^^^ inertia of the shell and cause 
SHELL it to follow the riSing in a rotary 

as well as a forward motion. 
The rough grooved shells from the fourteenth operation go to 20-in. by 
8-ft. engine lathes. They are equipped with heavy combination chucks 
to hold the shells and drive them. The base end of the shell is supported 
by the tail center. Mounted on the carriage of the lathe is a stop 
which is so located that it brings up against the base of the shell between 
the edge and the riveting flange. This stop is fixed in the carriage and 
bears a positive position relatively to the undercutting attachment on 
the front of the carriage, and also to the waving attachment on the back. 
The waving cam is secured to the face of the chuck in such manner that 
it does not interfere with the operation of the chuck. 

The operations of undercutting and waving are performed as follows; 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 289 

— * 

The operator enters a shell in the chuck of the engine lathe. Inside the 
spindle and backed up by a stiff spring is a sUding plug. The nose of the 
shell fits over this. The rear end of the shell is located on the tail center, 
which is then run out, compressing the spring and holding the shell. 
The jaws of the chuck are now tightened on the body of the shell. The 
carriage is run forward till the stop B (Fig. 217) brings up against the 
base end of the shell, thus correctly locating the undercutting and waving 
attachments in relation to the rough-turned driving-band groove. The 
carriage is now clamped and the undercutting tool fed to the bottom of 
the groove, a stop controlling the motion of the cross-shde. The diago- 
nally disposed tools are alternately advanced, first to the right and then 
to the left. When both sides are undercut, the cross-slide is run back. 
This brings the waving attachment at the back of the cross-slide into 
operating position, with the roller F in contact with the wave cam E. 
While the waving tool is reciprocated by the cam and roller, it is fed to 
depth in the groove by the crossfeed screw, which in turn is controlled 
by the handwheel L. The scheduled output for undercutting and waving 
is 21 shells per hour. 

After the wave is cut, a small thread-like ridge is left on one side of 
the driving-band groove. This is removed by a boy with a hammer and 
a chisel. This completes the fifteenth operation. 

The sixteenth is another operation on which the Jones & Lamson 
fiat turret lathes have been retained. It consists of forming the recess 
in the base of the shell for the reception of the base plate. 

It is performed on 2X24-in. machines, of which three turret stations 
are used. The shell is held in the regular Jones & Lamson collet chuck. 
The first station of the turret carries an ordinary stop. The second 
station carries a fiat recessing tool, and the third station carries a single- 
pointed boring and facing tool. 

The shell is entered in the chuck and lightly gripped. The stop 
is then brought forward, forcing the shell in the chuck to the correct 
depth; this is determined by the stop for the turret slide. The chuck is 
then fully closed. The tiuxet is indexed and the recessing tool brought 
to operating position. The turret is fed forward till the stop is reached. 
The recessing tool used is shown in Fig. 218. Its body is made of machine 
steel and the inserted cutter of high-speed steel. The collar prevents 
the holder from opening up when the setscrew H is tightened on the 
cutter. The tool is set so that it cuts from the center outward. It 
leaves the recess about ^4 in. smaller in diameter and the same amount 
shallower than final size. 

The third station of the turret carries a combination boring and 
facing tool, which is also shown in Fig. 218. The operator sets the head 
of the machine over to bore the correct diameter. The turret is fed by 
hand till the stop is reached. . The turret is then clamped and the cross - 

19 



290 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 




Chap. Ill] BRITISH I&-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SI 



291 



feed OD the head thrown in to face the bottom of the recess. The sched- 
uled output for the recessing operation is 25 pieces per hour. 

Inspection covers the thickness of the base of the shell measured 
from the bottom of the hole in the shell to the bottom of the base-plate 
recess and the diameter and flatness of the bottom of the recess. 

The seventeenth operation is done on sensitive driUing machines 
handled by boys. It consists of drilling a hole, ^-in. tapping size, for 




no. 218. BouamNO and pihisbinq 



the fixing screw. The outfit used is shown in Fig. 219. The jig A is, 
like all the other tools used in this shop, very substantial in construction. 
The base A is made of cast iron and carries a horizontal post B which is 
an easy fit for the hole in the shell. A keyway or slot runs along the top 
of B ao that the burrs caused by drilling will not jam when the work is 
removed. It must be remembered that owing to wear on the borii^ 
tools and other conditions in the boring operation, the holes are not all 
of exactly the same size; for this reason the post B must be of such size 
that it will fit the smallest acceptable size of hole. Mounted on the base 
at the rear end of the shell is a vertical member which carries a circular 
wedge E. This is used to force the shell against the vertical member of 







i 


H i^i,.. f 


A 




v 


g=_°=^-^'^^-q 







e 1 



na. 219. 



A which acts as a stop and also prevents the shell from shifting during 
drilling. The scheduled time for drilling the tapping-size hole for the 
fixing screw is 50 per hour, but as high as SO per hour has been done. 

The eighteenth operation is tapping the J^-in. fixing-ecrew hole. 
It ia done on sensitive drilling machines which are situated within easy 
reach of the machines where the hole is drilled. As soon as a shell is 
drilled, the boy lays it on a table convenient for the boy who does the 



292 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

tapping. The jig, shown in Fig. 220, is similar to the one used for drill- 
ing, except that the wedge is dispensed with so that the work is free to 
float sUghtly and accommodate itself to the tap. This operation is 
handled by boys, and the scheduled output is 80 holes per hour. As in 
the drilling operation, the tapping must keep pace with the speed of the 
shop. 

The nineteenth operation is the selection of shells to make up a series. 
The number of shells in a series is 250, and 15 heat numbers are per- 
mitted in its make-up. Reference will again be made to heat mmibers 
as they constitute an important consideration in the manufacture of the 
shells. 

A series having been selected, the shells are taken by the truck gang 

to the air-operated marking 

Slot to dear Burs so machine to undergo the 

Shell will come off \ . x'xi. x- xi.j.r 

I }. i twentieth operation, that of 



c 




FIG. 220. THE TAPPING JIXTURE 



rn marking. 

1 The air cylinder of the 

=^ marking machine, is about 6 
in. in diameter and is supplied 
with air at 80 lb. pressure per 
square inch. The forward end of the ram is loosely connected by means 
of a yoke with the slide. In the center of the slide is a chase to hold 
the removable hardened-steel type. 

The shells are laid on their sides on tables and as they are rolled along 
toward the marking machine three chisel cuts are made across the wave 
ribs. The shell to be marked is placed in position by the operator who 
then signals his assistant to open the air valve. The plunger goes for- 
ward, and the shell is rolled between the type in the chase and the inner 
surface of the housing. As there is only a line contact between the type 
and the shell, the imprint can be made very deep and distinct. 

The scheduled output of the marking machine is 125 shells per hour. 
This represents the speed at which the operators can handle the shells, 
not the speed of the machine. With the shells arranged so that they are 
within easy reach of the operator he can mark them at the rate of 20 per 
minute. 

First Complete Shop Inspection and Hospital Work. — The twenty- 
first operation is the first complete shop inspection. It covers all the 
work done in the various operations up to this point of manufacture. It 
also includes the discovery and correction, if possible, of all injuries 
suffered by the shells in their passage through the shop. Having under- 
gone so many operations and handlings, many of the shells are slightly 
bruised and dented. It is the duty of the shop inspectors to look for 
such defects and of the "hospital gang" to correct all which can be cor- 
rected. The hospital gang works under the direction of the shop inspect- 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 293 

ors, and among its duties is the removal, by filing in the lathe, of the 
burrs raised by the t3rpe in the marking operation. The removal of 
these burrs permits the high-diameter ring gage to pass over the shell. 
The edge of the fuse seat in the nose of the shell is quite sharp and for 
that reason is likely to be dented by coming in contact with the other shells 
and hard materials in its way through the shop. These dents are cor- 
rected with a rose reamer of the proper shape. After passing shop inspec- 
tion and the necessary corrections having been made by the hospital 
gang, the shell bodies are thoroughly cleaned. Exceptional care is taken 
with this part of the work. All dirt and grease both inside and out, are 
removed by inunersing the shells in hot caustic soda. WhUe thus 
immersed, they and the soda are agitated. After draining, the work is 
put through two baths of clean boiling water to remove all traces of 
soda. 

For the preliminary examination, shells with the machined parts 
finished are presented in lots and inspected for freedom from cracks, 
flaws, scale, rust and other material defects and for smoothness of sur- 
face. The operations enumerated in Table 2 are carried out. The 
recess in the base of the shell is examined. 

Table 2. Inspection of High-explosfw Shells 

nn..*.«;rvn P" Cent. 

^S; Operation to Be Done 

"°- on 18-Pounder 

1 Examination of fractures and work marks on billets. 100 

2 Internal and external examination before varnishing. 100 

3 Undercut in groove for driving band 100 

4 Low diameter of groove for driving band high and low 100 

5 Examination of threads in base and head 100 

6 Concentricity of cavity 100 

7 Depth and flatness of recess for base plate 100 

8 Examination of base plate before insertion 100 

9 Examination of base recess for flaws 100 

10 Base calipers 100 

11 Wall caUpers 50^ 

12 Diameter of body high and low 100 

No patching, stopping, plugging or electric welding is allowed. Shells 
found correct are marked by the inspector with this work mark in the 
following manner, as illustrated in Fig. 221. 

1. A work mark is stamped on the body immediately in front of the 
driving-band groove to indicate that the driving-band groove is correct 
and ready for the band. 

2. A second work mark is stamped above the first if the shell is found 
correct to body gaging and visual examination. (As an alternative these 

^ When a shop has been turning out satisfactory work for some time, the per- 
centage of shells inspected for wall thickness is only from 10 to 20. 



294 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



work marks may be placed in the rear of the driving-band groove, the 
one indicating the correctness of the groove being next to it.) 

3. A work mark is stamped on the shoulder to indicate that the threads 
in the head are correct. 

4. A work mark is stamped in the bottom of the base-plate recess 
and one on the base of the shell near the edge of the recess to indicate the 
correctness of the recess. 



JramferredHeaiNoihtspfiorJ %< \ioirKfnesi of Fuse hok 
o{MA[ceptme5tamp.L}:r^ Yor6aging8c.lnkrnal LMnih 
Use ordinary Accept' \ i €r* — VvrecfnessafterMltsmP 
once 5mmp here -' Q><-'— Ser^kabk Ma/F' 

'^ ^' Correct VweadsmHea^ 



Senes Letters 

Driving - Band 

Orowe Correct 



Series letter 




Body daging and 
Wsua/aam/nation 



•Correct /Recess 



?\ror Proof Stielts ont^ 

Base Letter Band 
Heat dumber 



Fia. 221. MARKINQ CHABT FOB GOVSBNMENT INSPECTOB 

In Fig. 222 is shown the drop-forging die for base plates. The steel 
used for these dies — one that has given entire satisfaction — is Jessop's, 
containing 0.75 per cent, carbon. The dies are heated to about 1,450 deg. 
F. and quenched in water. Before they are quite cold, they are removed 
from the water and immersed in fish oil, where they are allowed to cool 
off gradually. 

The average life of the dies on this work is about 20,000 forgings 
before the impression wears so that resinking becomes necessary. 

The steel used for forging the base plates is 0.50 carbon, the stock used 

The drop-hammer operator can on an average make 110 small plates 
an hour. The trimming die is an ordinary round die with a punch to 
match. An operator can trim about 550 forgings per hour. While not 
actually an operation on the shell itself, this making of the base plate 
will be considered as the twenty-second operation in the series. 

After forging, the base plates are subjected to a rigid visual inspection. 
Test pieces are also taken from a certain percentage of the forgings and 
pulled to destruction. The base plates that pass inspection are trucked 
from the forge shop to the rough-turning lathes in the shell shop. In 
these machines the forging undergoes the twenty-third operation, in 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 295 



which it is merely reduced in diameter, no stock being removed from the 
face of the base-plate blank. 

The lathes are equipped with sockets having a tapered square hole 
that fits over the shank of the rough forging. Fitted in the tail spindle 
is a flat disk center, which abuts against the face of the rough forging 
and holds it in the tapered socket while the cut is running. 














m — >i 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^5^; 



^ J Wt' 



i 






BOTTOMDIE 





FIG. 222. DIES AND FOBQINQ >0B RIVETED BASE PLATE FOB IS-LB. HIQH-EXPLOSrVB 

SHELL 

The operation of rough-turning, performed on the same machine, 
is as follows: The rough forging is entered in the tapered socket. The 
disk center in the tail spindle is run up against the flat base of the forg- 
ing, and the tail spindle is clamped. The travel of the tool is toward the 
headstock. Enough metal is removed to leave about 3^2 ^* ^^^ ^^^ finish- 
turning operation. A man can rough-turn from 175 to 200 base plates 
per hour. One cut only is taken, and the setting of the tool is altered 
only after grinding and when, through wear, slight adjustment becomes 
necessary. 



296 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

The twenty-fourth operation, which consists of finishing the base 
plates, is done on engine lathes. The spindles of the machines are 
hollow and provided with draw-in collets to hold the work. The rear 
tool block C is controlled by the ball handle D, which is mounted on a 
screw that passes through a hole in the screw operating the front tool 
block which in turn carries a circular formed tool of the same shape as the 
finished base plate. 

The operation of finish-turning a base plate is as follows: The 
rough-turned base plate is chucked in the collet chuck and the facing 
tool in the rear tool block is then brought forward. When the bottom 
of the base plate is faced, the tool is returned clear of the work. The 
operator then feeds the circular forming tool into the work imtil the stop 
is encountered. This determines the diameter of the work and finishes 
the operation. 

For inspection three gages are used — a 2.260-in. snap gage for the 
diameter; a 30-deg. angular gage for the angular part of the work and a 
0.22-in. height gage for the height of the cylindrical part. The scheduled 
time on the finish-turning is about 75 pieces per hour. This is about 
five times as fast as the highest possible production on the threaded 
base plate. Furthermore, the tools used are much more rugged than 
those used for threaded base plates and consequently give less trouble. 

To preclude the possibility of trapping the air in the base-plate recess 
when the base plate is forced home, the Government requires that the 
base plates have three grooves cut in the periphery of the cylindrical 
part. These act as vents for the release of the air. The requirement is 
that the nicks be cut out; that is to say, the metal must be removed, not 
merely wedged to the sides with a cold chisel, as is the method when the 
wave ribs are nicked for the same purpose in the copper driving-band 
groove. 

A special machine was constructed for this work, but it was found that 
using a file was quicker. The base plates are held in a vise, and the 
operator takes three strokes with the edge of a half-round file. He makes 
three nicks at an angle of 45 deg. with the base and approximately 120 
deg. apart. This finishes the twenty-fifth operation, as there is no 
inspection. When done, the base plates are trucked to the bench, where 
they and the shell bodies are assembled preparatory to forcing in the base 
plate. AssembUng, which is the twenty-sixth operation, consists merely 
of entering the base plate in the recess in the base of the shell body. 

In Fig. 223 is shown a 40-ton Murphy pnemnatic riveter used for 
the twenty-seventh operation, which is pressing in the new type of base 
plate. The assemblers enter the base plates in the recess in the bottom 
of the shell body. The shells are then placed on a bench convenient to 
the operator of the riveter. The post. Fig. 223, is hinged so that it can 
be tilted forward for placing and removing the shell. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE S TTF.T.T.q 



297 



a«^^XMq g^tfef. 






—<^,az- 



•xP 



• t 


'-V"- 


— s 




■? 
















F=^ 


— B 




d 


i 


^vC^i>' 


s 


V' 




o 



The operation of forcing a base plate into the Bbell base i£ ae follows: 
The operator slips a shell over the post, which is tilted toward him, as 
shown by dotted lines. The post and shell are then pushed back to 
a vertical position, when its axis is in hne with the axis of the plunger. 

The £ur valve is then ,^ ^ ->i.#74*l*^<- 

opened, forcing the 
plunger downward. One 
or two strokes of the 
plunger are sufficient to 
force the base plate 
finnly to its seat in the 
recess in the shell base. 

The speed of band- 
ling depends on the men 
and not on the machine. 
Two men handle the 
job, and they can press 
in 200 base plates per 
hour. After being 

pressed in, a Govern- 
ment inspector tests 
each base plate with 
a hammer blow. Any 
that sound hollow are 
removed, and slightly § 

larger ones are fitted b 

and driven in. From a 

the Murphy riveter the 5 

shells are trucked to g 

the riveting hammers, g 

of the type shown in 3 

Fig. 224, where they un- S 

dergo the twenty-eighth . 

operation. § 

The operation of 6 

riveting is as follows: *" 

The operator aUdes the 
table toward him and 
places a shell from the 
previous operation over 

the post F. The table is then pushed away from him untU brought 
up by the stop 1. The operator then depresses the foot lever, and 
the hammer is started. With both hands embracing it, the shell is 
slowly revolved on the post until practically all the metal in the riveting 



i 



298 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 





flange is driven down onto the angular part of the base plate. Rivet- 
ing the new type of base plate can be done at the rate of about 30 base 
plates per hour. 

After riveting, the work is visually inspected and also given the 

hammer test. The shells are then credited to 
the operator and trucked to a bank of Racine 
hacksaws, where they undergo the twenty-ninth 
operation. One boy runs two saws, and they 
are never stopped except to renew blades. The 
time for sawing is one minute, so the boy's out- 
put should be nearly 120 shells per hour. 

After the stems are sawed off, the shells are 
trucked to 20-in. engine lathes, where the base 
plate and the base of the shells are faced off. 
This constitutes the thirtieth operation. The 
lathes are equipped similarly to those used in 
operation 12. From three to four cuts are 
necessary to face the bases correctly. 

The shells are then trucked to the banding 
department. The copper bands come in boxes 
from the copper mills. The dimensions of the 
copper bands are as shown in Fig. 225. The 
banding gang, when everything is going right, 
consists of three men. One man assembles the 
copper bands and the bodies of the shells, and 
two men handle the shells into and out of the 
banding press and operate it. When the gang 
is working, the operation is as follows: 



^j 



---^ 



/a'x/z'Ttmber 






Pia. 224. PNEUMATIC 
HAMMER ARRANGED FOR 
RIVBTING 



FIG. 225. ROUGH COFFER DRIVING BAND FOR 
18-POUNDBR HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



A number ot copper bands from one of the boxes are dumped on the 
assembling bench. The truck boxes with the shell bodies are placed 



Chai*. ml BRITISH Id-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 299 

conveniently for the band assembler. He takes a shell from a truck box 
and a copper band from the pile on the bench. Laying the band on the 
bench, he enters the base of the shell into it. Owing to the way the 
copper bands are shipped and to the fact that they are annealed dead 
soft, they are usually enough out of round to cling to the shell. The 
assembler then raises the shell and the band, which cUngs to it. With 
the shell as a ram he bunts the band on the base of the shell, using the 
bench to bunt it against. When the band is as far on as it can be driven 
in this way, he lays the shell on its side and taps the band lightly with a 
hand hammer at several places on its perimeter, to expand it slightly so 
that it can be slipped along the body to its position over the driving- 
band groove. It is a fairly snug fit sidewise in the groove; but as it has 
been expanded sufficiently to pass over the body, it will not remain in 
position in the groove. To assure that it remains in place till it is 
compressed, the assembler closes it into the driving-band groove at two 
diametrically opposite places by blows with the hand hammer. He 
then stands the assembled shell and band on its base in a position 
convenient for the operator of the banding press. 

The banding-press operator takes the shell and centers its base down- 
ward in the dies of the press. He then opens the operating valve, which 
causes the six dies, connected with the six cylinders of the press, to close 
on the driving band and force it into the driving-band groove. The 
operating valve is then reversed, and the dies open. As soon as the work 
is clear of the dies, the operator gives the shell a slight turn, approximately 
the twelfth part of a circle, so that the ridges formed on the compressed 
band between the dies in the first squeeze are about in the centers of the 
individual dies. The work is then given a second squeeze. After the 
second squeeze, the bands are given the hammer test, the work is credited, 
and the shells are trucked to the band-turning lathes, which are located 
near the banding presses. A banding gang has assembled and pressed 
copper bands on 3,300 shells in 10 hr. 

The arrangement of the tool holder on the lathes used for band- 
turning is shown in Fig. 226. The taper of the jaws and the pitch of the 
thread on the chuck are such that it is self-closing. The operator places 
the base of a shell in the jaws of the chuck and brings the cup tail center 
up against the nose of the shell. The lathe is then started. The inertia 
of the shell and the friction cause the chuck jaws to tighten themselves 
automatically on the base of the shell. The operator feeds the tool in to 
the stop. As soon as the stop is encountered, the tool is withdrawn. 

The tool leaves a slight burr on the edge of the copper driving band. 
This burr must be removed with the band scraper, shown at A, Fig. 226. 
This band scraper is pivoted and remains on the tool post above the tool 
while the band is being turned. 

A mere touch on the edges of the copper band removes the burrs. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 







Chap. Ill] BRITISH IS-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 301 



3.29'- 

H.S39' L J.Jdtf'- 



h.3.ii' LJ.09*-" 
h.3,Z55' l,.3.?4S'' 



00?'ff. 



• 99 •••••••! 



7 



M.3.?/5 1.3.195 



0.6X'. 



M. 3. 335" L. 3.326- > 

h 32'9' L.irS- V 









^-4 



FIQ. 227. FOBM OF DBIYING BAND 



Owing to the fact that the copper is turned at a much higher speed than 
would be possible with steel, the formed tool is made slightly narrower 
than the copper band, so that there will be no chance of the tool coming 
in contact with the steel body of the shell and thus destroying its edge. 
After scraping, the chuck is opened with a pin spanner, the shell taken out 
and the gage passed over the band by the operator for the only and final 
inspection. 

High-speed steel is used at the Dominion Bridge Works for the formed 
tools for turning copper driving bands. The contour of the form-turned 
driving band is shown in Fig. 
227. The life of a tool is 
dependent on a number of 
factors and therefore varies 
greatly. From 100 to 430 
copper bands have been 
turned by a tool at one 
grinding. As it must be 
kept very keen, the operator 
touches up the edge of the 
tool with an oil stone about 
every 30 bands. An emul- 
sion of soluble oil and water 

is used to lubricate the cut. After turning, the shell is subjected to a 
rigid inspection in which nine gages are used. They are shown in 
operation sketch 33. In Fig. 228 is shown the latest drawing of the 
18-pounder high-explosive shell, which is known as Mark III and 
supersedes Mark II. Having passed inspection and having been 
stamped and credited to the operator, the shells are trucked to the 
varnishing department. 

At the Dominion Bridge Works the first operation in the varnishing 
department consists in screwing bushings into the thread-milled fuse hole 
in the shell. These bushings are made of cast brass and are very light. 
They have a hole entirely through them, and their object is to protect 
the threads in the nose from the varnish. Once screwed in they remain 
in the shells till after the baking. The operation of screwing in the bush- 
ings is a simple one. The men enter the bushings in the shells and screw 
them down as far as they will go by hand. Then with a fiat cranked 
key, which engages with the lugs projecting inwardly from the upper 
part of the bushing, the men screw the bushings down as far as they 
will go. 

Varnishing at this works is done with a Bowser oil tank. The tank 
is filled with varnish. The shells, with the bushings screwed in their 
noses, are placed conveniently for the operator \$rho handles the Bowser 
tank. They are taken one at a time and placed under the spigot and 



302 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI^ [Sec. II 

the operator fills the shell with varnish. The shell is then inverted over 
screen for 10 min., and left to drain. The capacity of the pump cylinder 
is such that a single stroke of the handle just fills the phell. The most 
tedious part of this method is waiting for the shells to drain properly so 
that the film of varnish will not be too heavy in the bottom of the sheUs. 
An objection to this procedure is the excessive amount of cleaning neces- 
sary after baking. By this manner of varnishing, five men can screw 
in the bushings and varnish 3,000 shells in 10 hr. ; but the shells are left 
very dirty on the outside, and it takes 12 men 10 hr. to clean off the excess 
of varnish from the outsides of the 3,000 shells. 



Full SilB 
gainii s'/tDtf- ? Ul'btn 
lirigthefilKll-ltl - 



• Cdtlraclari In 

magnred Trodtnan 
+ dott ut Compkt:an 




PortDewlopmentrfSiBll 6 
lht«ingWavwIBiblfrA-»» r 

•naybfmadt ocrea the 

KaveJKta 'n^i'%^'^" U sJ!* AlternaHve Method 

FI<t. 22S. HIOU-GXPLOSIVG 18-POUNDER MARK III SHELL 

At another works the method is as follows: Each varnisher is pro- 
vided with an ordinary round varnish brush. On the end of the brush is 
a brass powder tube from a shrapnel shell. The thread of the shell to 
be varnished is protected by a slip bushing that is instantly inserted. 
The varnisher, with the shell standing on its base on the bench, dips the 
brush in the varnish and inserts it in the fuse hole in the shell. He then 
holds the brass powder tube between the palms of his hands and, rubbing 
them back and forth, causes the brush to rotate at a fairly high speed. 
The centrifugal force thus set up causes the bristles of the brush to fly 
outward and deposit the varnish on the sides of the hole in the shell. At 



Chap. IU] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 303 

the same time that the brush is caused to rotate as described, the hands 
and brush are reciprocated up and down so that the varnish is evenly 
distributed all over the inner surface of the shell. When carefully done, 
no varnish is smeared on the outside of the shell, which of course eliminates 
the cleaning operation after the shells are baked. By this method three 
men can varnish 3,000 shells in 10 hr. 

In one of the large factories in the United States the varnishing depart- 
ment ia laid out as shown in Fig. 229 and run in the following manner: 
Just previous to varnishing, the shells are thoroughly washed in gasoline 
in the tank A. When taken from the tank, they are placed on vertical 



na. 229. latottt or shop using varkibh 

tubes D, projecting from the top of the sheet-iron box B, to dry. The 
arrangement of the box B ia as follows: It is made of sheet iron on an 
angle-iron frame and is inclosed on all sides. Inside the box is a series 
of steam-beatii^ coils. Outside the box is a motor-driven blower C, 
which drives air in over the coils. The top of the box is perforated to 
receive the short pipes D. The lower ends of these pipes open to the hot- 
air space in the box; and the upper ends, to the atmosphere. All the 
air that passes into the box from the blower must pass out through these 
pipes. 

At £ is the varnishing machine made by the Spray Engineering Co., 
of Boston, Mass. The operation of varnishing with this outfit is as 
follows: By the time the pipes D are all filled with shells the first shell is 
not only dry, but has attained a temperature of approximately 150 deg. 
F. and is ready for varnishing. The operator of the varnishing machine 
has two helpers to assist him. A hot shell is taken by the first helper 
from a pipe D and placed nose down on the table of the varnishing 
machine. The varnisher lifts it and places it over the spraying nozzle. 
The mechanism that does the actual varnishing is an atomizer, the 
nozzle of which is vertically disposed. Surrounding the nozzle is a sheet- 
metal bushing that is small enough in diameter to enter the fuse hole in 



304 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 8HELXS [Sec. II 

the shell. It is of sufficient length adequately to protect the thread in 
the fuse hole from the atomized vartiiah. 

In some cases the weight of the shell opens the air valve of the at- 
omizer; in others the valve is operated by a foot lever. In either case the 
time consumed is very short. The atomizing nozzle sprays the varnish 
over the inner smf ace of the shell so evenly and in such accurate quantity 
that, while the surface is entirely covered, there is no excess or dribbles 
of varnish. The shell is removed, and the second helper places it in the 
tray F, which takes the shells to the baking ovens. In the meantime the 
first helper has another shell ready. With this outfit one vamisher can 
varnish 2,500 shells in 10 hr. 

Another method of varnishing, employed in'one of the large shops 
in the United States, also uses an atomizer. The device was made at 



ATOUEER rOR INHIDES or BBELL 



the works, where they have had a great deal of experience in varnishing 
and lacquering brass goods. Just before varnishing in this factory the 
shells are cleaned in hot caustic soda, after which they pass through 
two washings in boiUng water to remove all traces of the caustic soda. 
They go direct from the last boiling-water bath to the varnishing opera- 
tion and are bo hot (approximately 150 deg. F.) that the vamisher has 
to protect his hands with gloves. 

On the bench G, Fig. 230, is the fixture H, which has two rollers I 
about 3 in. in diameter and 6 in. long. The operator takes a shell with 
his right hand and lays it on the rollers /. In his left hand he holds the 
atomizer J. The atomizer has a long nozzle which the operator enters 
in the nose of the shell. The valve of the atomizer is controlled by the 
thumb of the left hand. The atomizer is operated by air at 90 lb., from 
the shop compressed-air service. While the varnish is being sprayed in 
the shell from the atomizer held in the left hand, the operator's right 
hand keeps the shell rotating on the rollers. As the work is in plain 
view of the operator and the atomizer valve is under control of his left 
thumb, no bushing is used or neceeeary to protect the thread. By 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 305 

this method one man can yarnish 1,000 shells in 10 hr. The work is 
very good, the nimiber of rejects for poor varnishing amounting to only 
1 per cent. 

After varnishing, at the Dominion Bridge Works, the shells are placed 
in steel racks accommodating 77 shells each. The racks are stacked and 
trucked to the dr3dng ovens in which they are subjected to a temperature 
of 300 deg. F. for 6 hr. (operation 34). The ovens are heated by the hot 
gases from Bunsen burners, situated at the bottom of the furnaces, circu- 
lating through thin sheet-iron ducts that entirely cover the floor, sides 
and roof on the inside of the ovens. 

In another shop, the shells are heated to 350 deg. F. before the varnish 
is applied. This treatment gives fairly good residts. 

The varnish adhering to the outside of the shells is then removed with 
scrapers, waste, etc., and the temporary bushing which was inserted to 
protect the threads of the fuse-hole removed — operation 35. 

The fuse-hole is next hand-tapped to finished size, the shells being 
held in cast-iron hinged chucks, and mounted on stout posts set in the 
floor of the shop. Adjustable taps are used and give fair satisfaction. 
Ordinary tap wrenches are used with either type of taps, and a man 
can tap about 30 fuse holes per hour. 

After tapping, the shells are trucked to the Government inclosure to 
undergo the final Government inspection. The finished shells weigh 
14 lb. 13 oz. 2}4 dr., with an allowance of plus 1 oz. 3 dr. or minus 2 oz. 
5 dr. The operations for the final Government inspection are enumerated 
in Table 3. Shells that are found correct are stamped with the inspectors' 
work marks in the following manner. 

A work mark is placed immediately below the fuse hole to indicate 
correctness of the fuse-hole examination, gaging and external examina- 
tion. The serviceable sign is stamped above it to signify the correctness 
of the final examination and external gaging. The serviceable sign, 
which is the British broad arrow with a C, will not, however, be stamped 
until results of the proof and varnish tests are received. While awaiting 
receipt of these, the shells may be painted. Reports on the preliminary 
and final inspections are kept on forms supplied by the Government. 

From each consignment of varnish and paint that the contractor 
proposes to use, one-quarter pint is taken by the inspector, put in bottles 
supplied for the purpose and forwarded by express to the Government 
analyst. 

Varnish is also scraped from varnished shells. A sample at least }^ oz. 
in weight must be obtained, and this governs five lots of shells. The 
contractor is not informed from which shells scrapings are to be taken. 

All samples — ^liquid varnish and scrapings — must be clearly labeled. 
The label for the liquid sample shows the firm which supplied the varnish, 
the firm which received it, the amount of the consignment and the date 

20 



306 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

received. The bottles containing the scrapings are labeled to show the 
name of the firm, the lot or lots from which the sample is actually taken 
and the lots which will be governed by the sample. 

Table 3. Instructions fOr Final Inspection of IS-pounder 

HiGH-EXPLOsrvE Shells 

No. of n~i..«*5/>f» P®*" Cen^ 

Operation Operation ^o Be Done 

13* Testing base plate for looseness 100 

14 Screw-gage fuse hole, high and low 100 

15 Examination of screw threads in fuse hole 100 

16t Depth of recess in fuse hole Optional 

17 Diameter and angle of recess 100 

18 Internal examination for flaws and varnish 100 

19 Weight 100 

20 Width of driving band and distance from base 100 

21 Form of driving band 100 

22 Distance of fixing screw hole 100 

23 Hammer test, driving band 100 

24 Form and radius of head 100 

25 Cylinder gage. ^ 100 

26 Length over all 100 

27 Examination of markings on body and base 100 

28 Examination of heat number 100 

29t Diameter rear part of driving band 100 

30 Diameter driving band, high and low 100 

31 Greasing and fixing plugs and setscrews 100 

32 Ring-gage diameter over paint 100 

The results of the analysis are reported to the inspection oflSce at 
Quebec, which notifies the manufacturers when the lots successfully 
pass the final Government proof and varnish tests. 

When scraping the varnish from the shells, the following points are 
to be strictly attended to: 

1. The nose of the shell down to 2 in. from the fuse hole outside and 
also the threads are to be wiped clean with a clean piece of rag or waste. 

2. The scraper is to be in a polished and bright condition and kept 
for this purpose only. 

3. The examiner is to have clean hands. 

4. The paper on which the scrapings of varnish are collected is to 
be clean and is not to have been previously handled. 

5. There must be no steel in the scraped samples. 

As it is practically impossible to scrape varnish off the surface of the 
shell without scraping some of the steel, the fifth requirement has given 
the inspectors some trouble. 

* This test will be made by the inspector in the open shop as soon as the base 
plate has been inserted and machined ofif . f The forming of the recess in the fuse hole 
is itself optional, t All shells that measure 3.286 in. or over are marked with a cross 
in green paint below the driving band. In the loading station these shells are fitted 
to cases that are large in the mouth. 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



308 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

Having passed the final inspection the shells are trucked to the paint- 
ing department. The painting machines are driven by friction cones 
mounted on shafts instead of being belt driven from small individual 
motors. The arrangement of the friction-driven painting machine is 
shown in Fig. 231. A single motor and a system of shafts and friction 
cones drive the six painting machines in this department. At A is a 
shaft that is driven from a small motor. At B are the friction cones, and 
at C, on the end of the vertical shaft from the friction cones B, is the paint- 
ing machine, or turntable. A small vertical flange is provided on the 
upper surface of the turntable, to retain the shell and prevent it from 
being thrown off. The priming coat is white and is made up from the 
following ingredients in the proportions given: 

Dry zinc oxide, free from lead, 9% lb.; boiled linseed oil, free from 
lead, 1}^ pints; terebene, free from lead, 13^ pints; spirits of turpentine, 
lyi pints. It is of the utmost importance that the ingredients employed 
in the manufacture of paints for high-explosives shells be entirely free 
from lead. 

The actual work of painting is done by boys in the following manner: 
Referring to Fig. 231, a boy takes a shell D from the truck tray and places 
it on the turntable C of the painting machine. The paint is applied with 
an ordinary flat brush E about 2 in. wide, which is dipped into the paint 
and traversed up and down over the body of the shell, which rotates 
with the turntable. Care is exercised to keep the paint from getting on 
the copper band and also to keep the film of paint from being too thick, 
as the painted shells must later pass through a ring gage. 

As the boys finish the painting, others take the shells carefully and 
stand them on their noses on a bench. When in this position, shown at 
6, Fig. 231, the bottom of the shell base is painted with the priming coat. 
Again the shells are carefully lifted, so as to remove as little of the paint 
as possible, and stood nose down, as shown at H, in the hot cupboard. 
This is of wood, and at the bottom is a steam-heating coil. Above are 
several sheet-steel shelves perforated so that the heat from the coil at 
the bottom can circulate freely through the whole cupboard. Each 
compartment will accommodate an entire series. The shells are stood 
in the cupboard as close as they will go without touching. They remain 
there till they are dry, which under normal conditions takes about an 
hour. The cupboards are provided with doors on both sides, so that the 
boys who put on the second coat of paint can take the shells direct from 
their own side. 

The finish-painting department, where the second coat is applied, is 
laid out in exactly the same manner and has the same equipment. The 
paint used for the second coat on the 18-pounder high-explosive shell is 
yellow. It consists of dry Oxford yellow stone ocher, 83^ lb.; boiled 
linseed oil, free from lead, 13^ pints; terebene, free from lead, 2}4 pints; 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



309 



Bpirits of turpentioe, 1)^ pists. It is applied in exactly the same way 
as the first coat, with this exception : The first-coated shells are taken 
by a boy, who places them on the turntable of the painting machine. 
With a steel gage he then scribes two parallel lines an inch apart around 
the body of the shell. After the yellow paint has been apphed to the 
parts of the shell above and below the lines D, a band of green paint is 




applied between them. This green band of paint signifies that this is 
the 18-pounder high-evplosive shell and not the Impounder shrapnel. 

Six boys on first-coat painting will averc^ 15 series in 10 hr. — that is, 
2,750 shells in 10 hr., or approximately 46 sheila' per boy per hour. On 
the second-coat painting, owing to the extra work necessary because of 
the green band, 8 boys are employed, and on this work the 8 boys will 
average the same as the 6 on the priming coat — 15 series in 10 hr. 

The drawing, Fig. 232, shows the official location of the green band 
on the shell body. 



no. 233. TWO 7 



a OF PLDOS AND A WOODEN QAINE 



After the second coat is thoroughly dry, the shells are taken to the 
bench to have the temporary plugs and fixing screws inserted. The 
plugs are made of cast iron; and to prevent their rusting, they are plated 
with zinc, copper or nickel. Two shapes of plugs are in common use; 
these are shown in Fig. 233. The one at B is fitted with a wooden gaine 
C. This wooden gaine fits a cylindrical recess in the lyddite explosive 
charge, which later acconunodates the steel gaine that is screwed into 
the adapter in the fuse. 



310 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

These cast-iron plugs are bored, concentric with the thread on the 
outside, for the reception of the large end of the wooden gaine. The hole 
in the plug is about 1}^ in. in diameter, 1 in. deep. The large part of the 
gaine is required to be a snug push-fit in this hole. When the gaine is 
pushed to the bottom of the hole, a ^e-^^- hole is drilled through 
the plug and gaine at right angles to their axes and about ^ in. 
from the face of the plug. Into this hole a steel pin is driven, to 
prevent the gaine from being accidentally pulled out. The pin is made 
shorter than the diameter of the plug, so that, when driven into the hole, 
both of its ends are below the bottom of the thread on the outside of the 
plug. 

The wooden gaines are usually made of beechwood. After being 
turned on a back-knife lathe, they are given a coat of shellac varnish, 
as required by the specifications. The wood for gaines should be well 
seasoned and absolutely dry. 

The small grub screws in the nose of the shell are called fixing screws. 
They are 3^ in, in diameter, and their function is to hold the plug from 
turning and to prevent its being lost. After the plug is removed and 
the fuse screwed into the nose of the shell, the fixing screw is tightened 
down on it. 

The plugs are screwed in with the wrench, which fits a square hole in 
them. The grub screws are put in with a screwdriver. There is a 
leather washer between the nose of the shell and the flange of the plug. 
Both the fixing screws and the plugs are luted with the Government 
luting compound. 

The luting consists of 80 parts of whiting and 21 parts of oil, both 
by weight, kept fluid by heating. The materials must be of the finest 
quaUty. The oil is 20 parts vaseUne and 1 part castor oil, well mixed 
before it is added to the whiting. The vaseline is to be a genuine mineral- 
oil residue, without any foreign mixture. It should have a flash point 
not below 400 deg. F., a melting point not below 86 deg. F, and be free 
from soUd mineral matter. The castor oil must be genuine. The whiting 
is to be of the quality known as "Town Whiting" and is to be free from 
moisture. 

The luting must be thoroughly mixed, plastic and free from lumps. 
If on examination of a sample of 10 per cent, of the invoice, it is found that 
the sample does not comply with the specification, all the material 
invoices will be rejected without further examination. The luting may 
be inspected during the manufacture by, and after deUvery will be sub- 
jected to test and to the final approval of, the chief inspector. Royal 
Arsenal, Woolwich, or an officer deputed by him. 

With the plugs luted and screwed home and the fixing screws set up 
tight, the shells are ready to pack. 

Throughout manufacture, an accurate record is kept of all shells by 



Chap. Ill] BRITISH 18-POUNDER HiGH-EXPLOSlVE SHELLS 311 

heat numbers until they are made up into selected series, in the nine- 
teenth operation, and after every important operation by standard stamps 
signifying approval. Without this stamp, which must be put on each 
shell after inspection, no subsequent operation may be performed. This 
rule allows of no exception. 

The standard stamps which appear on all passed shells are as follows: 



L5 



<i 



L3 



-^^ 

^=^ 







L7 



B 



tl 



ll 



lg: 




Standard Stamps for Operations on the IS-pounder Hiqh-explosive Shell 

Operation Description Stamp, In. Opwation Deseriptioa Stamp, In 

Ll DriU liK« in- hole H Lll Mill base thread. .. . He 

L2 Center H L12 Drill H'^- 4> hole. . none 

L3 Rough turn body H L13 Tap K in. ^ hole. . none 

L4 Rough turn nose H L14 Screw in base plugs, none 

L5 Face base H L15 Saw off square end . none 

L6 Bore, ream and tap inside. H« L16 Rough face plug none 

L7 Finish turn H L17 Rivet or roll plug. H 

L8 Face base roimd comers 

and rough groove K LIS Finish face plug — H 

L9 Wave and undercut H L19 Band press none 

LID Recess base H L20 Band turn..... J{e 

All men, whether on piece work or daywork, must stamp all shells as shown above. 



CHAPTER IV 
MANUFACTURING BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS' 

The British 4.5-in. high-explosive shell is made from a steel forging 
and the operations employed by the Canadian Allis-Chalmers Co. in 
converting the rough forged blank into a finished shell ready for loading 
represents an efficiently developed system of manufacture. 

This company overhauled its entire plant; designed and built new 
tools; conducted much preliminary experimental work and produced 
a satisfactory sample shell before undertaking any. contracts for the 
British Government. 

By carefid planning, the Canadian Allis-Chalmers Co. was enabled 
to resolve the production of the shells into 27 main operations, including 
thorough shop inspection, the final government inspection, painting the 
shells and packing them for shipment. The sequence of operations and 
descriptive sketches of the principle ones are as follows: 

Sequence of Operations 

1. Gutting off the rough forgings. 

2. Facing ends of forgings. 

3. Rough-turning outside of shell. 

4. Finishing outside of shell. 

5. Finishing inside of shell and facing open end. 

6. Nosing. 

7. Boring, reaming, facing nose to length and profile boring inside of nose. 

8. Tapping nose of shell for socket. 

9. Form turning outside of shell to finished size. 

10. First shop inspection. 

11. Boring to weight. 

12. Threading the base-plate recess. 

13. Cleaning and sand blasting. 

14. Turning and threading base plate. 

15. Screwing in base plate. 

16. Rough-facing base plate. 

17. Riveting base plate. 

18. Finish-turning base. 

19. Screwing in socket. 

20. Turning the socket. 

21. Banding. 

22. Varnishing inside of shell. 

23. Baking varnish. 

24. Turning drive band. 

25. Final government inspection. 

26. Painting. 

27. Packing. 

^ £. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American Mcuihiniai. 

312 



BRITISH 4.6-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




S«;^kii>A-A 



Machinea Used — Davie cutting-off machines with front And back toolo A. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 

Gages — Depth gage B or gage which forms part of the machiDe. 

Production from one machine and operator, 20 per hr. 

Note — Soap water to lubricate the cut. 




I 

OPERATION 2. rACI ENDS OF FOROINOS 

Machine Used — Bertram boring mill with 2 tools, B, in each head. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Circular chucking fixture A to hold 30 forgings. 
Special tool^olders to hold two tools, one behind the other, so spaced that the one is 
taking a chip while the other is in the space between forgings. 

Gages — Height blocks to set tools from face C. 

Production — One man and helper (for loading and unloading only), 30 per hr. 



HIOH-EXFLO&IVE SHELLS 



OPEBATIOM 3. ROUGH TURN OUTSIDE 

M&chines Used — Engine lathee, 24 to 36 in awing. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Expanding mandrel A driven by bolts in holca B, 
which hold it to lathe face plate. Tools C located to each cut half the length of work. 
Gages — Snap^fage D. 
Production — From one machine and one operator, 8 to 9 per hour. 



BRITISH 4.5-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



n 3 



'VOptroHa/r-Fbehq tnt/ 



R BORtNO AND NOaiNQ 



Machines Used — Warner & Swaaey lathea. 

Special Fixtureo and Toola — See text, 

n«ductioa — Prom one machine and one operator, 3 p"r hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 8HELI£ 




Machine Used— Steinle, Davis and other turret lathes and vertical boring mills. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Special collet chuck A. Special 4-flule chucking 
reamer and bar for suboperation 1. Special flat 2-lip rough-boring tool and 24ip taper 
reaming cutter and bar for auhoperation 2. Special 2-lip finish boring tool and bar 
for Buboperation 3. Special 24ip facing cutter and bar for suboperation 4. 

Gagefl — None, aa tools are made to size and machine stops are used for depths. 

Production — From single machine and one operator, 4 per hour; double machine 
and one operator, 8 per hour. 

Not* — Soap water lubrication through tubes in boring bam. 



BRITISH 4.5-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 6. KOBINO 

Machines Used — Steam hammeT aod Bpecial hydraulic forging preaa. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Two special oil-fired furnaces. Special tongs for 
handling the work. Overhead trolley support for tongs and work. Special top and 
bottom dies forstearohamraer and hydraulic press. Workstand to facilitate handling. 
Annealing floor. Trucks and tracks to machining department. 

Gages — None. 

Production — Steam hammer and three men, 4 shells per minute. Press output 
not yet determined. 

Note — Output is controlled by the speed of the furnaces. 





BOBB, BEAU, 

Machine Used — Engine lathe. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Collet chuck A, profile cam B, Armstrong boring tool 
for Buboperations 1 and 5; special boring bar for suboperation 2; special reamer and 
arbor for suboperation 3; special facing cutter and arbor for suboperation 4. 

Gages — Plug gage for hole. 

Froductioa — From one machine and one man, 4 per hr. 

Note — Soap-water lubricant- 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPEEATION 8. TAP N 



L FOR SOCKET 



Machine Used — Radial drilUiig machine. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Speeinl work holder A; special tap 1 
holder C. 

Gages— Plug thread gage. 

Production — From one machine and one man, 15 per hr. 

Note — Soap-water lubricant. 






Machine Used — Engine lathe. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Threaded driving plug A, female center B, former C. 

Gages — Limit snap gage for body size. 

Production — From one machine and one man, 4 per hr. 

Note — Soap-water lubricant. 



BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 8HELI£ 




OPERATION 10. nBST BBOP INSraCTION 



Macbine Used — None. 

%>eciEil Fixtures and Tools — Weigbmg scales. 

Gages — For diameter and shape. 

Production — One inspector can examine 20 shells per hr. 



OPERATION 11. WHICH IS 




ONLT ABOUT 50 PEK CBNT. OP THE SHKLLS 



Machine Used— Engine lathe same as in operation 7, but without turret. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — Collet chuck A, profile cam B, Armstrong boring 
twlC. 

Gagea — None. Weight verified by scales. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPEKATION 12. THREADINQ THE BASE-PLATE RBCEB8 



Machinea Used — ^2-in. Jonee 4 lAmeon flat turret lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Jonee & I^meon thread-phasing attachment. Draw- 
n chuck. KoUer steadyrest. 

Gages — Thread gage of the plug type. 

Production — From one man and one machine, 16 per hour. 



OPEBATtON 13. CLEANING AND SANDBLABTINO 



Machine Used — Sandblasting machine. 

Special Fixtures — Soda and hot-water tanks. Cast-iron trays. Bent noicle A for 
sandblasting hose. 
Gages — None. 
Production — One man and one helper, 100 per hour. 



BRITISH 4^IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 







OPKBAHON 14. TUBN AND THBBAS BABE PLATE 

M&ctune Uoed — Bridgeport eemiautomatic lathe. 

Special Fixturee and Tools — Draw-in chuek A. Turning tool B at back. Hand- 
operated faciog tool C. Threading tool D at front. 
Gages — Ring type thread gage. 




OPERATION 15. SCBEWINQ IK 



Machines Used — None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools^^lamp holder Amounted on 12X12 yellow pine post. 
6-tt. wrench C. 
Gages — None. 

I^duoUon — Two men about 15 per hour. 
Note — Witness mark of Pettman (»ment on face of base plate. 




OPERATION 16. ROtrCH-F 



a BAEG PLATES 



Machines Used — Jones & Lamson flat turret lathes. 

Special Fixtures and Tools— Draw-in chuck A, roller steadyrest B, facing tool C. 
Gages— None. 

Production — One man and one machine 18 per hr. 

Note — Operation 18 is practically a dupUcation in methods and speed of this 
operation. 

21 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SI 



OFBRATION 17. RIVET BASE PI.ATB 

Machines Used — None, 

Speci&l Fixtures and Tools — Paeumatic hammer A, guide ring B, cradle C. 

Gagea — None. 

Production — One man 45 per hr. 



OPEBATION 18. FINIBH-rAClNa BABE 

Machines Used — Jones & Lamson turret lathea. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Draw-in chuck, ateadyreat, facing tool. 

I^wluction — One man and one machine, 18 per hr. 




Machine Used — Back-geared drilling machine. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Friction driver A, wedge and nut driver B, special 
clamp holder C. 

Gages — Plug thread gage, to test size of socket after inserting. 
Production — One man and one machine 30 per hr. 



BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIQH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




OPERATION 20. TOBNIMQ THB SOCKET 

Machines Used — Vertical boring mills. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Universal chuck A set central o 
toot B. 

Gages — Radius gage. 

Production — One maD and one machine 30 per hr. 



table. Formed 



4 21. BANDINQ 

Machine Used — Hydraulic banding press A. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — None. 

Gf^es— None. 

Production — fVom one machine and two men, 45 shells per hr. 



r 22. VABNIBH INSIDE 

Machine Used — None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Varnish brush A;sheet-metal buahing B; varnish pot. 

Gages — None. 

Production — From one roan, about 30 shells per hr. 



HIQH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 23. BAKE VABNI8H 

Machine Uaed^None, 

Special Fixtures and Tools—Iron trays A, each for 50 shells; iron trucks B; steam- 
and electric-heated ovens; thermometer reading to 300 deg.; clock. 
Gage — None. 
Production — From two ovens, about 400 sheila in 8 hr. 



-J5^ 



-^ 



a. 



OPERATION 24. TURN DRIVING BAND 

Machine Used — Special lathe. 

Special Fixtures and Tools— Special chuck cup tail-center; rough-turnii^ tool A; 
roughJorm tool B; finish-form tool C. 

Gages— ^High and low caliper gages and contour gages. 
Production — One machine and operator, 20 per br. 



25. Fi 
Machine Used — None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Weighing scales; inspectors' stamps and hammer. 
Gages — Complete set to cover all dimensions. 

Production — Five men handle the entire inspection for about 1,500 sheUs per 
week. 



BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 26, 



Machine Used^ — Motor-driven turntable A. 
Special Fixtures and Tools — Paint brush B. 
Gage — None. 
Pri>duction — One man, 40 per hr. 




OPERATION 27. PACKING 

Machine Used — None. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Screwdriver. 

Gage — None, 

Production — One man can pack and close about 15 cases per hr. 

Cutting Off the Rough Forginge. — The first operation consists in 
cutting oEE the ragged end of the blanks. The rough forgings are 13^ 
in. (or over) in length, over all. These go to Davis cutting-off machines 
which are provided with gage rods rigidly set in sliding brackets by 
means of setscrews. The brackets slide on a lower rod held in the machine 
frame. An adjustable sliding stop limits the travel of the bracket. 

There ia considerable difference in the thicknesses of the bases of the 
forgings. The minimum allowance here is 1% in., but some forgings 
have bases over 2 in. in thickness. It is obviously easier to machine the 
excess metal from the outside rather than from the inside, where there is 
difficulty in getting rid of the chips and preventing them from crowding 
the cut. For this reason the gaging of the forgings in the cutting-off 
operation is done from the inside of the base outward toward the mouth. 
Two methods of gaging are available — the gage rod previously referred 



326 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 



to and the hand gage. The machine gage is operated as follows: The 
gage rod is swung forward and entered into the hole in the forging, the 
face of the bracket coining in contact with the stop. The forging is next 
pulled forward till the extreme end of the gage rod strikes the bottom of 
the hole. The chuck is then tightened and the machine started. Two 
tools are used, an angular one at the back to break the chip for the front 
tool. The distance from the bottom of the hole to the cutting-off tool 
is ll^He ii- Each machine can cut off about 20 forginga an hour. 

The feed of the machine is by hand or automatic by means of worm 
and gear. 




AND TOOL HOLDER FOR BOBIHQ U 



Facing the Outside of the Base. — The next operation is facing the 
outside of the base. This is done on the 8-ft. Bertram boring mill. 
Details of the fixture used are shown in Fig. 234 and also in the second- 
operation sketch. 

The jig holds 30 forgings. The same locating point, the inside of the 
base, is used in this operation as in the previous one. The work rests on 
the pins A, Fig. 234, and is held by the clamps B. Four tools are used, two 
in each holder. The feed is toward the center. Because of the lack of 
uniformity in the forgings, as previously stated, the amount of stock to 
be removed varies from a mere scrape to % in. depth. 



Chap. IVl 



BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



327 



With work of this character the ordinary tool holder is very inefficient 
by reason of the continual jolting as the tool passes from piece to piece. 
To overcome this difficulty a tool holder was made as shown in detail in 
Fig. 234. The tools in this holder are so spaced, one behind the other, 
that one of them is always in the cut. 

An entire fixture full, 30 pieces, can be faced off in one hour. The 
operator gages the depth of cut of the lowest, or finishing, tool from the 
upper face of the jig. The work comes from this operation 12J^ in. long 
outside. 




Mochln. S+e«l (Hardened) "^°°' ^^**' Machine &fa«l 
L i:PJ.'"y°'^iPf^J.'19!'-...-i4^. — - >J 



i-eThrtad3 ptr Inch 
Machine Steel 
I. 235. DETAILS or EXPANSION akbor 



The shell is now rough-turned on the outside in the lathe. The shell 
ia held on an expanding mandrel, as shown in detail in Fig. 235 and the 
third-operation sketch. It is driven by the collar drivii^ dog B, 

Two tools C, one at the front and one at the back, are arranged as 
shown in the operation sketch. The front tool starts its cut at the middle 
of the forging, while the one at the back starts at the base end. The feed 
is approximately "% in. and the speed, all the tool will stand. As the 
forged hole is not concentric, the depth of cut is not uniform. In this 



32S HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS |8eo. II 

Operation the forging is reduced to 4^ in. diameter. The output ia from 
8 to 9 per hour for each lathe. 

Warner & Swaaey hollow hexagon lathes are employed on the fourth 
operation, with an hourly output of 3 shells per machine. This operation 
consists of 10 suboperations. 

One of these lathes is shown in Fig. 236, the photograph for which 
was taken from an elevation so as to show all the tools, with the exception 
of the roller turner. 

The work ^, as in the previous operation, is chucked on an expanding 
mandrel B. But in this set-up the flange of the expanding mandrel is 



no, 236. W4RKEII & SWA8ET TUBBET ARRANGED FOR FOURTH OPERATION 

bolted to the waving cam C, secured to the face-plate. Three tools are 
mounted in the turret tool-post on the cross-sUde and five tools and a cup 
center are secured to the six faces of the hexagonal turret. 

With the exception of the formed tool, marked 7 in the operation 
sketch, the tools in the cross-slide turret are simple ones forged from 
high-speed steel and ground to shape on an ordinary tool grinder. 

Facing the Base. — The operator faces the base end of the shell with 
the tool for suboperation 1. The cross-sUde is then run toward the waving 
cam, out of the way of the next operation. The roller turner for sub- 
operations 2 and 3 is brought to working position and the shell is rough- 
turned for about S}4 in. (suboperation 2). 

The turret is returned and the tool set in to finish to turning size. 
The shell is then turned to finished size (suboperation 3) for about 2)4 in. 
The turret is indexed and the flat tool D, Fig. 236, roughs the recess for 
the base plate (suboperation 4). This tool is provided with three rollers 
A , Fig. 237, to support the base of the shell during the recessing operation. 



Ckap. IV] BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



.1 55 S 



■b 




nCi 







^— if ^-H^ 



' III 

Ji|; 

If I 3 a 







* ft!,...„jfl;jr..,>jjj- c 



:| Is 

'its 



a 



n::jl 



©ID 




HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 














H- 


-tf?- 


n 




f 


".n 




rr* 


^iM i r—^ 


i i h-^J 



S' 



liF® 



t<-— j' >i jTxx Sim Miwxt 

i—, AOJUSTINft STOO 

I '7 ^> 4» 

ftwnn TOM. rat EME or aut 



na. 238. becebbing and radius tool for shell b 



Chap. IVl BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 331 

Theae rollers are mounted on eccentric studs so that they can be adjusted 
should the work vary in size. 



FOB BABB Ot 8HBU. 




The finish recessing tool for suboperation 5 is a simple tool of square 
gh-apeed steel shown at E in Fig. 236 and in the detail Fig. 238. A 



332 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



square hole is provided in the holder which holds a toolfor rounding the 
bottom edge of the shell at the same time the finish reces^ng is dooe. 
When in use the radius tool is mounted in the stationary steadying ring. 
The recess-finishing tool is mounted in a hand-operated cross-slide. 

The sixth suboperation is performed with a hand-operated eccentric 
undercutting tool shown at F, Fig. 236, and in Fig. 239. 




FIO. 242. FEMALE 



The seventh suboperation is performed with the formed tool in the 
cross-slide turret tool post shown at G, Fig. 236, and in the detail, Fig. 240. 

The roughing-out tools to prepare the work for waving are manufac- 
tured from high-speed steel in 12-in. lengths and cut to suitable lengths 
for the tool holders. 



Chap. IV] 



BRITISH 4.5-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



333 



In Fig. 241 are shown in detail the milling cutter for making the 
roughing tools and the tool for making the cutter. 

The eighth suboperation is performed with a forged-steel tool held in 
the turret tool post in the cross-sUde. It is ^ in. wide, ground at an 
angle so that the advance edge is flush with the 4^-in. diameter 
of the work and the rear edge flush with the diameter to which the work 
was roughed in the second suboperation. 

For the ninth and tenth suboperations — waving and undercutting 
the wave groove respectively — ^the cup center H, Fig. 236, is used to 
support the work. The cup center is shown in detail in Fig. 242. 

Waving and undercutting are done by a combination fixture of excep- 
tionally clever design. 





'■■■ H *■ I <•- 

1 I I 



CL of Lai-he 
Spindly 

CAST IRON 



FIO. 243. BBACKET FOB WAVING TOOL ON WARNEB & SWASEY LATHES 



Description of Waving Fixture. — The supporting bracket (Fig. 243) 
of the fixture is a single casting fitted and bolted securely to two of the 
faces of the hexagonal turret. 

The cup center H is bolted to one of the wings of the supporting bracket, 
and thus forms practically a part of the fixture itself. The bracket A 
is bolted to two faces of the turret. On it is a machined sUde for the 



334 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sbc. II 

member B, which is operated toward or from the lathe center line by the 
screw C. This is in turn actuated by a socket crank in the hands of the 
operator. The member B is bored lengthwise of the lathe, to receive 
the plunger D. 

The plunger D is splined to prevent turning and has a square hole in 
it for the reception of the shank of the waving tool holder E. The tool 
holder E passes through an elongated slot in the member B, of sufficient 
width to permit of the necessary movement lengthwise of the lathe for 
producing the wave. An elongated hole is also provided at the top for 
similar traverse of the setscrew F, which is tapped into the plunger D 



no. 244. VIEW OF CUP CENTER AND WAViNa and UNDEBCirmNO attachment 

and binds the tool-holder E therein. At the end nearest the lathe head 
and waving cam, the plunger D is bored to receive the shank of the 
roller holder G. This shank is threaded and provided with a nut for 
endwise adjustment, and is kept from turning in D by a key and keyway. 
The other end of D is backed up by a heavy double helical spring to keep 
the roller against the cam ring while the fixture is in use. 

The Undercutting Member. — Hinged to the member B is the under- 
cutting attachment /, which in Fig, 244 is shown in working position. 
The member / is provided with a bushing which when in line with and 
locked by the pin K, holds the undercutting attachment in working posi- 
tion. While the waving attachment is in use the lower edge of the 
member I is thrown up and rests on the pin K. 



Chap. IV] BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 336 

Referring to Fig. 244, two slots machined in the member / meet at 
the opening L. In these slots two tool-holders are fitted so that they will 
slide readily. A tension spring M holds them back in their respective 
slots. Each tool-holder is provided with a pin N. 

When the lever is swung one way or the other the wings P striking 
one or other of the pins N force an undercutting tool Q down to its work, 
as shown in Fig. 244. 

Waving Operation. — Returning to the waving, which is the ninth 
suboperation. The roller holder G (Fig. 244) is slipped into its seat in D, 
and the turret is run forward so that the cup center H supports the end 
of the work,*as shown in Fig. 236. This brings the roller against the face 
of the wave cam C (Fig. 236). The lathe spindle is stopped in such posi- 
tion that the roller is in one of the hollows of the wave cam. WTien the 
cup center brings up against the base of the shell the carriage is locked 
to the bed and the lathe started. With a socket crank on the screw C 
(Fig. 244) the member B is fed toward the already roughed wave groove. 
The formed wave tool E is then fed to correct depth. The tool is moved 
from side to side of the groove, alternately by the wave cam and the 
heavy helical spring, which keeps the roller in contact with the wave cam. 
During this operation the undercutting member, as previously stated, 
is up out of the way. 

Undercutting the Sides of the Wave Groove to Hold Copper Band. — 
After the Umit snap gage is tried on the bottom diameter of the wave 
groove, and it is found correct, the undercutting member is swung down 
into working position for the tenth suboperation. The operator then 
swings the lever 0, first one way and then the other, until the pins N 
strike the stops R. The undercutting tools are thus alternately fed to 
depth in their respective cuts. The undercutting completes the fourth 
operation. 

In Fig. 246 are shown the waving tool, the milling cutter for machining 
it and the tool used for turning the milUng cutter. 

Boring and finishing the interior, which is the fifth operation on the 
4.6 high-explosive shell, is almost, if not quite, as important as the pre- 
ceding one, for the result of these two is to bring the work within reason- 
able range of the estabUshed weight limits. 

This operation is performed on turret lathes of various makes, on a 
double-spindle turret lathe, and also on a gang of vertical boring mills. 

The work is held in the collet chuck shown in detail in Fig. 246. 

The first tool presented to the work is the four-fluted chucking reamer, 
shown in detail in Fig. 247. This tool takes a cut the full length of the 
straight part of the bore. The lubricant — soda water — passes through a 
central hole in the reamer arbor. Squirting in ahead of the cut, it washes 
the chips back through the flutes, which are of simple size for their 
passage. 



336 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



The second bar carries two tools — the rough boring and seat-facing 
flat cutter and the mouth-reaming flat cutter, both of which are shown 
in Fig. 247. 

The finish-boring and seat-facing flat cutter is next presented to the 
work. This cutter is shown in detail in Fig. 247. It finishes the hole 




1 




TooLsneL 



U 



J2L 



TOOL ST££l 




TOOL STEEL 




PIG. 245. WAVING TOOL MILLING CUTTER AND TOOL FOB TURNING CUTTER 




,y\ 



TaperaS'.Lp^ 
^ce^i^_ 



l:; 












"1 

I 



y / 



/i'Core 






TiQ, 246. 



5/--->l<-fi'>ik/^-^'J 

SHELL CHUCK FOR USE ON LATHES 



to size and depth. The facing cutter completes the fifth operation by 
facing the shell to length. 

The tooling for the various machines for this operation is similar, 
but not the same. Changes have been made necessary by variations 
in the pulUng power of the machines. Four stations are used on the 



Chap. IVJ 



BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



337 



Steinle lathe and only three on the Bertram machine. The fourth tool 
in the Steinle eet-up is mounted together with the third in the Bertram 
8et-up. This was made possible because of the great power of the last- 
mentioned machine. 

The output of the Steinle lathe is about 4 per hour and on the double- 
spindle lathe about 6 per hour. 




CHUCKir* REAMER 



no. 247. 

The bars used for this operation are shown in Fig. 248. The method 
of fastening the flat cutters in the bars is excellent. Referring to section 
AB, Fig. 248, it will be noted that the end of the bar is slotted entirely 
through. The direction of the cutting forces tends to spread the mem- 
bers C and D, but the cutter E is secured with two flat head screws F 



338 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 



and G, one in each member C and D, which bind these two together 
and prevent spreading. 

Set-up for Boring Mills. — ^Besides the turret lathes, a gang of small 
boring mills is also used on this same job. Owing to the difficulty of 
removing the chips, three handlings, from machine to machine, have 
been found more economical than completing the hole at one chucking. 

Each boring mill is provided with a single tool, chucking reamer, 
roughing reamer or finishing reamer, as the case may be. The work is 



■j*Ry' 




Roughing Tool 

FlQ. 248. BORINQ BARS FOR ROUGH AND FINISH BORING, FACING AND REAMING FLARE 

chucked in collet chucks similar to those used in the lathes, and the tool 
fed to depth. When the work is removed and passed to the next machine 
the chips are dumped out. If the three bars were used in the one ma-, 
chine the accumulation of chips would require removal between opera- 
tions, and witli the work in vertical position much time would be lost. 
The tools used in the boring mill are of course similar to those used in 
the turret lathes. 

The shells from the fifth operation are loaded on trucks and run out 
to the nosing department, which forms a part of the forgeshop. Taken 
from the trucks, the shells are stacked at D, Fig. 249. The equipment 
for nosing is simple but complete. The entire outfit is shown in this 
illustration. At A is an oil-fired nosing furnace built by the Strong, 
CarUsle & Hammond Co., Cleveland, Ohio. The waterjacketed front 
casting B accommodates seven shells. Seven shells from the fifth 
operation occupy the top of the stand C, The Bertram steam hammer 
E has exceptionally long guides and is eminently suitable for the nosing 
job. At F is a hydraulic nosing press, designed and built in the works, 



Chap. IV) BRITISH 4.5-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 339 

to take core of the cosing job in case of accident to the steam hammer. 
The tongs G are supported at the correct height by chains from the 
trolley on the overhead track H. This track is rigid, as the chain is 
fiexible enough to permit the amount of movement necessary. The 
tongs <? are for handling the cold shells from the stand C into the furnace 
A and removing the hot ones from it. The tongs / are for taking the 
hot shells from the tongs G and handling them into and out of the lower 
die on the steam-hammer block. 



710. 249. COMFLBTE EQUIPMENT OV NOBENG DBPARTUBNT 

The nosing gang consists of two men and a hammer man. Seven 
shells are placed on the stand C by the man who handles the work to 
and from the hammer. The man who handles the long tongs G places 
the shells in the furnace. While the first charge of shells is heating seven 
more shells are placed on top of the stand C. 

The charging of the furnace is from left to right. When the first 
shell has attained the proper heat the first operator removes it with the 
tongs G, swings it around to the position shown at J in Fig. 249. The 
second operator takes it with the tongs / and places it nose end up in the 
bottom die block on the steam hammer. 

From two or three strokes of the hammer are sufficient to form a 
perfect ncse. 

While the nose is being formed the first operator swings the tongs G 
back, picks up one of the shells from the stand C and inserts it in the 
vacant opening in the furnace. As soon as the nose is shaped the 
second operator lifts the work from the bottom die with tongs / and 
lays it on the floor, out of the way. By this time the first operator has 



340 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

removed the second hot shell from the furnace, and the operation just 
described is repeated. 

Nosing in this manner is a very rapid operation. It takes just 65 
sec. to nose the seven shells and recharge the furnace. After all the shells 
of a charge are nosed the hammerman places them nose down in about 
2 in. of ashes on the annealing floor to cool slowly, the second operator 
refills the top of the stand C, and the operation is repeated with the shells 
in the second furnace. 

Taken by the day, nosing takes about 15 sec. per shell, which is the 
beating capacity of the furnaces. 

The furnace shown is 7 ft. 6 in. wide by 3 ft. 6 in. deep. It is built up 
of cast-iron plates and Uned with firebricks. Three Ij^-in. low-pressure 



BottomOie Block 

oil burners are used. The casting for the reception of the shells is water- 
jacketed, and a continuous circulation of water keeps their bodies cool 
while their noses are brought to the required temperature. 

The upper and lower dies (see Fig. 250) are so dimensioned that when 
their two faces come together nosing is complete. The lower die has a 
2-in. central bole clear through it, so that dirt and scale can be easily 
blown out by an air hose. 

When the nosed shells have cooled off in the ashes on the annealing 
floor they are loaded on trucks and run back to the machine shop. 
The seventh operation consists of five suboperations — rough boring, 
finish boring, reaming the nose to tapping size, facing the shell to correct 
length, and form-boring that part of the interior which was closed, in 
beyond the parallel bore by the nosing operation, 

A number of engine lathes have been fitted up for this operation. 



Chap. IVl BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 341 

Collet chucka similar to those used in the fifth operation, and shown in 
Fig. 246, are mounted on their spindles. The tailstocks have been 
replaced by hand-operated hexagonal turrets deseed and built in the 
works. 

Form-boring Lathe. — In Fig. 251 is shown one of these lathes set 
up for this job. At A is the work held in the collet chuck B. The work 
is pushed to its seat in the bottom of the chuck, which acts as a locating 
point from which the traverse of the facing tool is gaged. In this way 
uniform length of the finished sheila is assured. 



FIG. 251. BOBINO, FAClNa AND FORM-BOBINO NOSE ENS OF SBELI. 

In the tool post of the lathe is an ordinary Armstrong boring tool C. 
In the turret are three tools — the boring bar D with a single pointed tool, 
the reamer E and the facing cutter F. 

The cross-feed screw has been removed from these lathes and a former 
carrier G bolted to the brackets H, which in turn are secured to the lathe 
bed. Fastened to the top of G is the former /, which is the shape to which 
the inside of the shell nose must be bored. A roller fitting the cam slot 
in the former is carried on the end of the link /, which is bolted to the 
cross-slide as shown. Thus as the carriage moves along the ways, the 
tool C in the tool post is constrained to follow the form of the cam slot 
in I, and the boring tool reproduces this form in the work. Above the 
regular cross-shde is the short cross-shde K to permit feeding the tool to 
and away from the work. 

Form-boring and Facing. — The work A is secured in the chuck B. 
The turret is run back out of the way and the boring bar C in the tool- 
post run in and a roughing cut taken to true the hole. It is then run out 
and withdrawn by means of the cross-slide K to the position shown in the 
illustration. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



(Sec. II 



The boring bar D, the tool id which i: 
size, is then run in by hand. This is 



r*!J?''-1 






t"->^--1a 



I* r 



i i 




reamer, reamer holder and facing bar 
together with the plug gage for the hole. 



1 set to bore the work to reaming 
followed by the reamer E. In 
front of the facing cutter F is 
a hardened pilot which rotates 
freely on the end of the bar. 
It is a snug fit for the reamed 
hole in the nose of the work 
and supports the end of the 
bar. The facing cutter F is 
then advanced the correct dis- 
tance, a mark on the turret 
slide indicating when correct 
depth is reached as a stop. 
The turret is again run back 
and the boring bar C in the 
tool post brought into action 
again. With the highest part 
of the edge of the tool in C in 
hne with the edge of the faced 
hole in the work, the start of 
the curve of the cam should be 
l^Ke ir>- in advance of the 
center of the cam roll. Having 
set the boring bar so that this 
dimension is correct, a mark 
is made on the ways of the 
lathe l^He in- in advance of 
a mark on the carriage. Once 
set, this adjustment need not 
E^ain be made, as the cutter 
can be removed and ground 
without disturbing the holder 
or bar. The carriage is then 
advanced to this mark (with- 
out the tool cutting), the tool 
fed to the cut by the upper 
cross-sUde K and a cut taken. 
Two cuts are usually taken, 
the operator jeeling when the 
formed cut runs into the 
parallel bore of the work. 

In Fig. 252 the boring bar, 
and tool are shown in detail, 



BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




'-^jfei 




344 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

The output for one lathe and operator ia about four per hour. 

Tapping on the Radial Drill. — The eighth operation is performed on a 
radial-drill press. It is a simple tapping job, requiring neither special 
skill nor special accessories. 

The work ia gripped in the work holder, shown in detail in Fig. 253, 
Several of these are used at various stages of manufacture. The tap 
and tapbolder, together with the plug thread gage, are also shown in detail 
in this same illustration. 

Cutting compound is used on the tap. The steel in the shells is very 
hard and consequently severe on the taps. They have, however, a life 
of from one hundred to two hundred holes before they wear too small. 
About 15 noses are tapped per hour, 

t ^^:: ^ 



no. 254. FEMALE CENTER AND SCREW PLUQ FOR NINTH OPERATION 

From the tapping operation the shells are again run over to the lathe 
for the ninth operation, which consists of turning the outside to finished 
size and shape. This work is done on lathes with former holders similar 
to that shown at G in Fig. 251, upon which former cams are mounted. 
The connection between the rest and the former is precisely the same as 
shown in Fig. 251. The work, however, is held between centers and the 
former cams conform to the profile of the shell. The screw plug shown 
in detail in Fig. 254 is screwed into the nose of the shell and fitted with 
a dog. The base end of the shell is supported by the female member 
(Fig. 254) and an ordinary turning tool is secured in the tool post. 

A rough cut is taken over the nose of the shell, averaging about Ma lo- 
in depth, and prepares the whole body of the shell for the finUhing cut. 
This cut is commenced at the edge of the band groove and is run to the 
nose end, the section of the shell below the band groove having been 



CHAI^ IV] 



BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



345 



finished to size in the fourth operation. While this cut is being taken, 
the operator inserts the screw plug from the shell previously finished into 
another shell and stamps the finished shell with his symbol. 

The production per lathe in this operation is between four and five 
an hour. 




First Shop Inspection. — On the completion of the ninth operation 
and removal of the threaded driving plug each shell is brought to the 
inspector's bench to undergo the first shop inspection, which Forms the 
tenth operation. 



346 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

The implements and gages used in this operation are shown in Fig. 
255. The body is first tested with high and low snap gages, 4.480 and 
4.460 in. respectively. The high and low ring gages, also 4.480 and 
4.460 in. respectively, are then tried over the body. The nose gage 
with high and low limits is tried on the nose. The head profile gage is 
also tried on the shell nose to see whether it is in conformity. The length 
gage is for testing the length of the shell minus the socket. The gage 
for testing the thickness of the gage is worthy of note. The shell is 
inverted and slipped over the vertical standard, after which the swing- 
ing member is swung to rest on the base of the shell. The method of 
using the gage for measuring the thickness of the side shown in Fig. 
255 is self evident and requires no further explanation. 

To revert for a moment, the heat number which was stamped on the 
original cast billet, and subsequently on the forging, must always find 
a place on the work as it passes from one stage of manufacture to another. 
On the completion of the fourth operation it is stamped in the wave 
groove, for here it is safe from eflfacement till it is covered by the copper 
band. At no other place on the shell would this be the case, for all other 
parts of the exterior of the shell are subjected to either machining or 
nosing operations. Having passed the various gagings, the heat number 
(stamped in the wave groove) is transferred to the body of the shell, which 
is now finished, this being its final location. 

The shell is next placed on the scales. On the one pan are the neces- 
sary weights and on the other a base plate of finished size and a finished 
socket, for the weight of each complete shell must include these two parts. 
The weight requirements are that the shell at this stage must not weigh 
more than 27 lb. nor less than 26 lb. 12 oz. On leaving the scales the 
weight of each shell is marked on it with red chalk. The shells pass from 
the scales in two classes — those that come within the required weight 
limits and those which are heavier. There are no "too light" shells, 
for this is a fault which cannot be corrected. The percentage of weight- 
passing and heavy shells runs about equal. The shells falling within 
each of these classes are stacked in separate piles. The "passing" 
shells go through to completion, while the heavy shells are brought to 
passing weight by an extra operation. 

Boring to Weight. — The eleventh operation consists of form-boring 
the inside of the shell. The equipment is exactly similar to that used 
in the fifth suboperation of operation 7. Engine lathes equipped with 
a form-boring cam, as shown in Fig. 251, are used. The turret is dis- 
pensed with but the boring tool in the tool post is used. The men 
employed on this work have become so expert that a single cut almost 
invariably brings the shell to correct weight. After this operation the 
shells are again weighed and if found correct are stacked with the passing 
shells. 



Chap. IV| BRITISH 4.6-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 347 

After passing shop inspection the work goes to the threading operation. 
This is done on 2-in. Jones & Lamson flat-turret lathes as shown in Fig. 
256. The work A is held in a special draw-in chuck B shown in detail 



BAfiS-PLATK BKCBS8 ON FliAT-TUBRBT I.ATEEB 



in Fig. 257. The forward end of the shell is supported in the roller 
steadyreat, shown in detail in Fig. 258. The rollers are mounted on 
eccentric studs so that they can be adjusted to hold work varying slightly 
in size from piece to piece. 




< ■^' J 

T-IN CHUCK FOR B 



B-PLATE RECESS TURBAD-CHASINO TOOL 



Thread-charfng Attachment. — The thread-chasing attachment shown 
in Fig. 256 is an example of clever design. The splined rod Z> is driven 
through gearing from the live spindle of the lathe. At B is a clutch, so 



348 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



that the rotation of D can be stopped or started at the will of the operator 
without stopping the spindle of the lathe. Running in the upright F 
is a vertical shaft driven by D through spiral gears. The upper part O, 
in which these gears are located, has a stem projecting downward into 




Cast Iron 



Fia. 258. 



Co/c/ rof/ecf 

Sfee/ 

eU/DEPLAT£ 
ROLLER BTEABYREST 



a bearing in F, in which it is free to turn in a horizontal plane. The 
member E can also turn horizontally. 

The splined driving shaft D is provided with collars on each side of G 
so that it has no endwise motion with relation to G. It is, however, free 



Chap. IVJ 



BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEUa 



349 



to dide eadwise at E in its bearings and in the spiral gear. This feature, 
with the two horizontally rotatable supports at E and G, makes possible 
the rotation of the flat turret when the machine is used for more than the 
threading of the base-plate recess, although in this particular case it is 
not 80 used. 

At the lower end of the vertical shaft in F (Fig. 256) is another spiral 
gear shown at H in Fig. 259. This gear is rigidly secured to its shsit /. 
Near the end of the shaft is a collar J, also rigidly secured to /, and above 
it a spur pinion K. This pinion is loose on the shaft I, but a heavy spring 
L holds it in f fictional contact with the collar J, so that it will transmit a 
drive sufficiently powerful for the purpose at one part of the cycle of the 
threading operation, but will slip at that part of the cycle when it is its 
duty to slip. 



no. 259. DBTAiM c 



S THRBAD-CHASINO ATTACHUBNT 



The spin* pinion K engages the rack M on the cylindrical chasing bar 
N, and the spiral gear H engages the spiral gear on the lead screw P. 
The relative positions of the members N and P under working conditions 
are best shown in Fig. 256. 

The chasing bar N is bored lengthwise to receive a bar terminating at 
one end in the ball handle Q. This bar is cylindrical except for a flat 
formed on a part of its circumference. This flat part is under the half- 
nut B. A rounded groove S in JV permits the lead screw P to be placed 
close to JV. It is deep enough to clear the collars T. At U and V are 
two pins. On the inside of N these pins engage the bar (previously re- 
ferred to) with the flat on it. The collars T on the lead screw are dis- 
posed, one on each side of these pins. Each collar has a pin W or X 
disposed vertically to its face. These pins W and X are so located that 
when in a favorable position only one of them can strike one of the pins 
U or V. When the pin U is struck by the pin X the inner bar is turned 



350 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

in the chasing bar N so that the cyUndrical part is under the half-nut 
B, This raises the half-nut B into operating position in mesh with 
the lead screw P. When the pin V is struck by the pin W the inner bar 
is turned in the chasing bar N so that the flattened part is under the half- 
nut B, This permits the half-nut to drop out of engagement with the 
lead screw. 

The chasing bar iV is a sliding fit in its housing and is held from turn- 
ing by a feather shown at A in Fig. 259. The fixture is so set that the 
bar N at its extreme forward traverse carries the chaser Y to the bottom 
of the base-plate recess. 

On the forward end, that is, the end of the inner bar most remote from 
Qj is an eccentric pin which, working in a crosswise slot in the body of the 
chaser Y, throws it in or out of cutting position. 

Operation of Chasing a Thread. — Referring to Figs. 256 and 259, 
when the bar N has retreated far enough the pin U in it arrives at a 
position where the pin X in the collar of the rotating lead screw strikes 
it and forces it down. This causes the bar in N to rotate. The cylin- 
drical part at the middle of the inner bar lifts the half -nut B into engagement 
with the lead screw P and the lead screw feeds the chasing bar N forward 
at the correct speed to cut the thread. Simultaneously with the lifting 
of the half-nut B, in the middle of the chasing bar iV, the eccentric on 
the end of the inner bar assumes a position that sets the chaser out to 
cutting position. The direction of rotation of the pinion K, which 
meshes with the rack M of the chasing bar, would tend to move the bar 
N from left to right while the lead screw P is forcing it from right to left. 
This is where slipping of the spring-controlled friction L takes place. 

The chasing bar N is forced by the half-nut and lead screw to move 
from right to left and the chaser to take a cut while the friction slips. 
When the chaser in the end of the chasing bar N reaches the bottom of 
the base-plate recess, the pin V in the chasing bar is in position to be 
struck by the pin W in the lead-screw collar. This rocks the inner bar 
in N so that the flat is under the half-nut B. The half-nut B having 
nothing to support it, drops out of engagement with the lead screw. 
The friction pinion K being relieved of the opposition of the lead screw, 
racks the chasing bar N back from left to right as before. Simultaneous 
with the release of the half-nut B the eccentric on the end of the inner 
bar withdraws the chaser from cutting position so that it clears the work 
on the return of the chasing bar N. 

During the threading operation the lathe is run backward as the base- 
plate thread is left-hand. The pitch is 14 per inch and the Whitworth 
form of thread is required. 

Referring to Fig. 256 it will be noted that the fixture is secured to a 
base slide fastened to the turret. The slide is shown in Fig. 260. The 
feed for each individual cut is controlled by the cross-handle Z and cross- 



BRITISH 4 5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 

-.Tl 




rinii/i all orti- fACflne STTti 

). 260. SASB FOB THREADINO ATTACHUENT 



Fid. 261. cnoas-SLiDiNO bdad to hold 4.5 bhellb for tobgad chasing 



352 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



slide screw. From 4 to 6 cuts are required to finish the thread. The 
chaser has 4 teeth. A machine and operator can thread a little over 
16 shells per hour. In connection with the support of the work during 
this operation it would perhaps not be out of place to show a method 
employed in many of the shops in Canada where Jones & Lamson ma- 
chines are used for this work on 4.5 shells. 

The way the problem has been solved by another designer is shown 
in Fig. 261. The work A, approximately 4.5 in. diameter, is too large 
to go into the hole in the spindle, so it is held in a collet chuck B mounted 
on the end of the spindle extension C, which is made large enough in the 
bore to take the shell. The inner end of the extension C is screwed to the 
spindle nose. The outer end is supported in the steadyrest D. This 
steady has a slide on its base fitting the slide E planed on the member F 
which is clamped to the lathe bed. The upper part of the steadyrest 
is provided with two arms G and H cast in one piece with it. These 
arms are bolted to the lathe head as shown. 




^siU^ ^Ji 







© gi); ^1 

^"^ -"^^^ 0-<^ >rn: ,#<5?^ ^^:>..'/p:\ f^y\ \/p^ /^^ ' 





FIG. 262. DETAILS OF THE CAST-IRON TRAY 



Cleaning and Sandblasting the Shells. — After the thread is cut the 
shells are thoroughly cleaned, first in hot soda water and then in clean 
hot water. When taken from the tanks the shells are stood nose down in 
orifices in special cast-iron trays, shown in detail in Fig. 262. 

Since the shells come from the soda tanks very hot and are stood 
on end with their open ends downward in the trays A, they are thoroughly 
dry by the time they reach the sandblast room. Here they are thoroughly 
sandblasted, both inside and out. It is particularly necessary that they 
be absolutely clean on the inside so as to have a good surface for the 



Chap. IV] 



BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIJ^S 



353 



appUcatioD of the copal vamiBh in a later operatioD. After being thor- 
oughly sandblasted the dust is blown off with air alone and the shells 
taken to have the base plates inserted. 

In the works of the Allis-Chalmers Co. base plates are machined by 
the semiautomatic machines built by the Automatic Machine Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. A detail of the 4.5-in. base plate and the base- 
plate inspection gage is shown in Fig. 263. 




Semiautomatic Base-plate Turner and Threader. — The work is held 
in a collet chuck. At the back is the turning tool held in the tool post, 
while at the front is the threading tool held in another tool post. The 
action of both these tools is automatic. That is to say, the tool is fed 
to depth, traverses the work, is run back clear of the work and returned 
to the starting position when the cycle of operations is repeated till the 
piece is turned to diameter. The threading tool then takes up its series 
of operations while the turning tool is clear of the work. The facing tool 
is held in the vertical slide and is fed by hand, using the bandwheel. The 
slide for this tool is set at a slight angle to give the camber of 0.002 in. 
specified. 

The work is chucked in the collet chuck, and the machine is started. 
The turning tool at the rear of the machine then begins the cycle of its 
operation. In the meantime the operator feeds the facing tool vertically 
toward the center of the disk. By the time it has reached the center the 
turning tool at the back has taken the requisite number of cuts, usually 
three. When the turning tool has finished its work the shde is tripped 
and the tool backs out. Simultaneously the threading-tool shde is 
tripped and starts the cycle of its operations. The threading tool is 
advanced to the cut, traverses the cut, is withdrawn clear of the work 



354 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

and returned to starting position, when the same cycle of operations is 
repeated. About six cuts are required to finish the thread. On comple- 
tion of the thread the machine is automatically tripped. A machine and 
operator finish about 8 base plates per hour. 

The next operation is fitting the base plates. The shells are held 
nose down in a clamp holder mounted on a piece of 12X12 yellow pine 
cemented into the concrete floor. The wrench handle and pipe together, 
used to screw in the base plates, form a lever about 6 ft. long and two 
men do the job, so a rigid support for the clamp holder is necessary. 

The clamp holder is shown in detail in Fig. 253. 

A drop of Pettman cement is daubed on the center of the cambered 
face of the base plate. The base plate is then screwed down hard and 
the drop of Pettman cement acts as a witness and proves the fit. The 
shells next go to the preliminary Government inspection. While no 
previous mention has been made of the work of the Government inspect- 
ors, their duty is to follow the work through the entire cQurse of manu- 
facture. Wherever an inspection mark must be effaced in the course of 
machining it is their duty to replace it on the shell. 

It would, therefore, perhaps be as well to go over the work that has 
been done by them before the preliminary inspection is taken up. 

Government Inspectors' Duties. — In the AUis-Chalmers plant the 
work is taken care of by a chief inspector and four assistants. When the 
hollow forgings are received at the works a Government inspector goes 
over them to see that they bear the acceptance mark of the inspector of 
steel. This mark is a diamond with the well-known British "broad 
arrow" within it. 

The inspector's acceptance mark is removed during the facing opera- 
tion; he therefore superintends the facing of the shell bases and transfers 
the acceptance mark (stamped by the inspector of steel) to the head of the 
shell above the shoulder. Under his direction the contractor transfers 
the steel maker's cast and ingot numbers to the head of the shell. 

After the heading operation is completed on a "lot" of 4.5-in. shells, 
the lot is stacked and an inspector selects one shell for the compression 
and tensile tests required by the specification. It is his duty to check 
the number of shells in a lot and see that all bear a lot mark on their 
bases. The selected shell is taken by him to the employee who has been 
detailed to cut out the test pieces. Should it be impossible to cut the 
test pieces at once, the inspector returns to his regular duties and takes 
the shell with him until such time as may be agreed upon when the work of 
test-piece cutting can be carried out. It is his duty to superintend the 
eiltire operation of cutting out the test pieces. 

When complete the test pieces are stamped with the firm's monogram, 
the lot letter of the shell and the inspector's own work mark. He then 
personally mails the pieces to the testing center. The shell bodies from 



Chap. IV] BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 365 

which the test pieces have been cut are retained by the inspector until 
he is authorized by the inspector-in-charge to scrap them. When they 
are scrapped it is his duty to see that they are so destroyed that no further 
test pieces can be cut from them. The duty of superintending test-piece 
cutting as described is carried out by the chief inspector, or an assistant 
detailed by him. All inspectors take a txirn at this duty, but they must 
not be detailed in any regular order. 

Preliminary Inspection of Shells, — For the preliminary examination, 
shells, with the machined parts finished, are presented in lots and inspected 
for freedom from cracks, flaws, blow-holes, scale, rust and other material 
defects and for smoothness of surface. The operations enumerated in 
Table 1 are carried out. The steel base plate is unscrewed and examined 
for flaws and camber, and the recesses are also examined for flaws and 
gaged for depth and flatness and also to see that the front thread is cut 
away correctly. 

Tablb 1. Inspection of Hiqh-explobive Shells 

1 Examination of fractures and work marks on 

billets 100 

2 Internal and external examination before varnish- 

ing 100 

3 Undercut in groove for driving band 100 

4 Low diameter of groove for driving band high 

and low 100 

5 Examination of threads in head and base 100 

6^ Concentricity of cavity 

7 Depth and flatness of recess for base plate 100 

8 Examination of base plates before insertion 100 

9 Examination of base recess for flaws 100 

10 Base calipers 100 

11 WaU calipers 50 

12 Diameter of body (high and low) 100 

No patching, stopping, plugging or electric welding is allowed. 
Shells found to be correct are marked by the inspector with his work 
mark in the following manner, illustrated in Fig. 264: 

1. A work mark is stamped on the body immediately in front of the 
driving-band groove to indicate that the groove is correct. 

2. A second work mark is stamped above the first if the shell is found 
correct to body gaging and visual examination. (As an alternative 
these work marks may be placed in the rear of the driving-band groove, 
the one indicating the correctness of the groove being next to it.) 

3. A work mark is stamped on the shoulder to indicate that the 
threads in the head are correct. 

^ Operation No. 6 is necessary on the 18-pounder only. 



356 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbo. II 



4. A work mark is stamped in the bottom of the recess for the base 
plate and one on the base of the shell near the edge of the recess to indicate 
correctness of the recess. 

5. A work mark is stamped on the inner face of the base plate to 
indicate flatness and freedom from flaws. 



\Correcfness of fuse fhh 
lor gating and intemaf 
Examtnafi'on 

Transferred fklaf Mk 
evid inspector ofSfeel 
Acceptance Sttvrp 

Correctness after 
final Exammatfon 

Senficabte ttark 

•Correct Threads 
In tiead 





Ties 

letter 



PLAN OF BASE SHOmiQ 
MAFKI/m 



Inner face of Basep/ate,^ 
FAdness and freedom, 
Hvmfkms- 

RepeatonTopfdce 
ofPtua,toindfcate , 
Tightness of ffuff' 






Series letter 

Body gagmg and 
visual cxamhathn 



I— — 




El 



^ 



Drivfng Band 
Groove Cdrrect 



P<— - 



■For f^roof Sffe/f only 



no. 264. MARKING FOR ACCEPTED BHELI^ 



Preliminary Selection of Shells for Proof. — If the manufacturer 
desires, a shell may be selected for ''proof " at this stage, a distinguishing 
mark F and his work mark being put on its base by the inspector. The 
completion of this shell can now be hastened. When completed it is 
subjected to the usual final examination and forwarded by the contractor 
to the Chief Inspector of Arms and Ammunition, Cartridge Factory, 
Cove Fields, Quebec, for proof. The preparation of the shell for proof 
is done at Quebec. 

From the preliminary inspection the shells go back to have the base 
plate screwed in. This time the entire threaded end and face of the base 
plate is brushed with Pettman cement and the plate screwed home to 
stay. 

Rough-facing the Base on the Flat Turret Lathe. — The square shank 
and excess metal in the base plate is cut off in Jones & Lamson lathes. 
The shell is gripped by a draw-in chuck similar to the one shown in detail 
in Fig. 257. The body is supported in a roller steadyrest similar to the 



Chap. IV] 



BRITISH 4.5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



357 




one shown in detail in Fig. 268. When the work comes from this opera- 
tion the base plate is left about ^4 in. higher than the base of the shell, 
so as to provide sufficient metal for riveting, in the next operation. 

The method used to secure the base plate is shown in the operation 
sketch. The shell is placed nose down in a hardwood cradle and a ma- 
chine-steel guide ring C is placed on top of the base. The operator then 
manipulates a pneumatic hammer around in a circle, keeping the curved 
tool in contact with the ring. The dimensions of the guide ring are given 
in Fig. 265. One man can rivet about 45 base plates per hour. 

The outfit for finish-turning the base after riveting is practically the 
same as that used for rough-facing. The production on finish-facing is 
about the same as on rough-facing ; that is, 18 per 
hour. The bases of the shells as they come from 
this operation must show no crevice between the 
base plate and the shell body and there is no 
trouble in securing this condition. 

The brass sockets are next screwed into 
place. This work is done on a back-geared 
drilling machine. The work is held in the 
clamp holder (shown in detail in Fig. 253). 
The socket is screwed on the end of the driver, 
which is provided with a nut, backed up by a 
loose wedge — see operation sketch. 

In driving a socket the wedge is entered in 
the slot as far as it will go. The socket and the 
nut are prevented from turning on the driver 
when the friction between the wedge and the 
nut becomes greater than the friction between 
the socket and the shell nose. When the socket 

is screwed to position, the friction drive slips, the machine is stopped 
and the wedge driven back. This slackens up the nut, and the driver 
is easily backed out. 

The upper end of the driver shank is squared to fit the friction driver 
disk. Details of the socket driver are shown in Fig. 266. The sockets 
are painted with Pettman cement before screwing them in. One man 
can screw in about 30 sockets per hour. Sockets which are not screwed 
down tight when the friction driver slips are screwed to place by hand 
with a wrench. Less than one per cent, require this treatment. 

As the sockets are screwed tight into the shell nose there is a tendency 
to close some of them slightly. Those which are closed are cleaned out 
with the tap, shown together with the plug thread gage in Fig, 266. 

The shells now go to a small vertical boring mill equipped with a 
universal chuck for holding them and with a formed tool (the shape of 
the nose of the shell) mounted in the tool post for the twentieth operation. 




ii'^ 



dAes"" >L^J| 

Machine S+eel 

FIG. 265. GUIDE RING FOR 
RIVETING BASS PLATES 



358 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



The tool is fed sidewise to the cut. One man can finish about 30 per 
hour. 

The next operation, banding, is done in a self-contained banding 
plant located in that part of the works where the rest of the finishing ' 
operations, the final inspection, varnishing, painting, packing and ship- 
ping are done. 

j^ __ _ cl" l4-77ireads per Inch 

^ '» V f ' V '^ Right Hancf Wht'fworfh 

T 



FIG. 266. 




Handeni^ 
^nishee/a//oP€r 
Tool Sfeel 
KEY 




4-F1u+BS 



Nri ^ Tool 5+oel Qhrckned) 
J g ' A 1 1 




-J 



f4-7hrtf5p%rIh.PJtMlk'--^>^ Bff'- 

m/fworfhS^i/' Lt..„ J^'.. 

TAP 

DETAILS OF SOCKET-THREAD CAGE, SOCKET-THREAD TAP AND N€T AND 
WEDGE-TTPB DRIVING TOOL FOR THE SOCKETS 



Placing and Compressing the Copper Bands. — The copper bands 
shown in Fig. 267 are large enough to just slip over the base of the shell. 
They are sheared from drawn-copper tube or parted from copper cups 
thick in the wall. They are narrow enough to just enter the driving 
band groove. The operation of banding is performed in a special hy- 
draulic banding press, operating under a pressure of 1,500 lb. per sq. in. 

The banding press (see detail Fig. 267) consists of a ring-like cast-steel 
body, enclosing six stationary pistons. Mounted in each piston is a 
movable cylinder carrying on its forward end a lug. Connected at each 
lug and guided by a central hub through which they pass are the six 
banding punches. These punches are pressed forward against the in- 
serted shell and copper band by water under 1,500 lb. per sq. in. pressure 
entering the cylinders from the supply pipe encircUng the press body. 
The punches are withdrawn by heavy helical springs. The operating 



Chap. IVl BRITISH 4,5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



COPFEU DRIWtfS BAUD 

no. 267. 225-TON press vor prkssinq copper bands on sbellb 




u-^rj 



no. 268. BTEEL DIE FOB BTAHFIKa BOTTOU OP 4.5-IN. HOWITZBR BBELL8 



360 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. U 

valve is controlled by one lever, admitting the water under pressure in 
one position and in another shutting off the supply and opening the dis- 
charge to the supply tank. 

Two men operate one banding press, their output being about 45 
banded shells per hour. 

The shells are taken from the banding press, and the base of each is 
stamped in a drop press with the impression shown in Fig. 268. 

Varmshing &e Shells Inside. — After all dust is blown out with an 
air blast, a thin sheet-metal bushing is inserted in the nose of the shell 
to protect the threads in the socket from the varnish and prevent them 



na. 269. varnibb^akino oven 

from being filled up. The operator, having first dipped a brush provided 
with bristles at the end and along one side for about 4 in. from the end in 
the varnish pot, inserts it in the shell. The shell is then rolled backward 
and forward on the table, the brush in the meantime being reciprocated 
BO that the varnish covers the whole inner surface of the shell. When 
complete, the shell is stood on its base. The excess varnish collects in 
the base and is removed with a brush before the shell goes to the oven. 
The varnish must be made from a high grade of African copal gum. The 
only metallic impurities permitted are: Not more than 0.5 per cent, of 
manganese; lead calculated as metallic lead (Pb) not to exceed 0.05 per 
cent.; copper not to exceed 0,1 per cent. Preparatory to passing the 
shell to the operator, a boy cleans out the grub screw hole in the socket, 
using a tap for the purpose. 

The shells are now loaded on the iron trays shown in detail in Fig. 
262. These are then placed on trucks and run into the baking oven shown 
in Fig. 269. There are two of these ovens. Three of their sides are lined 



Chap. IV] 



BRITISH 4.5-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



361 



with live-steam pipes. To bring the ovens to the desired temperature 
electric heaters were necessary. With the arrangement shown the speci- 
fied 300 deg. P. is readily attained and is maintained for the required 
8hr. 

f* rSi'-->]T„,n„, 




COFPBB BANDS 



Turning die Copper Driving Band. — The copper driving bands are 
turned on a special lathe which has been evolved from one formerly used 
for winding electrical apparatus. Three tools are employed as shown in 
Fig. 270. 



362 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



The shell A is held in a special universal chuck with extra-long jaws. 
The rear end is supported by a cup center B mounted on the tail spindle, 
shown in detail in Fig. 270. Beneath the center of the lathe is the first 
rough-turning tool C This tool is run lengthwise of the lathe. The 
rough form-turning tool is mounted in front at D. By referring to Fig. 
270 it will be noted that the crossfeed screw E is provided with mitre 
gears ¥ and G, which transmit motion to the screw ff , which actuates the 







Ti 



<VJ 



? 



T7 



-^^ 



Serretfhns - 
! 52p€r Inch, 












1 






^ 



WFIu+es-Tool steel 
(Hardenee/J 

,[< /^'- >n 



^=^^ 



..^._ J 



in 



^ 

•» 



ii 



\i 



i^friiBr^^ 



"I 






h't^tiiQlardenect} 
POWff 



•-~H' 



■ i M^ 

Sieie\(Hanfen«e/J ^ 



nmsft 







ij. ».-..-. .. 



rf 

St-Serrqffons per Inch: 



FMISH 



......if >| 

Q££;^t*^l/9norS0JcM^.^s' 



a/2- 
aosQ^. 



WI& 














HOUGH 
FIG. 271. BilLUNG CUTTERS AND TOOI-S FOR COPPER DRIVING BAND 



rough-turning tool C. The tool block / is so located with relation to the 
tool block carrying the rough-turning tool C, and both of them with rela- 
tion to the rough copper driving band on the shell, that the tool C tra- 
verses across the copper band and rough-turns it before the rough forming 
tool D begins to cut. At the back of the lathe is the finish-forming tool 
J, which is carried in a vertical slide and is actuated by the hand lever K\ 

In Fig. 271 are shown the tools for turning the copper bands. They 
are made of high-speed steel and milled in 12-in. lengths. In this illus- 
tration are also shown the milling cutters and the forming tools with 
which the milling cutters were made. 

The finished shells weigh 27 lb. 10 oz., with an allowance of plus 2 or 



Chap. IV] BRITISH 4.6-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 363 

minus 4 oz. The inspection operations for the final inspection are enu- 
merated in Table 3. Shells which are found correct are stamped with the 
inspectors' work marks as indicated in Fig. 264. 

Table 2. Instbuctions for Final Inspection of 4.5 Hiqh-explosivb Shells 

Per Cent. 
No. of to Be 

Operation Operation Done 

13^ Testing base plate for looseness 100 

14 Screw gage, fuse hole, high and low 100 

15 Examination of threads in fuse hole 100 

16 Depth of recess fuse bush 

17 Diameter and angle of recess 

18 Internal examination for flaws and varnish 100 

19 Weight 100 

20 Width of driving band and distance from base 100 

21 Form of driving band 100 

22 Distance of fixing screw hole 100 

23 Serrations on driving band 100 

24 Hammer test, driving band 100 

25 Center punch test driving band As required 

26 Form and radius of head 100 

27 Concentricity and cylinder gage 100 — 200% for concentricity 

28 Length overall 20 — shells for fixed ammunition, 100 

29 Plug gage, plain part of socket 100 

3D Examination of markings on body and base 100 

31 Examination for cast and code number 100 

32 Diameter of driving band, high and low 100 

33 Diameter of rear part of driving band 100 

34 Stamping work marks, etc 

35 Greasing and fixing plugs and setscrews 100 

36 Ring gage, diameter over paint 100 

The serviceable sign, which is the British broad arrow within a C, will 
not, however, be stamped until results of the proof and varnish tests are 
received. While awaiting the receipt of these the shells may be painted 
and laid out for drying. 

Reports on the preliminary and final inspection are kept on forms 
suppUed by the government. 

From each consignment of varnish which the contractor proposes to 
use one-quarter pint is taken by the inspector, put in bottles supplied 
for the purpose and forwarded by express to the government analyst. 

Varnish is also scraped from proof and defective shells. A sample, 
at least J^ oz. in weight, must be obtained, and this governs five lots of 
shells. The least delay is occasioned if the samples are obtained from 
proof shells. The contractor is not informed from which proof shell 
scrapings are to be taken. Inspectors insist on proof shells being sub- 

^ This test will be made by the inspector in the open shop as soon as the base 
plate has been inserted and machined off. 



364 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS ISbc. II 

mitted with as smooth and dry surfaces as is required for the general run 
of shells. Any failure on the contractor's part to comply with this results 
in withdrawal of the privilege of expediting the completion of proof shells. 
The scrapings are also forwarded by express, in the bottles supplied, to 
the government analyst. 

All samples, liquid varnish and scrapings must be clearly labeled. 
The label for the Uquid sample shows the firm which supplied the varnish, 
the firm which received it, the amount of the consignment and the date 
received. The bottles containing the scrapings are labeled to show the 
name of the firm, the lot or lots from which the sample is actually taken 
and the lots which will be governed by the sample. 

The results of the analysis are reported to the inspection office at 
Quebec, which notifies the manufacturers when the lots successfully pass 
the proof and varnish tests. 

When scraping the varnish from the shell the following points are to 
be strictly attended to: 

1. The nose of the shell down to 2 in. from the fuse hole outside, and 
the threads, are to be wiped clean with a clean piece of rag or waste. 

2. The scraper to be in a polished and bright condition, and kept for 
this purpose only. 

3. The examiner is to have clean hands. 

4. The paper on which the scrapings of varnish are collected is to be 
clean and is not to have been previously handled. 

5. To insure that no brass shall be scraped off the fuse socket the 
fuse hole must be protected by a leather or cardboard Uner, or else the 
sockets must be removed while the scraping operation is being performed 
on the shells. 

The shells are next washed with gasoline to prepare them for painting. 
The whole of the body is covered first with a priming coat made up of 
the following ingredients: Dry zinc oxide free from lead, 9^ lb.; boiled 
linseed oil free from lead, IJ^ pints; terebene free from lead, IJ^ pints; 
spirits of turpentine, l}4 pints. It is of the utmost importance that the 
ingredients employed in paints for lyddite shells shall be absolutely free 
from lead for the reason already given. It is therefore required that 
samples of ingredients be submitted to the Chief Inspector of Arms and 
Ammunition, Quebec, for chemical analysis to guard against the presence 
of lead in the paint. 

After the first coat is thoroughly dry in the air the second coat is 
applied. It consists of dry Oxford yellow stone ochre, 8}4 lb.; boiled 
linseed oil free from lead, IJ^ pints; terebene free from lead, 2}4 pints; 
spirits of turpentine, IJ^ pints. 

The paint is applied to the surface of the shell as it rotates at about 
200 r.p.m. on the electrically driven turntable. The table is controlled 
by a foot-operated switch. One man can paint about 40 shells per hour. 



Chap. IV] BRITISH 4,5-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 365 

When the second coat is dry the brass plugs are luted and screwed into 
the sockets, thus completing the job. 

The luting consists of 80 parts of whiting and 21 parts of oil, both by- 
weight, kept fluid by heating. The materials are to be of the best quaUty. 
The oil is 20 parts vaseline and 1 part castor oil well mixed before it is 
added to the whiting. 

The vaseUne is to be a genuine mineral residue without any foreign 
mixture. It should have a flash point not below 400 deg. F. and a melt- 
ing point not below 86 deg. F., and is to be free from solid mineral matter. 
The castor oil must be genuine. The whiting is to be of the quality 
known as "Town Whiting" and is to be free from moisture. 

Luting and Packing. — The luting, when finished, must be thoroughly 
mixed, plastic and free from lumps. If on examination of a sample of 
10 per cent, of the invoice it is found that the sample does not comply 
with the specification, all the material invoices will be rejected without 
further examination. The luting may be inspected during the manu- 
facture by, and after delivery will be subject to test and to the final 
approval of, the Chief Inspector, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, or an officer 
deputed by him. 

Substantial wooden boxes are used for shipping and two shells are 
packed ''heads and tails" in each box. A government inspector- ex- 
amines each container to see that it holds two shells and he also "hefts" 
the weight of each shell. The cover is then screwed down and the case 
is ready for shipment. 



CHAPTER V 

MANUFACTUMNG BMTISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 

HOWITZER SHELLS! 

In the manufacture of 8-in. shells, the problem of economically hand- 
ling the heavy forgings is one the solution of which governs the output of 
a shop almost as much as does the machining operations involved. 

The rough body forgings weigh in the neighborhood of 250 lb. each 
and the finished shell with its adapter plug in place (see Fig. 273) weighs 
177 lb. Tackle is required for putting the work into and taking it out 
of the various machines and, for efficient operation, the work should be 
mechanically handled between machines in its journey through the shop. 
Also, a one-story machine shop is better adapted to the work than one 
in which the heavy forgings have to be raised to galleries, etc. 





FIO. 272. TTFES OF HOOKS AND CLAMPS USED IN HANDUNQ 8-IN. SHELLS FOR THE 

fc VARIOUS OPERATIONS 

A one-story machine shop with a capacity of 1,000 8-in. high-explosive 
howitzer shells per week — the time required for completing one shell being 
4J^ hours — was housed in a building 88X 128-ft., divided into four 22-ft. 
saw-tooth bays running lengthwise of the building. This shop handled 
the rough blanks from the forge shop and the heavy work as it was con- 
verted into a finished shell by tackle suspended from a monorail system, 
which ran down one bay and up the next in a zigzag passage through the 
building. Various types of hooks and clamps were required at different 
stages in the manufacture of the shell (see Fig. 272) but, except for the 
interruptions at the machines, for inspections, etc., the work traveled 
forward expeditiously. 

* Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinist. 

366 



Chap. V] BRITISH ».1N. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 



368 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sec. II 

Making the Shell. — The rough blanks, the body forging and the 
adapter block, undergo twenty-five operations, IS on the body and 7 on 
the adapter, before they leave the shop, in the form of finished shells, for 
the bonded warehouses. 

The sequence of operations, together with illustrations of the work 
at the various stages, is as follows: 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. DrilUng the shell nose. 

2. Cutting off open eod of forging. 

3. Rough-turning shell body. 

4. Rough-boring shell body. 

5. Finish-boring shell body. 

6. Finish-turning shell body. 

7. Boring and tapping nose for fuse plug. 

8. Drilling and tapping for grub screw. 
0. Cutting band groove. 

10. Banding. 

11. Counterboring and threading for adapter plug. 

A. Facing and first rough-turning of adapter plug. 

B. Th rillin g TrTench holes in adapter plug. 

C. Second rough-turning and roughing out contour of adapter plug. 

D. Finish-turning outride and contour of adapter plug. 

E. Roughing adapter plug thread. 
P. Finishing adapter plug thread. 

Q. Turning fillet and squaring head of adapter plug. 

12. Screwing-in adapter plug. 

13. Facing shell to weight. 

14. Stamping end of shell. 

15. Removing adapter plug. 

16. Washing shells. 

17. Varnishing inside of shells. 

18. Turning copper band. 



Machine Used — W. P. & John Barnes vertical drilling machine. 
Fixtures — Revolving stand with drill bushings. 
Gagea — None. 
Production — 8 min. each. 



Chap. V] BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 




OPERATION 2 OCITI] 



Machine Used — Root & Van Dervoort 
special. 

Rxtures — Chuck length atop and 
handling truck. 

Gages— Lei^h. 

Cutting Speed— 35 to 45 ft. per min. 

Production — 8 min. eaeh. 



Roiraa turn oqtsidb 

Machine Used — Root t Van Dervoort 
special lathe. 

Fixtures — Mandrel and forming cam 
for tool slides. 

Grages — Snap for outside diameter; 
nose gage. 

Cutting Speed — 56 ft. per min. 

Production — 35 min.; expect to reduce 
k>25. 



OPEBATIONS 4 Ji 



ROCOH AND nNlSH BORE 



Machine Used — Root & Van Dervoort special. 
Fixtures and Tools — Boring bars and formers. 
Gages — Diameter and contour. 
Cutting Speed — 55 ft. per min. 
Pioduction^SS min. roughing, 20 min. finish. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




TOHN 



MB«lune Used — Root & Van Dervoort 
special. 

Fixturea and TooU — M&ndrel, one 
round tool former. 

Gages — Diameter and contour. 

Production — 30 min. each. 



OPERATION 7. BORE AND FACE NOSE 

Machines Used — Root & Vsn Dervoort 
special, Boker drilling machine. 

Fixtures and Tools — Collet chuck, 
Kelley reamer, Murchey tap. 

Gages — Diameter, thread and bevel 
surface. 

Production — 6 min. each. 



Machines Used — Portable drill and 
bench drill. 

Fixtures and Tools — Pot chuck, drilling 
jig, drill and tap. 

Gagea — Location of holes, diameter 
and thread. 

Production — 3 to 6 min. 



OPEBATION 9 

Machine Used — Root & Van Dervoort 
special. 

Fixture and Tools— See Fig. 278. 

Gages — Diameter, width, wave and 
undercut. 

Production— 20 min. each. 



Chap. V] BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 371 



10. BANDINQ 

Machine Used — West boDdbg ma- 
chine. 

Fluturee and Tools— None. 
Gages — None. 
Production — 3 min. each. 



Machine Used — Root A Van Dervoort 
Special. 

Fixtures and Tools — Boring bar and 
Murchey tap. 

Gages— Diameter and thread. 

Production — 15 min. each. 



Machine Used — Potter & Johnson Macbme Used — Vertical drilling ma' 

lathe. chine. 

Fixtures and Tools — Regular equip- Fixtures and Tools — Drilling fixture 

ment. stop drill socket and collar. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



Machine Used — Baker heavy duty 

Machiae Used — Potter & Johnson, drill. 
Root & Van Dervoort. Fixtures and Toots — ^Tool holder and 

Fixtures and Tools — Special cutters, Murchey die. 
chuck and tools. 



OPERATION 12. 

PLOa 

Machine Used — None. 
Fixtures and Tools — Pot chuck and 
pin wrench. 

Production — 5 min. each. 



Chap. VI BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 373 




OPEBATION 13. rACC TO WBIOHT OPERATION 14, STAUPINO 



Machine Used — Root & Van Dervoort Machine Used — None, 

special. Fixtures and Tools — Guiding plate, 

Fixtures — Scales and clamp. dies and hand tools. 
Production Time — 15 min. each. 



OPERATION 15. aSMOVINO ADAPTER PLUQ 



Machine Used — Electric drill. 
Fixtures and Tools — Special wrench. 



OPERATION 16. 

Machine Used — None. 

Fixtures and Tools — Special rrame and tanks. 

Cleansing Liquids — Hot soda and water, hot water. 



18. TTJHNING COPPEB BAND 

Machine Used — Root & Van Dervoort 

Machine Used — None. lathe. 

Fixtures and Tools — Special trucks, Fixtures and Tools — Roughing and 

air and varnish tanks, baking oven. undercutting toola. 

Baking Temperature— 300 to 325 
d^. F. 



374 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIiS 



(Sec. II 



The first operation is the drilling of a hole in the nose, which is done 
on a W. F. & John Barnes drilling machine. A special drilling fixture 
of the turntable variety carries two mandrels, upon which the rough 
blanks from the forge shop are slipped. These mandrels have a ring at 
the upper end, which fits inside the shell near the nose, so as to center 
the shell from the inside, but at the same time leaves plenty of room for 




no. 274. 



r DRILLIKQ FIXTURE t 



the nose drill to break through without interfering with the mandrel. 
Details of these mandrels appear in Fig. 274, only one spindle being given. 
The post A carries the centering plunger B, which is kept in the upper 
position by the spring C. The weight of the shell forces the plunger B 
down, so that the tapered lower end forces out the three fingers D to 
center the lower end of the shell while the collar on B centers the upper 



Chap. V] BRITISH S-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 375 

end. The shell is centered by the hole in the forging, it being easier to 
take care of eccentricity on the outside, where turning tools and carriages 
can be made stiffer, than in boring. The spring E throws the finger D 
in when the shell is removed. 

The posts are mounted on the turntable F, which is carried on a 
central ball bearing H and has two indexing positions. The base G 
carries the indexing pin J operated by the lever / and is also provided 
with a raised edge to retain the lubrication. Stepping on the lever /. 
withdraws the indexing pin J and also throws the ball bearing into action, 
making it easy to turn the table F. Releasing the lever allows the table 
to rest on the large and substantial annular bearing of the base. 

This drilling fixture has a swingipg plate, which centers itself over the 
shell to be drilled and also carries the drill bushing. It can be swung in 
either direction, so that only one drill bushing is required for both 
mandrels. 

After the hole is drilled, the shell goes to a special Root & Van Der- 
voort cutting-oflF machine with a spindle large enough for the shell to 
be slipped inside and held by three substantial screws. This places the 
shell inside the main bearing and avoids all overhang, permitting a 
cutting speed of from 35 to 40 ft. per min. with a heavy feed. In order 
to assist in centering the shell so that the ends shall be square with the 












---^-^— '------— .--—.-— —-----< 



0=n 



c=r=0 



L — ..1.1.11^., ' .»... ....1 ZLJ r 




FIG. 275. DRIYINQ MANDREL FOR SHELL 



bore, there is a tapered stop or plug on the inside of the spindle, which 
enters the hole already drilled in the nose and centers that end of the 
shell, while the outer end is clamped by the three screws in the chuck 
previously referred to. This stop also locates the shell for cutting off 
to length. 

After this cutting-off operation the heat number, which had previously 
been stamped on the body of the shell, is transferred to the end, to 
prevent its being lost in the turning operation. 

Rough-turning comes next the shell being tested at the point to see 
if it will true up to the required size. In case the point is somewhat 
eccentric, it can be coaxed over a limited amount by means of special 



376 



HiaH-EXPLOSIVB SHELI£ 



(Sec. II 



brass cups, of varying thickness, which are placed over the ends of one 
or more of the locating and holding points in the work-holding mandrel. 
These mandrels, illustrated in Fig. 275, are operated by air chucks. The 
shell is set by the bent gage, Fig. 276, so as to conform to the location 
of the cam at the back of the lathe. This gages from the flange of the 
shell mandrel to the point of the shell. 




FIG. 276. OAOE FOR aETTINO 



Two tools are used in the rough-turning — one starting at the nose and 
the other about midway of the shell. They are held in independent tool 
slides on the carriage. One slide — the one with the nose tool— is 
controlled by the forming cam at the back of the lathe. 

This operation is also performed on a Root & Van Dervoort special 
lathe having the same typ>e of headstock as the cutting-ofif machine. 
The main bearing in each case is 14 in. in diameter by 7^8 in- long, the 
rear bearing being 7 ia. in diameter by 7H 'i- long- The same lathe 




CABT^STBEl BOBINO BAR. 



head is used for both the turning and the boring lathe, a special mandrel. 
Fig. 275, being bolted to the end of the hollow lathe spindle for the 
outside operations. 

The lathes for the internal work are fitted with special steel djaw-in 
collets operated by air and fitting the roughly turned shell. 

Rough-boring comes first, the shell fitting inside the lathe spindle as 



Chap. V] BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHEUS 377 

in cutting o£F. A heavy boring bar made of a steel casting ia used for 
this work, being guided for contour by the slotted cam at the back of 
the lathe bed. Details of the boring bar will be found in Fig. 277. 
Finish-boring is done in a eimilar manner on an adjoining lathe, the work 
progressing from one machine to the next, in order to reduce handling 
to a minimum. 

Finish-turning is performed by a single round tool that is held sta- 
tionary and turned only when it is desirable to present a fresh cutting 
edge to the work. This method gives a fairly broad contact and leaves 
a smooth finish on the work. After the finish-turning, the heat number 
is stamped on the nose of the shell, so as to preserve it when the outer 
end has been faced off to length and to secure the specified weight. 

Boring and tapping the nose for the fuse, the next operation is done 
under a Baker vertical drilling machine, the reamer and tap being changed 
by means of a magic chuck. 

Drilling and tapping for the fixing or grub screw, operation 8, com- 
prise one of the vexatious operations on a shell of this kind. The pro- 
cedure which is proving satisfactory, both for drilling and tapping, 
however, is the use of sensitive vertical bench drills, under which the 
shells are rolled, along a bench, until they come under the drill. 



no. 27S. TOBRET 




ON SAUE CARBIAOB 



BACK GEOOTItia TOOLS 



The wave groove for the band is the succeeding, or ninth, operation, 
for which another Root & Van Dervoort machine is made to serve by us- 
ing a special turret and a cross-slide, Fig. 278. First, two parting tools A, 
Fig. 278, come in from the back and cut down the side of the groove. 
Then a tool block B is swung in from the pivot C. It carries the tool 
which chamfers the end of the shell and faces it square with the groove 
for the banding operation. 

Then six grooves are cut in the band space by a gang of parting tools 
F, to break up the width of the chip, which would be about 2 in. wide. 
The metal that is left is faced down with the fiat cutter G. The waves 



378 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

are then cut with the formed cutter H by means of the wave cam on the 
face of the chuck and the roller /. The sides of the groove are undercut 
by two tools J moving at the proper angle and controlled by the handle 
K, which operates through a worm and racks on the back of the tools. 
The indexing is by the side handle, which first withdraws the bolt and 
then turns the turret. This arrangement gives a particularly con- 
venient mode of operating tool-post turrets of this kind. Then comes 
the first government inspection for the operations as far as they have 
proceeded. 

Banding is done on the West hydraulic machine, the band being 
heated in a Stewart gas-burning furnace. Considerable experimenting 
was necessary to secure entire satisfaction in this operation, as it is a 
large band to force into place so as to fill completely the undercut at the 
side of the band groove. 

It has been found that 1,150 deg. F. gives the best results with about 
2,400 lb. pressure, there being three squeezes in order to seat the ring 
properly in every way. It was also found that the width of the 
ring plays quite an important part in having it fill the undercut. Best 
results are secured by turning the ring to 3^4 in. less than the minimum 
width of the groove when cold. This means that a slight shaving takes 
place from the ring when it is forced into place, but it insures enough 
metal at the bottom of the band groove to flow nicely into the corners 
of the undercut. Production time, 3 min. each. 

Next come the counterboring and threading for the adapter plug 
and for the open end of the shell. The threading operation and the 
plug itself are both interesting. The shell is held in the same type 
of lathe as for cutting oflf in the second operation. The tools con- 
sist of a boring bar and a Murchey tap, mounted in a specially heavy 
turret. When the toughness of the steel is considered and also the fact 
that this thread is 5.435 in. in outside diameter with an 8-pitch, left- 
handed Whitworth thread, it will be seen that considerable metal must 
be removed at each tapping operation. The shells are bored, counter- 
bored at the end of the thread and the tap run in at 10 r.p.m., making 
exceptionally fast threading for this diameter. A finishing tap is also 
used, in order to maintain the thread size. Production time, 15 min. 
each. 

The thread is then cleaned out with a brush and an air jet, prepara- 
tory to the insertion of the adapter. 

The adapter plug, which screws into the base of the shell, is made 
from a forging weighing 30 lb. The first operation, is to face and rough* 
turn the head on a large Potter & Johnston machine, the regular 
tool equipment being used for this purpose. The piece is chucked 
by the head and rough-turned on the outside, while the curved contour 
is also roughed out by flat cutters approximating the correct form. 



Chap. V] BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 379 

Next comes the drilling of the two %-m. holes for the pin wrench and 
also for holding in some of the future operations. The drilling fixture for 
this operation is shown in Fig. 279 and the stop drill socket and collar In 
Fig. 280. The gage for the holes is illustrated in Fig. 281. 




FIO. 279. DRILUNO FIXTUBE 



For the next four operations, the plug is driven by two pins fitting 
into the wrench holes. The driving holder A, Fig. 282, is bolted against 
the face of a three-jaw chuck, the slots in the holder accommodating 
the ends of the jaws. The driving stress, however, is carried by the 

two steel pins. 



I 



V). STOP DRILL SOCKET A 



The third and fourth operations on the adapter plug are performed 
on both Potter & Johnson and Root & Van Dervoort machines and con- 
sist; 1st, in rough-turning the outside and roughing the contour of the 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



plug; and 2d, in finishing off the sides and contour. The tools for these 
operations are detailed in Fig. 282. 

The thread is then cut under a Baker vertical heavy-duty drilling 



H^ 



^.- n xn 



""^Wi 



110. 281. OAOB FOB BOLEB I 







h 




\ 
■4* J 


.../-. 


— l-i 






HoMlr for AdOptvr nu9» 
AND TOOLS rOR FLCO 



machine furnished with a Murchey self-opening die and a special knock- 
out that has been arranged particularly for this work. The latter con- 
sists of two fingers of small section, which go down between two of the 
chasers, opening the die when they strike the head. 



Chap. VJ BRITISH 8-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 381 

The thread is an 8 to the inch, of Whitworth form and left-handed, 
and the cutting is done at 8 r.p.m., using for a lubricant Sol-cut with a 
trace of tri-sodium phosphate added to it. It has proved much more 
satisfactory than the cutting oil that was first tried, as it leaves a better 
finish on the work and is apparently easier on the die. 

The plug is held for threading by simply placing the two wrench 
holes over dowels in the holding fixture on the drilling table. The opera- 
tor makes a small punch mark to show which way the plug was placed 
on the fixture for the first threading. 

The feed is geared so as to lead the die at its proper rate, and the 
punch mark allows the plug to be replaced for the finish (operation F, 
the sixth on the plug). By bringing the die head down on a distance 
block before throwing in the feed, the proper lead is maintained, and 
there is no trouble experienced in catching threads. The finishing die 
removes H^ in. and leaves a good thread on the plug. The roughing 
cut is taken at the rate of 8 r.p.m., while the finish cut is speeded up 
to 12 r.p.m. 

For the final operation on the plug as a separate piece it is screwed into 
a sleeve chuck. This is to bottom it so as to allow the fillet to be turned 
and the under side of the head to be squared. The outside is then turned 
true with the thread and the fillet turned, this being done on an engine 
lathe. The finished plug weighs about 19 lb. 

The finished plug is then screwed into place in the shell. For this 
operation, the twelfth, the shell is held in a clamping stand of the pot 
chuck type and the adapter screwed firmly in place with a long handled 
pin wrench. 

With the adapter snugly fitted, the large end of the shell is faced to 
weight on a' special Root & Van Dervoort lathe. The shell is held in a 
regular draw-in chuck and over the lathe is a jib crane which carries a 
beam scale. The shell is carefully weighed before being placed in the 
chuck. It is then chucked and an amount of metal faced from the 
adapter end to bring the shell to weight. The removal of J^2 i^^- of both 
shell and adapter jeduces the weight 6% oz., while a %2-ui- cut takes 
oflf 1 lb. 4 oz.; and a ^i-in., 3 lb. 6% oz. An accurate table giving fine 
weight records is hung in plain sight of the operator so that he can see 
at a glance the exact thickness of cut required for a particular reduction 
in weight. 

After facing to weight, the end is again stamped with the heat number 
and other symbols, operation 14, this work being done by hand through 
a specially made guiding plate. The adapter plug is then removed for 
cleaning the inside and varnishing, an electrically driven drill properly 
geared down serving for this purpose. 

The shells are cleaned with hot soda and water in a special device. 
It consists of a framework A, built up of wood and steel, into which the 




382 HIQH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS ISec. II 

shells are set point down. The whole framework ia then lowered into 
a tank of hot soda water, where it remains as long as necessary. The 
shells are next washed in plain water, after which they are ready for 
varnishing. 

The varnishing is done by a different method than usually employed. 
For this purpose special trucks have been made, the 
upper part consisting of a framework that carries 12 
shells, nose down, in a cast-iron frame. The con- 
struction of this frame is given in Fig. 283, a bronze 
collar with the same curve as the nose of the shell 
being placed in the lower section to hold the shell 
""' oriBuc™"" fi™'y without bruising. 

The truck with its load of shells is run beside the 
varnishing tanks, which are shown in outline in Fig. 284. An elbow 
Is screwed into the nose of a shell, completely covering the threaded 
portion and thereby preventing 
varnish from getting into it. The 
elbow is then connected to a hose 
running to the varnish tank. 
Manipulating the three-way cock 
allows pressure from the air tank 
to force varnish up into the shell, 
which is stopped when the height f,q_ 284. i 
reaches the recess below the 
adapter-plug thread. The air is then shut off, and the varnish returns 
by gravity to its tank, allowing just enough to adhere to cover the 
inside of the shell. With the elbow left in place, to prevent the varnish 
from running down into the 
thread, the truck load of shells 
is run into the baking oven 
where they are held at a tem- 
perature of 300 to 325 deg. for 
a sufficient period thoroughly to 
bake the varnish. 

The bands are next turned 
on a short-bed Root & Van 
Dervoort lathe by means of two 
formed tools. The front tool 
merely roughs out the band to 
no. 285. OROMMET IN PI.ACB the approximate shape, while 

the rear undercutting or shaving 
tool gives it the final form, including the proper serrations at the point. 
Final inspection comes next, after which the grommet or endless- 
rope band is slipped over the shell close up to the front of the upper band 



Chap. V] BRITISH S-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 383 

as in Fig. 285. The grommet remains on the shell, as it affords protection 
to the band, both in handling and in shipping. Then the plug is screwed 
into the body, and the shells are boxed for shipment, one shell in a box. 
During the course of manufacture, the shell body is subjected to 
some seventeen rigid inspections, in addition to the examination of the 
rough f orgings and the final shop inspection. The adapter plug is exam- 
ined likewise at various stages of development. Acciu-ate gages are 
essential and exacting inspection instructions are issued as a precaution- 
ary measure. Standard instructions for inspecting the main shell are 
as follows: 

INSPECTION INSTRUCTION 

Inspection of Rough Forging — The rough forging is examined for heat number 
and for the two acceptance marks. If the heat number should come directly on the 
nose of the shell, it is transferred by the inspector to the side of the nose of the shell. 
The shells are inspected for lengths, outside diameter and inside diameter, which is 
done by the use of calipers, and are also measured for concentricity by the use of a 
special concentricity gage. 

From four to eight shells are placed on the bench by the inspector's helper, and 
the inspector does the measuring, carefully marking the amount of concentricity at 
the high point of the shell. This marking is done with a brush and yellow ochre. 
Shell forgings are piled so that all forgings eccentric H i^- or more are in one pile, 
while forgings that come eccentric ^ in. or less are piled in another pile. 

The forgings are also inspected for deep flaws or grooves. All forgings not com- 
ing up to requirements are held for the decision of the chief inspector, who in turn 
takes up any questions as to the availability of the forgings with the British inspector. 

Operation 1. — Drill and Rough-Face — ^The length of hole is carefully inspected 
by the use of gage provided. The inspector also looks through the hole in the nose 
of shell from the rear end, ascertaining if the hole is reasonably concentric with the 
bore. The inspector ascertains that there are no flaws in the hole. 

Operation 2. — Cut-Off End — The inspector ascertains that the operator has trans- 
ferred the heat number from the nose of the shell to the end which has been cut off. 
The length of the shell is ascertained by use of gage provided. The forging also is 
inspected for cracks or flaws. 

Operation 3. — Rough-Turn — The inspector ascertains that the outside diameter 
is within the limits according to special gage and also ascertains that the contour of 
the outside is according to the special gage. The diameter of the small end is care- 
fully measured with a special limit gage. The finish is examined, and care is taken 
to see that there is no step of appreciable depth in the forging, and also the whole 
exterior surface is carefully examined for flaws. 

Operation 4. — Rough-Bore — The inside diameter is checked with limit gages 
provided. The inside contour is checked with gage provided and the length of the 
hole in front carefully checked to see that same will clean up. A special gage must 
be provided for this. The interior surface is carefully inspected by the aid of a look- 
ing-glass and a small electric light, or other suitable means to ascertain that there are 
no flaws or cracks in the forging. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI5 



^fr//::::^^ 


-fibr 


-^r 




zifr: 


A 



TIO. 2SA. OAOEB FOR 




4 AKD 5 



Operation 5. — Finish-Bore — The inBide diwneter ia checked according to gages. 
The contour of the inside is checked according to gagea, and the general concentricity 
of the shell ia aacertained by the use of calipers. The length of hole and nose is also 
carefully watched tor, and a special gage is used. Special care is taken to ascertain 
that the proper finish is obtained in the bore, any irr^ularities being cause for the 
rejection or holding for correction of the work. The shell is alao inspected for flaws. 




na. 287. qaqes won length anu wall TaicKNEaa 



Operalion 6. — Bore aod Thread Nose — The final stamping of the heat number on 
the rounded part of the outride of the shell is ascertained. The outside diameter in 
front of the copper band is checked with gages provided. The diameter of the 
sides below the copper band is checked with gages provided. The diameter of the 
face of the nose is also carefully checked. The outside finish is iDspected and must 
be as good or better thao the sample. 

The diameter of the side of the hole is carefully ascertained by the use of limit 
gages provided, and the diameter and angle of facing are carefully checked. The 
finish of the thread ia carefully inspected and is also inspected for flaws or chipping 
out in thia thread. 

Operation 7. — Drill and Tap for Grub Screw — The distance of the hole from the 
face ia aacertained, and size of the thread is tried with a tap used asapluggage. The 



Chap. VI BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 386 

appearance of the thread is carefully checked, and if the thread causes a burr on the 
large thread m the nose the shell body must be retapped. 

OpercUian 8. — Wave Grooves — The width of the groove, the diameter at the bottom 
of the groove, the diameter of the waves, the throw of the waves and the amount of 
undercutting are carefully checked by the use of gages provided. The finish of the 
waves and the groove in general is carefully checked. 

Operation 9. — Bands — All copper bands are examined before they are placed on 
the shell, to ascertain that no scale is on the inside of same. After the shell is banded, 
the inspector tests the band by the use of a very small hammer, placing his left finger 
on the part near where he strikes a blow, and he can readOy ascertain whether the 
band has been properly seated. Great care is exercised at all times so that careful 
inspection is maintained on this point. 






T 



(ASriffON 



y 



^Vt 



HerM-ShM6aga ^ 

, All LMIVJiOKrOOOOe' \ 








FIG. 288. GAGES FOR OPERATION 9 

Operation 10. — Thread and Counterbore — The forging is carefully inspected for 
sixe of counterbore, for fillet at bottom of counterbore, for smoothness of machining, 
for correct size of thread and depth of same in relation to necking. 



• ••••■•■^■•» mm-^»mmm^» w **^** ^^V ****^^^"^** w^w* «^ *^* • •• ^''^t 



T 
I 






.ega'*aoot! J 



HACMfNeSTaitaatLHaref&nf 
VIQ, 289. GAGES FOR OPEN END OF SHELL 



Operation 11. — Clean Threads — ^The threads are inspected to ascertain that they 
are perfectly clean, the operator calUng on inspector before screwing in the adapter 
plug. The adapter plug is then screwed in, in the inspector's presence, and same 
25 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



must be screwed in bo that the head will seat properly in the counterbore. A. little 
vaseline mixed with gasoline is uaed oa a lubricant. 




OPEN END OF BHELL 



Operation 12. — Facing to Weight — The shell is examined to see that the face ie 
smooth, to see that the radius of the fillet is correct, and is also carefully we^ed tc 
see that it comes within the limits of the weight requirements. 




B FOB ADAPTFR F 



Operaliim 13. — Stamp — The shells are carefully inspected to see that the proper 
stamping, conusting of 8-in. Howitzer — 3, F dc S, date of completion, trade-mark, 
beat number and aerial nutnbere are stamped neatly and correctly. 



Chap. Y] BRITISH 8-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITZER SHELLS 387 



Operaiion 14. — ^Remove Adapter Plug — No lOBpection is neceflsary except to be 
sure that the operator does not damage the threads of either the shell or adapter 
plug in this operation. 

Operation 15. — Clean Shell — ^The shell body, especiaUy the interior, is gone over 
carefully to see that shell is perfectly dry and clean. 



^ 






-t 



'-^Ikm 






•7#' 



J 






r 



"""SSS- 



T^x r4- 



Li 






S 



s 



kwJl J|T* 



no. 293. OAQB FOB HEAD OF PLUG 

OperoXvm 16. — Varnish — Special attention is given to this operation, as it is im* 
perative that the coating of the varnish is absolutely smooth, free from cracks and 
that there is no varnish in either of the threads. The inspection can be well done with 
an electric light and a mirror. 



L 




Xf- ^Dhm •"•>! 



ItiDiam 



FIQ. 294. MEASURINQ THICKNESS OF HEAD 

Operation 17. — ^Tum Copper Bands — The diameter and general shape, the width 
and depth of groove, the spacing of serrations and the shape of the band are carefully 
inspected by the use of gages provided. The finish according to sample must be 
maintained. 



388 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sm. II 

Prelimioaiy and Final lospection — The preliminary inspection consiato of going 
over each shell body and adapter plug and ascertaining that all dimensions and con- 
ditions are according to the drawing and specifications. Gages are provided for this 
operation, but a scale is used in order to enable the checlcing of the weight of various 
parts, so that the wei(tht will come out right in the end. 



A . « 

no. 295. OAQBB FOB BAND, OPIBATION IS 

The final inspection consists of going over all inspection done prior to this opera- 
tion and checking up each item to see that the shell is according to the accepted 
standards. The adapter-plug fit is carefully tried on each shell. 



CHAPTER VI 

OPERATIONS ON THE BRITISH 9.2-IN. MARE IX HOWITZER 

SHELL' 

The American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co. at their plant in Erie, 
Pa., have developed a system of manufacture for 9.2-in. high-explosive 
shells which not only enabled the carrying out of their original contract 
with the British Government of 150,000 of these powerful projectiles in 
record time, but further secured for that company new contracts aggre- 
gating several hundred thousand more shells. The original shop has a 
capacity of some 2,000 shells per day of 24 hours and has proved so 
efficiently planned and laid out that a second shop, practically a dupli- 
cate of the first, has been erected and similarly equipped to care for 
the increased business. 

Fig. 296 depicts the original shop and general arrangement of equip- 
ment, etc. It will be noted that the shop is divided lengthwise into five 
units, each one of which is a complete and individual shell producing 
plant with duplicate sets of machines, and quite independent of the other 
units. There is absolutely no back tracking. The rough forgings enter 
at the north end of the shop, progressing from operation to operation in 
virtually a straight line, and leave the southern end of the shop as com- 
pleted shells ready for final inspection, then for boxing and shipping. 

Extending down each unit center aisle is a continuous table or bench 
on which the shells are rolled as they progress through the shop from 
machine to machine for the various operations, and upon which the 
individual inspections following each operation are performed. That is, 
the work from the various machines is gaged and inspected on these 
tables and rolled forward to the group of machines for the next operation, 
but not until proved satisfactory in every particular. An overhead 
I-beam trolley system follows these inspection tables and any work 
which may not be quite up to standard or which would have a tendency 
to retard uniform rate of progress is lifted out of the procession by a 
block and tackle trolley and run over to the hospital unit, the unit reserved 
for the correction of faulty shells. This arrangement assures rapid 
progress of work down four of the five units by avoiding all interruptions 
for correction of errors, etc. 

The arrangement of machines in parallel units dupUcating one 
another has also the effect of stimulating output, for, consciously or 

^ Reginald Trautschold. 

389 



390 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 




Chap. VI] BRITISH 9.2-IN. MARK IX HOWITZER SHELL 391 

unconsciously, similar work moving down the shop in four adjacent 
lines keeps the operators in each unit in competition with their neighbors 
and the results of each line are at once apparent by the delivery of work 
at the southern end of the aisle tables. 

On completion of the thirteenth operation on the shell, the finished 
base plug, manufactiu'ed in a separate department located as shown 
on the plan of the shop, Fig. 296, joins the procession to the baking ovens 
at the far southern end of the shop so there is no interruption to the 
progressive system of manufacture. 

The machine equipment is planned for the balance of all units. That 
is, the equipment of each unit is such that an average output of about 
400 shells per unit can be secured, the number of machines installed 
for each particular operation being such that the average hourly capacity 
production from each unit group of machines is between 15 and 18 shells. 
This gives about 1,600 shells for the daily capacity of four of the imits 
which is supplemented by the output of the "hospital unit," placing 
the total capacity of the shop at some 2,000 completed shells every 
24 hours. 

Charging each operation with the time consumed in inserting the 
work, in the actual operation, in removing the completed work and in the 
required inspection, the production rate per machine can be closely 
approximated, for the high output of the American Brake Shoe and 
Foimdry Co. has only been secured by keeping all machines busy for 
24 hours per day. 

The rough forgings are received on the siding to the west of the 
machine shop and are unloaded by means of overhead traveUng cranes 
equipped with electric magnets. One magnet will lift ten forgings, a 
load of between 1^ and 2 tons. These forgings pass through but 25 
operations, only 13 of which are really machim'ng operations, before they 
are actually on their way to the loading plant in the form of completed 
and accepted shells. The sequence of these operations is as follows: 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. Drilling nose. 

2. Trimming open end of shell. 

3. Finishing inside. 

4. Reboring nose-hole. 

5. Rough turning. 

6. Finish turning. 

7. Cutting band groove. 

8. Waving band groove. 

9. Pressing on copper band, 

10. Finishing base. 

11. Threading base. 

12. Finishing nose. 



392 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. H 

13. Turning copper band. 

14. Weighing and assembling base plug. 

15. Removing base plug, cleaning and washing. 

16. Weighing. 

17. Cementing base plug in shell and riveting. 

18. Facing base. 

19. Varnishing. 

20. Baking varnish. 

21. Cleaning, sizing and removing burrs. 

22. Company final inspection. 

23. Government inspection. 

24. Boxing. 

25. Shipping. 

Making the Shell. — The shell shown in Figs. 297 and 298 is made 
from a forging from 29 to 30 in. in length, about 10 in. in diameter with 
a 6-in. hole extending up from Ihe base to within 3 in. of the nose end 
of the forging, the 9-in. section toward the nose being contracted to 
conform roughly to the inner profile of the finished shell. 

The first operation on the shell forging consists in drilling a hole 
through the nose of the shell, an imusual initial step but one adopted 
by the American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co. in view of the fact that 
their method of procedure involves the complete inside finishing of the 
shell before working on its exterior and the drilled nose furnishes a 
concentric and accurately located surface upon which to center the forg- 
ing for the inside work. The nose is drUled on vertical drilUng machines 
in which the work table is of the turntable type supporting two vertical 
arbors of the mushroom variety mounted 180 deg. apart. The loca- 
tion of these arbors is such that revolving the turntable brings first one 
and then the other directly under the drill spindle. The rough forgings 
are simply slipped over the arbors, one being drilled while the drilled 
forging is removed from the other arbor and a fresh forging mounted in 
its place. A production of more than 15 forgings per hr. can thus be 
maintained per machine. 

The second operation consists in trimming off the open end of the 
forging, about 2 in. of the ragged shell being removed. This is done on 
special cutting-off machines with hollow spindles for the accommodation 
of the forging, which is centered on a mandrel slipping into the nose- 
hole drilled in the first operation. An average of 10 forgings can be 
trimmed easily per machine per hr. 

The machine used in the next operation, which consists in completely 
finishing the inside of the shell, is the heavy boring machine built by the 
Amalgamated Corporation, Chicago, 111. This is one of the machines 
developed to meet the unprecedented demand for heavy lathes for shell 
work. The boring machine (see Fig. 299), as well as the turning machine 
used for the fifth and sixth operations on the shell, is of simple but un- 
usual design. The headstock, bed and tailstock are cast in one piece. 



BRITISH 6.2-lN. MARK IX HOWITZER SHELL 




,ftW77|f< ■■A\z/6-rH 

^isenlw ^\'too2y 

,26£TlU ■ ■ »^'^/*■■2W 



394 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

The heavy driving spindle has a plain noae, attachment faceplate and a 
morse taper center. The boring machine carri^e is 67 in, long with a 
travel of 44 in. and carries a boring bar S^Ks i°- i" diameter. The 
drive is through double back gears with 16 to 1 reduction. The machine 
is provided with both hand and power feed and thrust bearings are fur- 
nished on both the spindle and the lead screw. 

The Amalgamated heavy-turning machines used foi the tiu-ning 
operations on the shell are similar in design to the boring machines 
manufactured by the same company except that the carriage is but 40 
in. long with a travel of 39 in. on the ways. This machine is fum^hed 
with a forming attachment for following the contour of the shell and 
is also driven through doiible back gears. 

In the operation in which the inside of the shell is finished in the 
heavy Amalgamated boring machines, the shell is centered on the hole 



Fia. 29S' HEATT BORIN'O 

drilled through the nose and is supported by a steadyrest. The boring 
bar is furnished with bits conforming in contour to the inside finished 
profile of the shell. This operation, including the setting-up, removing 
the work and all inspections, etc. can be performed in from 30 to 40 min. 
on the special boring machines. 

As the finished inside of the shell may not be exactly concentric with 
the hole drilled through the nose this hole is rebored in the next opera- 
tion, the shell being mounted on an expansion arbor to a^ure concentric* 
ity. This operation consumes but 3 or 4 min. 

In the next two operations, the fifth and sixth. Amalgamated turning 
machines are used, the shells being driven by their bases. In the fifth 
operation, the shell is roughly turned to form and in the sixth operation 
finish turned. The turning tool, in either operation, is clamped to the 
tool slide of the machine and is controlled by a suitable former at the 
rear of the machine. The production rate, including the customary 
inspections, etc., is about 2 shells per hr. per machine, for either opera- 
tion. This production is made possible through the ruggedness and 



Chap. VI] BRITISH O.WN. MARK IX HOWITZER SHELL 395 

power of the turning machine, it being possible to take a chip % i^- "s/nde 
and ^i in. thick on a 9.2-in. shell at a speed of but 28 r.p.m. on these 
machines. 

The driving band is formed, but not waved, in the next operation. 
This is a turret lathe task, four tools being used to rough-out the groove, 
undercut the two edges and finish the groove on the sides adjacent to 
the waved section which is cut in the eighth operation. The scoring 
of the band groove, the seventh operation, consumes about 15 min. 

The shell with the cut band score is then transferred to another 
lathe equipped with a waving attachment and waved ribs cut encircUng 
the groove, sufficient metal having been left in the previous operation to 
permit the forming of 70-deg. sharp angled ribs protruding ^oo ^' ^i^oi^ 
the smooth bottom of the band groove. This waving operation takes 
about 7}4 nwn. 

The copper driving bands are next pressed on. These bands are 
furnished in the form of rings, 10 in. in outer diameter, approximately 
9 in. in inside diameter and 2}4 in. wide, which when heated to a red 
heat will just slip over the open end of the sheU. Several squeezes are 
given to the band in the banding press to assure uniform tightness. 
About 4 min. is all that is required to band a shell. 

Banding before the insertion of the base plug, as is required in the 
manufacture of this shell, tends to offset the concentricity of the shell 
base so that the next operation consists in truing up the base and finish- 
ing it preparatory to the threading for the base plug. Four sub-opera- 
tions are required: Ist, reboring; 2d, counterboring; 3d, rounding the 
edge of the base, cutting the radius; and 4th, facing the base. This 
ordinarily takes about 2 or 3 min. 

The threading of the base for the insertion of the base plug is done on 
Lees Bradner threading machines and is of particular interest in that 
the shoulder against which the base plug seats is squared up with the 
threaded section at the same time. This is accomplished by mounting 
a suitable milling cutter upon the spindle with the threading hob so that 
the shoulder is lightly touched up and trued as the last thread is cut. 
This assures the perfect seating of the base plug in the fourteenth opera- 
tion. The finishing of the base takes but 2 or 3 min. 

In the next operation, the nose is finished in about 15 min. This 
includes the reaming out of the nose-hole, the cutting of the recess below 
the threaded section, threading and counterboring, as well as the neces- 
sary gaging and inspecting. 

The turning of the copper driving band completes the operations on 
the shell forging as an individual unit and is performed in about 7 min., 
notwithstanding the fact that five distinct sub-operations, besides the 
necessary inspection, are entailed. The rough band is turned to size, 
the forward end tapered, the two square grooves cut, the back of the 



396 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

band beveled and the serrations cut on the forward tapered section. 
These are all performed with one setting of the machine, the various 
tools being carried on a multi-station turret with cross feed. 

At this point in the development of the shell, the base plugs join the 
procession. These are made in a separate department equipped with 
the necessary lathes, drilling machines' and thread millers. The lathe 
work, including the various turning operations, inspections, etc., takes 
about 35 min. per base plug; the drilling work about 2 min. and the 
threading about 15 min. per base plug. 

The shoulder of the base plug is trued up with the threads in a manner 
similar to that employed in squaring up the seat in the shell forging — i.e. 
mounting a milling cutter on the spindle with the threading hob of the, 
Lees Bradner threading machine, with which the shoulder is touched up 
on completion of the thread milling. 

The fourteenth operation consists in weighing the shell and inserting 
the base plug to ascertain the perfection of fit, seating, etc. The base 
plug is then removed from the shell and the parts thoroughly cleaned and 
washed. 

After a careful weighing of both shell body and base plug, the toler- 
ance from the required weight of 252 lb. 8 oz. being but plus 1 lb. 4 oz. 
or minus 2 lb. 8 oz., the base plug threads are coated with Pettmen 
cement and the plug firmly screwed down into the body. The base 
plug is then further secured by riveting. This completes the seventeenth 
operation. 

Facing the base scarred by the riveting constitutes the eighteenth 
operation and completes the shell with the exception of the varnishing 
and baking. 

The varnishing operation consists simply in spraying the inside of the 
shell with a light uniform coat of varnish but requires considerable care, 
as if carelessly performed might cause the rejection of an otherwise 
satisfactory shell. 

The baking of the varnish, the twentieth operation, is regularly 
performed in an unusual and ingenious manner, the gas oven and the 
Burke electric oven shown at the south end of the shop being simply 
reserve units which are not usually used. The baking oven regularly 
employed consists of a box-Uke receptacle which is inverted and sup- 
ported on standards on which it can be raised and lowered by means of 
suitable tackle, inside of which are suspended a number of vertical 
electric heating coils. These coils are so located that as the box cover is 
lowered over freshly varnished shells placed between cleats on the floor 
they enter the nose of the shells and bake the varnish from the inside 
of the shells. Considerable experimenting was required to produce a 
heater which would emit heat at var3ring rate along the coil so that the 
baking would be uniform the full length of the shell and not too rapid. 



Chap. VI] BRITISH 9.2-lN. MARK IX HOWITZER SHELL 397 

The heater coil being further from the varnished sides toward the bottom 
of the shell than in the contracted nose section, more heat is required low 
down in the shell than in the upper sections. This is secured by placing 
more wire toward the lower end of the heating coil, the number of turns 
decreasing toward the top of the heating coil. The amount of wire is 
regulated not only by the distance of the heating from the varnished sides, 
but is afiFected also by the natural tendency of the heat to rise and unduly 
bake the varnish about the nose section. The suitable distribution of 
wire has been ascertained, however, and the heating coils dry and bake 
the varnish at the uniform rate required to guard against burning or 
overbaking in any section during the three hours during which the shells 
remain in the oven. 

The gas oven and the Burke Electric Oven have both been used to 
bake many shells but it has been found that the results are not as satis- 
factory either from a question of rapidity in production or uniformity 
in baking. By the time the heat in the ordinary types of ovens permeates 
through the comparatively thick waUs of the shells and commences 
drying out the varnish, the ovens baking from within the shells have 
already commenced to bake the varnish. 

From the electric ovens, the shells are placed on the sheltered plat- 
form at the south end of the building and adjacent to the baking ovens 
and are allowed to cool off naturally. When cool enough, the shells are 
thoroughly cleaned, touched up (sized) and burrs removed, after which 
they are trucked to the neighboring inspection shed and subjected to the 
final and exacting shop inspection. 

In the inspection shed and also in the bond house where the govern- 
ment inspection takes place, considerable time and much effort is saved 
by depressed pits in which the inspectors stand. The shells do not leave 
the floor level during inspection. Raising the shells to an inspection 
bench but 3 ft. above the floor level would entail the expenditure of 
over 1}4 million foot-pounds of energy each day, provided 2,000 shells 
are inspected during the 2i hours. In addition to this expenditure of 
force there would be the possibility of damage to the shells when return- 
ing them to the floor which is at the level of the freight car in which 
the shells are shipped to the loading factory. 

During the final shop inspection all previous inspections are dupli- 
cated and the shell thoroughly examined for faults, omissions or possible 
defects in workmanship, besides being carefully weighed and tested in 
every way, so that the shells passing to the government bond room are 
as near perfect as can be realized in commercial production of such 
projectiles. Any imperfect shell which might have slipped through the 
previous inspections is returned to the hospital unit for treatment. 

The government inspection, which follows the final shop inspection, 
is presumably just as exacting. 



398 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

After being suitably stamped by the government inspectors, the shells 
are individually boxed in substantial metal bound wooden boxes and 
are ready for shipment. The boxes are made up at the plant to assure 
an adequate supply at all times. They are received in knocked-down 
form^ to minimize the carpentry work and also to economize in freight 
charges. 

Diuing the manufacture of the shell, fifty or more pounds of chips 
are cut from each forging and the daily disposal of these is an important 
consideration. As fast as the cars in which the rough forgings are 
received are unloaded by the overhead traveling cranes with their electric 
magnets the same cranes are employed in reloading the emptied cars 
with chips. 



CHAPTER VII 

OPERATIONS ON THE BRITISH 12-IN. MARK IV HOWITZER 

SHELL' 

The operations entailed in the manufacture of 12-in. Mark IV high- 
explosive shells for the British Government do not differ to any great 
extent from those required in making the smaller projectiles, but the 
weight of the shell> close to 800 lb., compUcd,tes handling and necessitates 
the use of heavy equipment for all main operations. 

The shell shown in Fig. 300 is made from a forging approximately 
40K i^' long, 13 in. in diameter, with a 7-in. hole 37 in. deep extending 
up from the base end. In one large plant where between 400 and 500 
of these shells are produced each day the following manufacturing 
methods are pursued : 

The first operation is cutting ofiF to 38 in. in length. This is done on 
a special cutting-ofiF machine with a hollow spindle large enough to take 
the shell blank. The shell is pushed, nose end first, into the spindle. 
The nose end seats in and is centered by the internal conical end of the 
spindle. The rear end is centered and driven by four heavy setscrews 
spaced 90 deg. apart near the spindle end. Four similar setscrews on 
the nose end of the spindle are then tightened down on the work. The 
spindle is driven by a worm gear midway of its length, between the two 
bearings of the spindle. The machine is provided with three tool slides. 
One is at the front of the machine at the nose end of the spindle. At 
the base end of the spindle there are two tool slides, one at the front and 
one at the back of the machine. 

The tools are of high-speed steel, about }4 ^^' wide. One tool operates 
on the nose end of the shell, while on the base end two tools of the same 
size and material operate on the shell simultaneously from the front 
and back. The front tool of the two is ground square, while the rear 
tool has a rounded V-point to break the chip for the front tool. The 
spindle makes nearly 20 turns per minute, equal to about 65 ft. cutting 
speed on the work. The production is one shell cut off at both ends in 
15 min. The cutting to length operation is shown in diagrammatical 
form in Fig. 301 . 

The second operation — drilling and reaming the nose end of the shell 
— is done in a jig on large radial drilling machines. 

The shells are taken away from the cutting-off operation in National 

^ £. A. Suverkrop, Associate Editor, American MoohinUL 

399 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEUa 






ll^> 




III 

i?s8 



1^1 






i; 



Chap. VII] 



BRITISH 12-IN. MARK IV HOWITZER SHELL 



401 



Chapman trucks specially constructed for the purpose. With these 
trucks one man can easily handle shells weighing in the neighborhood 
of 800 lb. An end view of the truck, before raising the shell, is shown in 



llbotqtfhse 
£n€f,ftvkft 




rto brtak Chip 



Wwmclriv9 
FIG. 301. CUmNQ TO LENGTH 



Too 



laoi 



Fig. 302. In this illustration A is the shell l3ring on the floor. The 
angular wooden pieces B run the whole length of the elevating part of 
the truck and are located at such height that when the elevating part is 




End View of Truck 
FIG. 302. SHELL TRUCK, DRILL JIG AND LIFTING CLAMP 

at its lowest position they will clear the sides of the shell below its center 
about as shown in the illustration. When the elevating part is raised, 
the shell rests on the wooden pieces B. The braces C bridge over the 

26 



402 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 



shell from side to side of the truck to stifiFen it. The shells are lifted into 
and out of the jig for the next operation by a hoist and the clamp E, 
Fig. 302. 

At F, Fig. 302, is shown the jig. Two of these jigs are placed back 
to back on the base plate of the radial so that two laborers can then serve 
both fixtures. The post G for locating the work has a conical head that 
centers the top end by the conical bore. At the bottom, G is threaded 
for the conical centering collar J?, which is run up after the top is located 
on the conical head. The part 7, carrying the bushing J, pivots on K, 
The index pin L locks the part / so that the bushing is in line with the 
center of the post G. When L is removed, the part / can be swimg around 




L 



Centering Plug Fiftmg 
Lathes ifsing Otuci 
tohokltheWbrk. 

^ Base cf Shells * 



TTT 



r-- 



F" 




Tpfit Spinclle HoM 



A 



//y//^/iV/v^, 



w^^v\^\^^^\^^v 



y"Ro ilers ^^ 



i 



Caae io prevent 
roffers dropping 



*■ 




FIG. 303. DRIVINO AND CENTERINQ DBVICES FOR ROUQH-TURNINQ 



SO that the work can be inserted or removed. The strap clamp M holds 
the shell from turning. 

The nose of the shell is first drilled l^%2 ^^* Then the bushing is 
removed, and the hole is reamed 2J^2 ^^' The time for drilling and 
reaming is 6 min. per shell. 

The third operation is rough-turning the outside of the shell from base 
to nose. This is done on heavy engine lathes with a double-track former 
and roller follower at the back connecting with and controlling the tool 
at the front of the machine. A plug with a very slight taper is driven 
into the reamed hole in the nose of the shell. This plug is provided with 
a female center to fit the tail center of the lathe. 

Two methods are used for driving and centering the base end of the 
shell. A heavy three-lobed cam with three rollers, as shown in Fig. 
303, is entered in the rough-forged hole in the base of the sbelh With 



Chap. VllJ 



BRITISH 12-IN. MARK IV HOWITZER SHELL 



403 



this drive, the greater the cutting stress the farther the rollers are driven 
up the cam lobes and the tighter they grip the shell. 

The other method of drive is by four- jawed chucks provided with a 
simple but efficient centering device. The tapered plug A, Fig. 303, 
is securely fastened to the face of the chuck. It has four slots so that 
the jaws can enter it part way, as shown. With the jaws removed from 
the chuck this plug is turned slightly tapered to a diameter that will 
permit the base end of the shell to enter to about the point B, Fig. 303. 
When in operation the tail spindle of the lathe is used to force the base 
end of the shell to a seat on the centering plug A, The chuck jaws are 
then tightened in the hole, and the work is ready to turn. A single cut 
, averaging }4 ^^* i^ depth is taken on the body, reducing it to 12.1 in. 
in diameter. Two cuts are required on the nose. The speed is 16 r.p.m., 
and the production is about one shell in 1 hr. 40 min. 



B 




Sfieae^fTtst 













Spintfit 



Guidt 



FIG. 304. BORING THE SHELL 



The fourth operation is boring, which is done on heavy lathes with a 
double-track former A at the back to guide the boring bar B, as shown 
in Fig. 304. The work is held in a heavy pot chuck, split and hinged 
longitudinaUy. The rear end of this chuck screws on the spindle nose, 
while the front end runs in a steadyrest. The nose of the rough-tiu'ned 
shell is centered at the back end of the chuck by forcing it to a seat in 
the machined conical inner end of the chuck. At the forward end of the 
chuck, outside the steadyrest and easily accessible, are foiu- equally 
spaced hollow setscrews C, which are used to center and drive the work. 
The front end of the chuck is bored; and the operator uses a feeler between 
it and the work when tightening the setscrews, to make sure that the 
work is concentric with the chuck. 

The boring bar is about 4 in. in diameter — that is to say, as heavy as 
it can be made and still clear the opposite side of the hole when at the 
small end of the bore. The forward end is tapered on the side opposite 
the cutter, so that it will clear the conical end of the hole. For boring, 
the speed is about 30 r.p.m. One to two cuts are required to finish the 



404 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Ssc. II 



inside to 7J^ in. in diameter, 35)^ in. deep. The production time is 
about the same as for rough-boring — one shell in 1 hr. 40 min. 

The fifth operation, facing and threading the nose end of the shell 
for the socket, is done on heavy engine lathes. The work is held in a 
pot chuck with the nose of the shell projecting therefrom. The carriage 
of the lathe carries a square tiu-ret, as shown in Fig. 305. The hole in 
the nose is supported on the center held in No. 1 station while the set- 
screws in the pot chuck are adjusted. The nose is then faced and the 
hole trued up with the tool in No. 2 station. The double cutter in No. 3 
station brings the hole to tapping size, and the tap in No. 4 station taps 
the nose. The socket is then smeared with Pettman cement and screwed 
in with the aid of an alligator wrench with a long piece of pipe for a 
handle. After the socket is screwed in, the tap is removed from No. 4 
station, and the forming tool No. 5 is secured in its place. With this 
the inner end of the socket is brought to the same curve as the inside of 




THREADING NOSE AND INBERTINO FUSE SOCKET 



the shell nose. Owing to the frailty of this slender tool there are apt 
to be chatter marks on the inside of the shell. They are subsequently 
removed by small emery wheels mounted on spindles driven by flexible 
shafts. The output on facing and threading the nose, screwing in fuse 
sockets and form-turning the inside end of the socket is about one shell 
in 30 min. 

The sixth operation is threading the base for the adapter. This work 
is done in an engine lathe equipped with a hexagonal turret on the car- 
riage, as shown in Fig. 306. The work is chucked with the nose end in 
a pot chuck about one-half the length of the shell. The rear end of the 
shell is run in a steadyrest. The base end of the shell is faced off with 
the tool in the first station of the turret. A similar tool is used to rough 
out the recess, which is finished with the tool shown in the third turret 
station. Then, with the tool as shown, in the fourth station, the clear- 
ance check is cut at the extreme end of the threaded part. This tool is 
followed by the single-point threading tool in station 5, and the thread 
is chased. Three cuts over the threaded part prepare it for chasing with 



Chap. VII] 



BRITISH 12-IN. MARE IV HOWITZER SHELL 



405 



the tool in the sixth station. This chasing tool is of the ordinary kind, 
with three threads of the Whitworth form. The time on this operation 
is 1 hr. 15 min. per shell. 




r 

-\ — 

• 


5 


1 

1 



Gagtibr R9XM9a 
II ^ -JU 

FIG. 306. THREADING THE BASE FOR ADAPTER 

The seventh operation, finish-turning, shown in Fig. 307, is done on 
engine lathes. Some of them are equipped with a single carriage that 
operates the whole length of the shell. Others are special lathes with 




FIG. 307. FINISH TURNING 



two carriages, the tool in one carriage operating on the nose at the same 
time that the tool in the other carriage is operating on the body of the 
shell. Both types of lathes are provided with a double-track former at 



406 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 



the back. The drive of the shell is by means of the jaw chuck and 
centering cone used in the rough-turning operation. The nose of the 
shell has a threaded plug screwed into the fuse bushing. The ratio of 
production of the one- and two-carriage lathes is as 5 to 6. The body of 
the shell is turned 11.960 in. At the base end, just below the driving 
band in the finished shell, a check is turned 11.855 in. in diameter. The 
average time for this operation is 1 hr. 40 min. per shell. 

The eighth operation is to groove and undercut the driving-band 
groove preparatory to waving. No special fixture is provided for this 
work; a heavy engine lathe with turret tool post is used. The base of 
the shell is held in and driven by a shallow cup chuck, Fig. 308, with 
four heavy setscrews for centering the base end of the shell. The nose 
of the shell has a threaded plug with a female center that runs on the 
tail center. The turret tool post has a formed tool with eight projections 
for forming the grooves and two side tools for undercutting. The time 




® 



B'"' 



9I0IIOW Svtscnt 
FIG. 308. CUP CHUCK 




B€tt 
Crank 



L^adscnw 



SSMMIIKEESE'S:: 



E Carriogt 



Fixed 
■Pivot 



FIG. 300. WAVING ATTACHMENT 



for this operation is about 30 min. The grooves are 11.260 in. at the 
bottom and 11.350 in. at the top. 

The ninth operation is waving. The same type of lathe and the same 
set-up are used as in the previous operation. The wave tool is mounted 
in a turret tool post. The method of imparting the reciprocating motion 
to the tool is, however, slightly diflFerent from those already described 
in connection with the manufacture of smaller shells. Mounted on the 
lead screw of the lathe is an eccentric A, Fig. 309. The eccentric rod 
connects with the bell crank B at the point C. To function with exact- 
ness the eccentric should be spherical, and the connection at C should 
be a ball and socket joint. However, the mechanism works well without 
these refinements, if the joints are left slightly slack. The connecting- 
rod Z) transmits motion to the carriage E. The waving operation takes 
about 10 min. 

The tenth operation is washing. Various methods of handling this 
work are in use. In one shop the shells are dropped over a perforated 
pipe, a sheet-metal cover is placed over the shell, and hot water under 
pressure is turned into the perforated pipe. This washes all the loose 



Chap. VII] 



BRITISH 12-lN. MARK IV HOWITZER SHELL 



407 



particles of steel and dirt from both outside and inside the shell, which 
is then plunged into cold water so that it can be handled. 

A rotary washing machine that works satisfactorily is shown dia- 
grammatically in Fig. 310. At A is a clamp used for Ufting shells into 
and out of this washing machine: The part C is about 160 deg. in length. 
Id it the part D slides. A clamp at E secures D in C When at its 
extreme outward position and clamped by the lever E^ the device em- 
braces the shell body so that it cannot fall out when lifted by the eye- 
bolt F. 

After being washed in hot and cold water, the shells are placed under 
a cold blast of air to dry. When dry, small defects, such as chatter 




FIG. 310. WASHING MACmNB AND LIFTING CLAMP 

marks are corrected. A flexible shaft grinder is a useful tool for this 
work. Preliminary inspection follows but need not be detailed here. 
Having passed the preliminary inspection, the shells are varnished. 
This is done with an ordinary hand spray, Fig. *311, with a nozzle long 
enough to reach from the base to the nose of the shells, which are laid 
on their sides on a bench of convenient height. One man holds an electric 
lamp at the nose end of the shell while the other man, at the base end, 
sprays the varnish on the inside of the shell. Varnishing occupies about 
2 min. An eye-bolt is then screwed into the base, and the shell is dropped 
nose down into a cast-iron seat B. These seats are arranged in rows on 
the floor. A portable electric oven, shown in Fig. 311, is then placed 
over the top of each shell, and the varnish is baked for 2 hr. 



408 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI£ [Sxc. II 

The adapters for the base are usually brush-vamished, as they are 
easy to get at with a brush. They are baked in an electric OTen built 
for the purpose. 




FIO. 311. VARNISH BPBArEK, SEAT ASD ELECTKIC HEATEK 

Making the Adapter for die Shell Base. — The first operation in making 
of the adapter from the forging shown at A, Fig. 312, is rough-turning and 



snz: 



-in 



||] 


c 


41 


-■ ^i— 



facing the flange. The foi^ng is gripped by the smaller diameter in a 
four-jaw chuck of an engine lathe. The flange is reduced to 9^2 iii> i^ 



Chap. VII] 



BRITISH 12-IN. MARK IV HOWITZER SHELL 



409 



diameter and the face of the flange cleaned up. A centering tool in the 
tail spindle is then run in, and the operation is complete; elapsed time, 
15 min. 

The work next goes to the drilling machine, where two %-in. holes B, 
Fig. 312, are drilled % in. deep in the flange. They are 2}^ in. from the 
center and 180 deg. apart on the circle. A simple jig is used to locate 
the work from the center. About 5 min. is sufficient time for drilling 
the two holes. The adapter is then located in another jig, and both 
ends are properly centered. 

The adapters are rough-turDed between centers, as shown at C, Fig. 
312. The driver D screws on the spindle nose and has two ^-in. pins 
2}^ in. off center. These enter the holes in the flange of the adapter 



r 



t i! !: T 



2n3 



ec 



[ 



n. 



jO^ 



^•fl*T> 



../ 



>e 



uZ3| 



FIO. 313. INBERTINO THE ADAPTER 

and drive it. The body is reduced to 7^ in. in diameter and the flange 
to 1-in. thickness; time, about 30 min. each. 

The adapters are then turned for threading, as shown in Fig. 312. 
They are held between centers and driven by pins precisely as in the 
previous operation. The flange is finished to 8.995 in., the threaded 
part to 7.696 in. and the pilot between 7.44 and 7.461 in. The recess 
between the flange and the thread is 7.460 in. in diameter. The time 
for this operation is about 25 min. 

In some plants it has been found advisable to rough-thread the 
adapters in one operation and then pass them to another lathe for finish- 
ing. Formed chasers, such as those made by Pratt & Whitney or the 
Landis Machine Co., are used for both rough and fim'shed threading. 
The work is held between centers and driven by the pins, as in the pre- 
vious operations. Rough-threading can be done at the rate of about 



410 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sbc. II 




FIQ. 314. 



2 

LRJ 

BAND-TUBNING TOOLS 



one adapter in 20 min. Finish-threading with practically the same equip- 
ment takes from 12 to 15 min. per adapter. 

Fitting tixe Adapter. — Returning to the shell, the fourteenth operation 
is fitting the adapter. The shells are held in heavy cast-iron stands, as 
at Ay Fig. 313, which are bolted to the floor. Heavy pin wrenches B, 
with pipe extension handles 6 ft. long, are used to screw the adapters in 
and out. A facing tool built like a valve-seat facing tool is used when 
necessary to smooth the seat in the shell. Hand scrapers are also em- 
ployed to obtain a fit between the shell and the adapter. The time for 
fitting an adapter is about 20 min. It is screwed tight into the shell 
with the pin wrench by two men, one on the end of each 6-ft. handle. 
The base of the shell and the adapter are faced off in the engine lathe. 

The shell is held in and driven by a pot 
BackPaatiJs chuck. The outer end of the shell just 
above the driving-band groove is run in 
a steadyrest. The time for this, the 
fifteenth operation, is about 20 min. 

Applying and Compressing the Copper 
Driving Band. — The copper bands are 

121^6 ill- ill outside diameter, ll^Jf e ^' 
in inside diameter and 21^5 in. wide. 
The operation of banding is similar to that 
described in connection with the 3.3- and 4.5-in. high-explosive shells, 
except that the bands are heated to a red heat. The press has six 10-in. 
hydraulic cylinders working at a pressure of 3,500 lb. per sq. in. A 
loose ring of steel is located below the dies. An eye-bolt is screwed into 
the fuse hole in the nose of the shell; the shell is raised by an air hoist and 
located over the dies. The hot band is dropped on the loose steel ring, 
which locates it to the proper height in the dies. The shell is then lowered 
into the two rings till its base rests on the bottom of the press. The 
band is given five squeezes. A squad of laborers handle the shells into 
and out of the banding department. Of the banding squad one man 
operates the air hoist, one tends the furnace and places the bands in the 
press, two handle the shell and turn it in the dies, and one man operates 
the controlling levers of the hydraulic press. The time for banding is 
about 5 min. for the complete time from floor to floor. 

Turning tixe Copper Band. — Band turning is done on a lathe without 
back gear. The shell is held in a short cup chuck. Fig. .308, and has a 
threaded plug in the nose. A turret tool post is used with four tools, 
as shown in Fig. 314. The band is roughed all over with the tool shown 
in station 1, the grooves are cut with the gang tool in station 2, the 
back taper is made with the tool in station 3, and the serrations with 
the tool in station 4. The time on this operation is about 15 min. The 



Chap. VII] BRITISH 12-lN. MARK IV HOWITZER SHELL 411 

use of separate tools for band turning results in longer life for the 
various tools. 

The shells are next weighed and then go to final inspection, boxing 
and shipping. The boxes hold one shell each. They are made of 1^-in. 
yellow pine well battened inside and out and have steel box strapping 
around the ends and center. They are stenciled: "1 12-in. H. E. Mark 
IV Lot No. . . . Net 880 gross 780 lb. Size 41 X 19X19 in." 



CHAPTER VIII 
MAKDFACTTTRING THE RUSSIAIT 1-I£. HIGH- 
EXPLOSIVE SHELL' 

The 1-lb. higb-exploaive shell is used on the battlefield in a light 
type of field gun that is extensively employed to destroy machine guns, 

6otA»dim,^biailgktf,imthtshtllan<l 
mvtf if tif ioM 10 OB fBra^ivrgrtaffhra 



« Check Sh«lt 

Wia. 31S. DBTAIL DBAWINO OF 1-LB. SHELL 




k iSTs' - >j U-s'taoos'-A 

no. 316. DETAILS OP coppGB band 

etc. These light field pieces have a range of over 2 miles at 15-deg. 
elevation and can be handled with great facility. 
* Robert Mawson, Aasociate Editor, ATneriean Maehinitt. 



Chap. VUI] RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIQH-EXIXOSIVE SHELL 413 

In Fig. 315 IB shown a detailed illustration of the Russian 1-lb. shell 
and its gas check. A detail of the copper band as it is received at the 
factory is shown in Fig. 316. Fig. 317 shows samples from each opera- 
tion followed, also the elements used in the manufacture of a shell. 

The shell is made from cold-drawn bar steel l}i in. in diameter. 
The tensile strength of the stock is 70,000 lb., with an elongation of 20 
per cent, and a reduction in area of 40 per cent. 

The chemical analysis is as follows : Sihcon, 0.03 per cent. ; manganese, 
0.66 per cent.; phosphorus, 0.094 per cent.; sulphur, 0.107 per cent.; 
carbon, 0.17 per cent. 

The manufacture and loading of the shell entail 25 main operations 
on the shell proper and 5 on the gas check. These are efficiently pei"- 
formcd in the order given in the table of sequence of operations, and the 
principal operations are graphically depicted in the descriptive sketches. 



no. 317. PBoaRBsstvE staqes in thb uANUFAcrvBE or a 1-lb. bhell 

Table or Seodenck of Operations on Shell Boor 

1. First drill aad turn for steadyrest 13. Shellac 

2. Second drill and form outside 14. Put in gas check 

3. Ream, face end and chamfer 15. .Retap 

4. Tap 16. Clean out dirt from threads 
fi. Knurl and cut off 17. Inspect 

6. Inspect 18. Load shell with powder 

7. Nose 19. Force primer in cartridge case 

8. Inspect 20. Fill cartridge case with nitro-cellulooe 

9. Compress on copper band 21. Insert percussion fuse 

10. Turn copper band 22. Insert shell in cartridge case 

11. Inspect 23. Inspect 

12. Wash 24. Greaee steel part 

25. Pack 

Table of Operations for Gab Check 

A. Drill and form D. Tap and cut off 

B. Ream and counterbore E. Face and chamfer end 

C. Thread outside 



HIGH-EXFLOSIVE RT TRTTJl 



OPE RATION 1. 



» 



^e 



<Ei 



Chap. VIII] RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL L.-I.415 



OPERATIONS 1 TO 5. MACHINING BODY 

e Used — 2^-iii. Gridley Bingle-spindle automatic. 
FroductioQ — 12 to 15 per hr. 

Guttiag Compouod Used — "Alco," made bj Texas Fuel Oil Co. 
Note — Speed of machine when turning and forming, 180 r.p.m.; when tapping, 
r.pjn. 



OPERATIOK 7. NOSIKO 

Machine Used — I6-iii. Reed-Prentice lathe. 

Production — 70 per hr. 

Cutting Compound Used — "Alco," made by Texas Fuel Oil Co. 

Note — Speed of machine, 450 r.p.m. 



OPERATION 0. 

Machine Used — Zeb & Hahnemann Co. [ 
Production — 180 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



Mtichine Used — 16-in. Reed-Prentice lathe. 

Production — 60 per hr. 

Note — Speed of lathe, 450 r.p.m. 



OPERATION 12. WAfiHlNG 

Mftchine Used — Special washing machine and attachment 
Production — 120 per hr. 




RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 





OPERATIONB 



OPBRATtON D. 
L TO D. DRILL an; 



THREAD ODTSIDB, TAP 



Machines Used — Chicago No. 3 automatic aad Wood turret lathe. 

Production — 20 per hr. 

Cutting Compound Used — "Alco," made by Texas Fuel Oil Co. 

Note — Speed of machine when turning, 340 r.p.m.; when tapping, 130 r. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPBftATION B. FACINQ AND CHAUFERINO END OF OAS CHECK 

Machine Uaed — Dalton lathe. 
Production — 100 per hr. 

OPERATION El. 

Production — 1 man inspects 150 per hr. 



OPERATION 13. SBELLACKINO INSIDE OP SHELL 

man lacquers and starts gas check in shell at the rate of 120 per br. 



RU8SUN 1-LB. HIOH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



OFXBATION 14. SCKBWINa DOWN QAS I 

Fixtures Used — Special vise jaws find arbor. 
Production — 1 man 120 per hr. 



OFBRATION 15. TAPPINO 

Machine Uaed — Harvey-Hubbell homontal tapper. 
Production — 1 man 120 per hr. 

OFKRATION 16. CLBANINQ OUT DIRT FROM THBEAD 

Machine Used — Vertical drill with circular wire brush. 
Production — 120 per hr. 

OPEKATION 17. FINAL INSPECTION 
Production — 1 man inspects 600 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 18. LOADING SHELL WITH POWDER 

Machine Used — Ideal Manufacturing Co. 'a measuring machine with scales and 
reights. 

Productioa — 1 man can load 420 shells per hr. 



rORCINQ PRIMER IN CARTRIDGE c 



Machine Used — Foot-operated press. 
Production — 1 man 420 caaea per hr. 



RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



20. riLLINQ CABTBIDOB CASE 

Machine Used — Scales, weights, funnel and wooden pestle. 
Production — 1 man 240 per br. 



OFEBATIO^ 21. 
Tools Used — Wooden vise and speciaJ screw-driver. 
Production— 1 man 300 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 8HELI£ 



OPERATION 22. INSBBTINQ SHELL IN CARTBIDQE CA9B 

M&chine Used — Foot-operated preaa. 
Production — 500 per hr. 



OPERATION 23. INSPECnNO ABBBUBLED PROJE<mLB 

Productioa — 1 man 500 per hr. 



f 24. ORBAeiNO STEEL PAST OF PROJECTILE 

Production — 1 moD 500 per hr. 



RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIOH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



OPESATION 25. 

Production — 1 man 4 cases per hr, or 240 assembled projectiles. 

The first five machining operations are performed on the bar stock 
before the shell blank is cut off, and precede the first inspection. These 
operations are all expeditiously performed on a Gridley single-spindle 
automatic. The stock is fed against a stop, placed between the fourth 
and first stations on the turret of the automatic, for length. The 
turret is then fed around to the first station, the hole rough-drilled and 
the outer end of the bar trued for the roller ateadyrest. On the second 
station of the turret the hole is second drilled and the outside form turned. 
During this operation the outer end of the bar is supported with the roller 
ateadyrest. The turret is then revolved to the third station and the hole 
reamed to size, the end faced and chamfered. In the fourth station of 
the turret the hole is first tapped as the fifth operation. The recess for 
the band is then knurled and the shell blank cut off. During these 
operations the blank is again supported with the steadyrest. The cut- 
tingHjfiE tool is made with a contour similar to the nose of the shell, as 
by 80 doing, the amount of stock to be removed in the next operation is 
reduced. 

Details of the tools used in the Gridley automatics are shown in Fig. 
318. The gage used to test the drill when grinding is shown in Fig. 
319 and the gage for the reamer in Fig. 320. The gages used on the 
automatic are illustrated in Fig. 321. 

The shell blank is then inspected, using the g^es. Fig. 322, after 
which the next operation is nosing. This work is performed in a Reed- 



424 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



(Sec. II 



Prentice lathe. Details of the tools used for this operation are shown 
in F^. 323. 

It will be observed that the forming tool is made with the contour 
machined the entire length. By this procedure the only thing necessary 
when the tool gets dull is to grind the end and raise the tool to suit. The 



1,4 |..ss«H 




grinding does not change the contour of the tool, as is obvious from the 
design. 

When nosing, the shell is held by a drawback arrangement operated 
by hand. Details of this attachment are shown in Fig. 323. 

The gage used on the lathe by the operator, for testing the length 



RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



of the machined shell, is shown in Fig. 324. The shell is then inspected 
for length and contour of nose. The gages used for this operation are 




no. 319. DRILL QJlQS 




no. 320. RiAUxa oaok 



33.0 



im.LPOO 



&ag« Ibr Intidm O^^h of SMI 



3« fcr 01am«+Br of Bond 6rM«« 




»MCW«f SJrai (Pixk /brekj) 
GogM for Frwrf End of &hel I Bocfji 
FIQ. 321. OAQBS FOB SCREW UACmNB OPERATICKS 

also shown in Fig. 324. The shell is then taken to the press and the 
copper band compressed into place. 

The copper bands are purchased in the dimensions given on the detail, 
Fig. 316. They are annealed in a crude-oil furnace at a temperature of 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



(•■-.fHs 



11 
lit* 






-fj- 



ss \"r 







Chap. VIII] RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE 8HEII, 427 




HIGH-BXPLOSIVE SHELI£ 



1,375 deg. F. The bands are passed ia on one side of the furnace and 
out on the oppoeite side, shding down a chute into a tank of water to 
complete the anneahng operation. 




AUD HOSC CONTOTTB 

An improved form of banding die is fitted to the press and is shown in 
detail in Fig. 325. The features of this tool are the inclined steel die 
blocks. These are fitted with tension springs so that as the upper 
element of the die is raised the springs draw back the side blocks, allow- 




PETAIU or BANSINO DII 



ing the shell to be quickly removed and preventing the shell seizing the 
dies after the copper band has been compressed. 

The copper band is next machined in a lathe. For this operation 
the shell is held in a drawback collet operated in a similar manner to the 



Chap. YIU] RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 429 

lathe when machining the nose and shown in detail in Fig. 323. Details 
of the forming tool for the copper baad are shown in Fig. 326. The nose 
end of the shell is supported in a center operated by air. DetaUs of the 



^ 


// 






i 


I,-.. 


''/aisj,' 


-<*■• 




i^ 




ift-irfi 











Forming Tool for Copper Bond 




r -^' *f* ^ — >l 

6olhB«ar(ng Houaing -for Nooe Cen+er 
no. 326. POBUiKO tool and details of hobb cbntsk 

noae center, the housing and the device for operating it by air are also 
shown in Fig. 327. An assembled view of the shell in position to be 
machined is shown in Fig. 327. The gages for use on the lathe are 
shown in Fig. 328. 



430 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 




i 



i 

g 
g 

1 



CO 

o 



'V : 



Chap. VUIl RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



431 



The next operation is inepecting the band ; the g^es used are shown 
in Fig. 328. 

A detail of the washing tank is shown in Fig. 329. A jet of steam 
impinges the open end of the shell and as the shells are brought against 



laamc son ffbck MnW 



^« Grind fhne Sur facts 
HetWirg Gogi for Dianals- of Bond 












no, 328. DETAILS or dans oaoeb 



no. 329. DETAIL OF THE BHBLL-WASHINO TANK 

the chute the clips are pushed back and the shells automatically drop 
down the chute. To remove the grease the shells are then washed in 
soda water heated to 180 deg. F. 

In Fig. 330 another washing arrangement is illustrated. In this 
device the shell is placed in the funnel and steam is forced through the 



432 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sao. 11 

inlet pipe. As the shell pushes dowo the funnel to the position shown 
the steam enters the shell and cleans it. When the funnel is allowed to 
raise, by action of the spring, the steam and condensation passes under 
the piston and through the outlet. 

The manufacture of the gas checks will be next described. These 
are made from l^-in. cold-rolled steel with an analysis similar to that 
of the steel used for the bodies. These parts are being made on both 
Chicago automatics and Wood turret lathes. 

A 



T 



1 



no. 330. ALTERNATIVE WASUINO ARRANOEUENT 

Details of the tools used on the Chicago automatics are illustrated 
in Figs. 331 and 332. The tools used on the Wood turret lathes are 
described in detail in Figs. 332 and 333. The gages used for testii^ the 
gas checks on the machines are shown in Fig. 334. 

The gas checks are then chamfered and faced in a Dalton lathe. 
The check is held on a threaded drawback chuck. The tool carried in 
the toolpoBt is then fed across the revolving part, the outer edge faced 
and the outer edge of the threaded hole faced. 

At the next operation the gas check is inspected, the gages used for 
this purpose being shown in Fig. 335. The shells are then covered with 
shellac on the inside, using a small brush for the operation. The pur- 



Chap. Villi RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 433 




I 




Arrongemen-t of Die Holder 



^ r^ -i' 



, W--Zi' J 



ffirfBitnQfkis fMn WitBndnif more than L067 

PIQ. 331 



/■^ -Si-- ■>! 

lop-forFusaHoI* 




ycxm Tool Real 

no. 332 

or TOOLB AS D8W> ON TOKRBT LATHBH 






434 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIiS 



[Sbc. U 



pose of this shellac is twofold — to prevent rust and to obtiun the beat 
possible coating of the shell for the reception of the powder. 

After the operator has shellaced a shell he screws in one of the gas 
checks as far as possible with the fingers. This saves a motion on the 
part of the man who performs the next operation, which is screwing the 




TOOL DETAILS 



gas check down tight. While doing this work the shell is held in the 
special vise jaws, Fig. 336. The vise jaws not only hold the shell, bnt 
also stamp the maker's name on the copper band. 

The shell, where the copper band has been compressed on, rests against 
a jaw for half of its circumference. The other jaw, carrying the stamp- 



Chat. Villi RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



436 



ing die is forced against the band and makes the impression on the copper 
baod of the shell. Tension springs fitted in holes of the stationary jaw 
press against the movable jaw and thus prevent any binding action. 
This vise also holds the shell while the gaa check is being inserted. 

The next operation is retappiug the gas check. The machine set 
up for this work is a Harvey-Hubbell horizontal tapper. The special 
tap used for ttuB operation is ahown in Fig. 337. 

The dirt ia removed from the threads with a circular brush driven by 
a drill press and the shell is then finally inspected, using the gages, Figs. 
321, 322, 324, 328, 335 and 338. The gage or weights. Fig. 338, are used 
for testing the weight of the finished shell with the gas check in position. 




Gages for Dra>n«t«r of Shauldar 





tr 


- '4'-1 


■1 




T 


!►.. 




m. 


'^ 


i. 




k i 



MfCHIHCSTreL 

Length Gogt 6age WThickntsS of Shoulder Ibpping 



no. 334 



They are used with a pair of ordinary scales and the shell must 
register more than the minimum and less than the maximum weight. 

In Fig. 339 is shown the tray used for conveying the gas checks to 
different parts of the machine shop as required. A handy stand. Fig. 
340, has been fitted to the automatics to support the tray, Fig. 341, 
which holds the machined shell blanks. With this arrangement the oil 
from the blanks drains into the trough and throu^^ the pipe shown back 
to the automatic. 

The shell is now ready for loading with the high-ejtplosive black 
powder. The amoimt of powder placed in the shell is 240 grains or 
15.552 grams. The primer contains 20 grains of powder. The cartridge 
case is loaded with nitro-cellulose averaging 69 to 85 grains, according 
to the varying explosive charges of powder placed in the shell. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




1 


^ — ,^j._-. 


j 


i 






f-.f'--- 


1 





Ch4P. Villi RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



437 



A fdt pad is placed on top of llie nitro-cellulose in the case. This 
is done for two reasona — to prevent the gases from reaching the powder 
in the shell and, as the pad expands, to form an urtight compartment 
so that the gases formed when the charge is fired will result in the re- 
quired explosive effect, which averages in pressure from 9 to 10 tons. 




The i)ercu8sion fuse is inserted by holding a shell in a wooden vise, 
pressure being applied by the operator's foot to hold the fuse firmly. 
The fuse is then screwed down with a pin-type screw-driver designed 
especially for this purpose and acting on the "Yankee" principle. 

The shell is then forced into the cartridge case by a foot-operated 



438 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



press. The cartridge case rests on its base, and the moving element of 
the press is fm*nished with a center to guide the shell when it is being 
forced into position. 

The shell is the^ tested with the gage, Fig. 342. This gage is used 



4. 






^ 



TT 



^ o o o«D a o d'o! 
ooo opo ooo 
oooooooooo^ 



ooo 



ooo 
oo 



L 4y -^ 



oo»- •-- 
o Obor'' 
tr^ 



h .*...:--. IS. J / 



I 

f 

I 








viQ. 339 




^Uj o o o'n> O O [Uj 
o 6 o ~ 

o o o a o o 

o * j -©- 
o o .o -7^- o o 

o o o o o o 

ooo 

il^^i o o o o o o rg^ 

uli:f:^gr!/>> [Z 









i c 



.SiLLL 




6 

CAsrmoM 
A 



I 



H/V- 



cost in /ray 



.«'.. 




fl=3 



t 

t 




as the final check on the machined and assembled projectile. The 
shell does not fit tightly in the gage, but slides in as it would into the 
barrel of the gun. However, should it be found that the inspector could 
not slide the projectile, or that the steel shell part did not reach to the 



Chap. VIII] 



RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



439 



gage point, it would be evident that some mistake had been made when 
manufacturing the projectile. The weight of the loaded shell complete, 
as shown at this stage, is 7,400 grains or approximately 4S0 grams. 

After being inspected the steel part of the projectile is dipped in 
grease to prevent rust. A detail of the tray used to convey the shells to 
various locations in the departments as required is shown in Fig. 343. 



TT 

I : 



I 






™-T— r—- ^ 






'^' 



' V^^^ 



'^^^i^^^j^^ 



7 



I 






Sll 
^{ I 




fi'—H 



U- 43^ >ik(it<iT29'^ K— 

no. 342. FIKAL TEST OAOE FOB SHELL DIAMETERS 

In Fig. 344 is shown a tray that is being made for loading the shells. 
This device is provided with a compartment in which the powder is 
placed and is covered over with a shield. When it is desired to load, a 
shell is placed in a holding clamp and a small funnel put in the open end. 
The slide of the fixture is then slid forward, which brings the measure in 
position so that it is automatically filled. The sUde and measure are 



r 



^**4 



a 



®®®®j®®®j@®® 
®®®®^®®|®®® 
,®®®®i®®®-i®®® 
j® ® ® ® ®.® ®l® ®.® 







i 



•>j2ri< . s'li^ ^i^^\ 
— ?/i - H 




t<.-.-.5|-'.->j 



n n rr 



— n n u n 'T IRS n n r 

" ' ' fi '' "^ " " \ 

TT — n — < ■ r I I — n — ■ ■ ij i » — n — •-r-' 







Mater/ah 
^•^ I'Rough 
Yellow 
Pine 



FIG. 343. TRANSPORTATION TRAT USED FOR SHELLS 



then drawn back and when the slide comes against the stop on the pawl 
the measure is opposite the place cut out on the tray body. The measure 
may then be pulled out and the powder poured into the shell. It will be 
observed that when the slide is back the blank part of this part covers 
up the outlet on the device thus preventing any waste of powder. 

The next operation on the shell is that of packing for shipment. A 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




no. 344. LOADING TBAn rOR 8 



^ — "- — 






:^nlt 



Chap. VHI) RUSSIAN 1-LB. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 



441 



detail of the packing case is shown in Fig. 345. After the packing case 
has been filled with the 60 projectiles, and the cardboard cover placed 
over them, the cover is fastened down with wires and screws and the 
Government seal placed in a countersunk hole in the cover. The case 
is then ready for shipment for either land or marine warfare as required. 
After the shell has been fired from the gun the receiving end of the 
cartridge case is opened out or forced oversize. In Fig. 346 is shown a 
device for resizing the end of the case and afterward forcing in the shell. 



FiQ. 346. 



a FOR BH LOADING 1 



The case is placed in the forming die and the forming plunger forced onto 
the end of the case with the handwheel operating the screw shown. 
After the plunger has been forced down, thus forming the end of the case 
to size, the loading plunger is substituted for the forming plunger. In 
a similar manner the steel shell is then forced into the cartridge case, 
using the handwheel. This attachment is useful, as it may be taken 
either to the proving ground or to any other place where it may be found 
necessary to insert shells into cartridge cases that have already been 
fired. 



CHAPTER IX 

MANUFACTURING RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS' 

The Russian S-in. higli-explo^ve shell (see detail, I^g. 347) ie some- 
what simpler in design and construction than the British sheila, but the 
manufacturing requirements and specifications are no leas stringent. 
Notwithstanding these exactions, however, the East Jersey Pipe Cof'- 
poration, Paterson, N. J., set for itself the task of converting 3j'^-in. 
stock into finished shells — inspected and passed by the Russian officials 
and ready for loading — at a rate of 10,000 every 24 hours, the ultimate 
capacity of its shop. This record is made possible through the use of 



-imr^.— 



via. 347. DETAIL or Russian 3-in. hioh-explobive shell 

Specially constructed hydraulic machines, an exceptionally economic 
system of conveyora — for the work is only manually handled when placed 
in and taken out of the various machines and for the inspection after each 
operation — and very efficient shop management. 

Shop and Equipment. — Fig. 348 shows the plan of one end of the 
machine shop and the general layout of machines, which as far as possible 
are grouped in pairs so that one operator can attend to two machines. 
The machines are further located in rows between which run two hnes 
of gravity roller conveyors, one line carrying the work to the machines 
and the other from them to the inspector's table. 

Previously to the machine operations on the cut blanks, the stock is 
cut to length in another department in which monorail electric hoists 
and gravity conveyors do all the handling and from which the blanks 

> Reginald Trautacliold. 

442 



Chap. IX) RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIOH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 443 

are conveyed to the main machine Bhop by a system of gravity and chain 
conveyors. 

On completion of the heavy machine operations the work is taken by 

a conveyor to the heat 

treating department where , 

a complete inventory is 
taken, after the heated 
shells have been quenched. 
Even thi^ quenching is 
done with the aid of con- 
veyors, the shells passing 
from the oil-fired pots to 
an apron conveyor which 
carries them through a 
tank of quenching oil. 
After the inventory, the 
shells are returned to the 
machine shop, also by 
conveyor, and passed be- 
tween the various ma- 
chines and the inspector's 
table on the completion 
of each operation by 
means of a continuation 
of the shop gravity roller 
conveyor system. 

The one interruption 
to the continuous travel 
by conveyor occurs just 
before the copper band is 
pressed onto the shell, 
when the assembled body 
and nose-piece passes to 
the government enclosure 
for a complete inspection 
before the copper band 
is squeezed into place. 
Even here there is really 
little interruption to the 

conveying system, for the „^ ^ AEBAsaEM^'oVH 
inspectors' tables extend 
practically the whole length of the enclosure and the shells are rapidly 
passed from inspector to inspector, each one of whom examines the 
shell in one specific detail. The shell bodies are then lacquered indde 




444 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS ISbc. II 

and returned to the machine shop, where the shells resume their 
conveyor travel until the final government inspection. They are then 
lacquered on the outside, packed in individual cardboard containers and 
loaded in box cars, also with the aid of conveyors. 

The equipment of the shop has been selected with the sole object of 
securii^ economy and efficiency in the manufacture of 3-in. Russian 
shells. It is unique in the hydrauUc machines employed for all heavy 
cuts and for some of the leas arduous but more exacting operations. 
These machines, two of which are shown in Figs. 349 and 350, were 
deugned and built in the shops of the East Jersey Pipe Corporation and 
to them is due in large part the ability of that shop to maint^n its high 
rate of production. 

The drilling machine, which is also used for facing by the substitu- 
tion of a facing tool for the drill, is shown in detail in Fig. 349. The work 



is held rigidly in the movable carriage D by means of a powerful eccentric 
clamp, and the drill or facing tool rotates. The clamp is manually 
operated by the shghtly eccentric lever E and the thrust of the drill is 
taken care of by the large ball thrust bearing B. The machine which is 
run at 140 r.p.m. is directly belt driven and the pulley A, mounted on 
the spindle with the large driving pulley, drives a small cutting-lubricant 
pump (not shown). A copious supply of lubricant is required inasmuch 
as a 2-in. drill is fed into the hard shell blank at a rate of 2 to 3 inches per 



Chap. IX] HUSSIAN WN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL 445 

min. The drill bit is of high speed steel and the drill bar has two deep 
chip grooves and a center hole through which the cutting-lubricant 
is forced — see Fig. 351. 



r HTDRAUUC TUBNINO UACHINC 



Water under a pressure of 60 lb. per sq. in. enters the large hydraulic 
cylinder through the supply pipe H and forces the carriage D and the 
work against the rotating drill by means of the piston rod G, At / 




FIQ. 351. DKTAIL or DBILUNQ BAR 



is a three-way cock which alternately admits water to the rear of the 
piston from the supply pipe H and from the rear of the piston to the 
dischai^ pipe I. Another cock at K admits water from the supply pipe 



446 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

to the front of the piston for withdrawing the carriage and work. The 
operation of the cocks is automatically controlled by the weighted 
operating lever N, In the horizontal position shown, N holds open the 
connection from the supply pipe to the rear of the piston and also the 
connection between the front of the cylinder and the discharge pipe. 
In a vertical position, that is dropped, N reverses the connections, open- 
ing the discharge from the rear of the piston and admitting water to the 
front end of the cyUnder. The forward travel of the carriage necessi- 
tates manual operation on the part of the machinist. He has to raise 
the main operating lever to the horizontal position, where it is held in 
position by a latch finger (not shown). The reverse is entirely automatic, 
however, the trip rod R coming in contact with the trip finger and 
dropping the weighted operating lever. 

The turning machine, shown in Fig. 350, differs from the drilling and 
facing machine in several respects. The work rotates and the tool, 
except for its feed, is held stationary. The hydrauUc cyUnder is of the 
duplex type. The rear section furnishes the feed for the turning tool 
through two piston rods, one to the front and the other to the rear (see 
F and F, Fig. 360). The forward cyhnder has one central piston rod and 
operates the tailstock carriage, the hydraulic pressure being exerted on 
the piston during the turning operation. The thrust of the cutting tool 
and also of the tail center are taken care of by a large ball thrust bearing. 
The operating mechanism actuating the respective cocks to the supply 
and discharge pipes, L and M respectively, is quite similar to that of the 
driUing machine, pressure being exerted behind the piston during the 
turning operation and on the opposite side when withdrawing the tool 
carriage and the work. 

The East Jersey Turret Lathe, used for finishing the inside of the 
shells, is another of the special machines developed primarily for shell 
work. It is a motor driven machine equipped with a pneumatic three- 
jaw chuck and a six station turret. 

A tapping machine with automatic reverse, a duplex slot miller and 
a special band turning lathe, all built on the same general principle as 
the East Jersey Turret Lathe, are among the important units in the 
corporation's equipment. These machines were also designed and built 
in the shops of the East Jersey Pipe Corporation. 

One other institution which aids greatly the high output of this 
excellently equipped plant, and without which even the efficient tools 
could not maintain the standard, is the S3rstem for keeping track of the 
output of the individual machines. Every machine in the shop upon 
which shell work is performed is connected with a magnetically operated 
'*Productograph" in the superintendent's office (see Fig. 352) and it is 
part of the duties of each operator to record the completion of each piece 
worked on. This he accompUshes without loss of time by simply throw- 



Chap. IX] RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 447 

ing a lever utuated in a convenient position on or near his machine. A 
magnetically operated pencil records, on the " Productograph " sheet, 
each movement oHhe lever and at the same time the register is advanced 
a unit. The output of every machine in the shop is thus directly under 
the eye of the management and if the production from any machine falls 
down for even a few minutes it is at once known and the trouble dis- 
covered and remedied. The importance of the knowledge thus gained 
can be appreciated when it is realized that, with the exception of the 
heat treatment and the cutting off of the blanks, there is not an opera- 
tion in the manufacture of the shells that consumes more than two or 
three minutes and many of the operations take but a few seconds. 



FIG. 362, THS "pRonUCTOORAPH" 

The installation of the "Productograph" not only speeded up pro- 
duction by at least 25 per cent., but reduced the number of "runners" 
from 15 or 20 men to but two. 

MaMng the Shells.— Thirty-seven main operations are required to 
make a shell from the bar stock received at the shop — 17 on the body- 
piece, 10 on the nose-piece and 10 on the nose and body pieces assembled 
as a unit. The sequence of operations, together with brief data, is a.s 
follows: 



448 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. Gutting-off body blanks. 

2. Drilling body blanks. 

3. Centering body blanks. 

4. Rough-turning body. 

5. Rough-facing base. 

6. Heat treatment. 

7. Finishing inside of shell. 

8. Recentering base. 

9. Second rough body turning and turning bourlette. 

10. Finish-turning body and finish-turning base. 

11. Finish-facing base. 

12. Counterboring and recessing body. 

13. Grooving body for band. 

14. Undercutting band groove. 

15. Knurling band groove. 

16. Thread-milling body. 

17. Washing body. 

! A, Cutting-off nose-piece blanks. 
B. Drilling and tapping nose-piece. 
C Rough-forming nose-piece. 
Z>. Squaring and beveling nose-piece. 

E. Milling slots on nose-piece. 

F. Drilling for screw in nose-piece. 

G. Tapping for screw in nose-piece. 
H, Finish-tapping nose-piece. 

/. Sizing and recessing base of nose-piece. 
J, Thread-milling nose-piece. 

18. Assembling body and nose-piece. 

19. Rough-turning profile. 

20. Finish-turning profile. 

21. Beveling bourlette. 

22. Grinding bourlette. 

23. Forming gas check and rounding base. 

24. Filing and polishing. 

25. Pressing-on copper band. 

26. Turning copper band. 

27. Removing burr. 

OPERATION 1. CUTTINO-OFP BODY BLANKS 

Machine Used — Racine power hack saw. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Production — 12 min. each. 

Inspection — For length (11.250-in. min., 11.375-in. max.). 

Remarks — One man operates 9 machines. 

OPERATION 2. DRILLING BODY BLANKS 

Machine Used — East Jersey Hydraulic Drilling Machine. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Drilling bar. 
Production — 5 min. each. 

Inspection — Diameter and depth of hole. Limits; diameter, 2.120-in. and 2.140- 
in.; depth, 9.937-in. and 10.000-in. 

Remarks — One man operates four machines. 



Chap. IX] RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 449 

OPERATION 3. CENTERING BODY 

Machine Used — Drill press. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Expanding mandrel, Sipp driU. 

Production — 15 sec. each. 

OPERATION 4. ROnOH-TTTRNING BODY 

Machine Used — ^East Jersey Hydraulic Turning Machine. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Fluted driving arbor. 
Production — 65 sec. each. 

Inspection — Diameter (3.032-in. min., 3.062-in. max.). 

Remarks — H-ii^* ieed, 140 r.p.m.; one man operates 2 machines. Cut is made 
with "Stellite" without lubricant. 

OPERATION 5. ROUGH-FACING BABE 

Machine Used — East Jersey Hydraulic Facing Machine. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Eccentric clamp, tool holder. 

Production — 1 min. 35 sec. each. 

Inspection^— Length. 

Remarks — One man operates 2 machines. 

OPERATION 6. HEAT TREATMENT 

Machine Used — East Jersey Heating Pot. 

Temperatures — 1,500 deg. F. for heat, 1,100 deg. F. for draw. 

Duration of Treatment — 30 min. for heat, 20 min. for draw. 

Inspection — Inventory. 

Remarks — One pot accommodates 10 shells. 

OPERATION 7. FINISHING INSIDE OF BODY 

Machine Used — East Jersey Turret Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Cutters, reamers, etc. 
Production — i min. each. 

Inspection — Diameters of hole. Limits: main diam., 2.230-in. and 2.250-in.; 
bottom diam., 2.130-in. and 2.150-in. 

OPERATION 8. RECENTERING BASE 

Machine Used — ^Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Recentering arbor. 

Production — 20 sec. each. 

OPERATION 9. SECOND ROUGH-TURNING 

Machine Used — ^Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Tool post, expanding mandrel. 
Production — 2 min. 30 sec. each. 

Inspection — Diameters and lengths. Limits: bourlette, 2.995-in. and 3.005-in.; 
body, 2.975-in. and 2.985-in.; base, 2.958-in. and 2.965-in. 
Remarks — Two sub-operations. 

OPERATION 10. FINISH-TURNING BODY 

Machine Used — ^Whitcomb Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Expanding mandrel. 
Production — 1 min. 40 sec. each. 

Inspection — Diameters, limits for body, 2.958-in.. and 2.964-in.; base, 2.945-in 
and 2.950-in. 

Remarks — Two sub-operations. 

29 



450 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS Sec. II 

OPERATION IL FINISH-FACING BASE 

Machine Used — Whitcomb Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 
Production — 1 min. 30 sec. each. 

Inspection — Thickness of bottom and length of body. Limits: thickness, 0.520- 
in. and 0.540-in.; length, 10.420-in. and 10.480-in. 
Remarks — Rejection for rough base. 

OPERATION 12. COUNTERBORINa AND RECESSING BODT 

Machine Used — Gisholt Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Cutting tools. 
Production — 1 min. 30 sec. each. 

Inspection — Depth and diameter of counterbore, form and dimensions of recess 
by limit gages. Limits: depth, 0.510-in. and 0.520-in.; diam. 2.357-in. and 2.378-in. 
Remarks — Rejection for rough shoulder or face. 

OPERATION 13. GROOVING FOR DRIVING BAND 

Machine Used — Woods Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Production — 27 sec. each. 

Inspection — ^Location, width and diameter of groove. Limits: location from 
base, 1.486-in. and 1.500-in.; width, according to limit gage; diameter, 2.81 7-in. and 
2.823-in. 

OPERATION 14. UNDERCUTTING BAND GROOVE 

Machine Used — Woods Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 
Production — 1 min. each. 
Inspection — By special limit gages. 
Remarks — Rejection for burrs. 

OPERATION 15. KNURLING BAND GROOVE 

Machine Used — ^Woods Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Knurling tool. 
I^oduction — 24 sec. each. 

Inspection — Diameters adjacent to knurled section. Limits: 2.815-m. and 
2.825-in. 

Remarks — Rejection for chuck marks on body. 

OPERATION 16. THREAD-MILLING BODY 

Machine Used — Lees Bradner Threading Machine. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — High speed steel milling hob. 
Production — 1 min. 30 sec. each. 

Inspection — By thread plug gage. Limits; 2.475-in. and 2.478-in. 
Remarks — All shells to be cleaned by air before gaging. One man operates 2 
machines. 

OPERATION 17. WASHING SHELL BODIES 

Machine Used — None. 
Equipment — 2 washing tanks. 

Cleansing Liquids — Tank 1, potash solution. Tank 2, solution of "oakite" at 
boiling temperature. 



Chap. IX] RUSSIAN 3-lN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 451 

OPERATION A, CXTTTING-OFF NOSE-PIECE BLANKS 

Machine Used — Racine power hacknsaw. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Production — 9 min. each. 

Inspection — For length (L625 in. min., L760 in. max.). 

Remarks — One man operates 9 machines. 

OPERATION B, DRILIiINO AND TAPPING NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — Gisholt lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Steadyrest, pilot, etc. 

Production — 1 min. 45 sec. each. 

Inspection — Depth and diameter of base, depth and diameter of counterbore, and 
by plug thread gage. Limits: base depth, 0.445 in. and 0.465 in.; base diam., 2.487 
in. and 2.534 in.; bore depth, 0.220 in. and 0.255 in.; bore diam., L280in. and 1.285 in. 
Remarks — Rejection for rough counterbore hole. 

OPERATION C, BOUGH-FORMINO NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — Gisholt lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tool holder and h.s.s. forming tool. 

Production — 28 sec. each. 

OPERATION D, FACING AND BEVELING NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — Gisholt lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Screw arbor, tool block, tools. 
Production — ^28 sec. each. 

Inspection — Length of nose and bevel form gaging. Limits: length, 1.020 in.; 
and 1.060 in. 

Remarks — Rejection for rough shoulder. 

OPERATION E, MILLING SLOTS ON NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — East Jersey slot miller. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Milling cutters. 
Production — 15 sec. each. 

Inspection — Spacing and depth of slots. Limits: spacing, 1.750 in. and 1.935-in.; 
depth, 0.650 in. and 0.600 in. 

OPERATION p. DRILLING FOR SCREW IN NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — Sipp drill press. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Holding jig. 
Production — 13 sec. each. 

OPERATION G, TAPPING FOR SCREW IN NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — East Jersey automatic tapping machine. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Holding fixture, Errington tapping chuck. 
Production — 8 sec. each. 

Inspection — Thread plug gage, length of threaded hole. Limits: diam., 0.1875- 
in. and 0.1890-in.; length gage must show through on inside thread. 
Remarks — Rejection for imperfect thread. 

OPERATION H. FINISH-TAPPING NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — Drill press. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tap holder, tap and jig. 

Production — 15 sec. each. 

Inspection — By thread plug gage. Limits: diam., 1.270 in. and 1.275 in. 

Remarks. Rejection for imperfect thread. 



452 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

OPERATION /. SIZING AND BECXSSING NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — ^Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tool block, cutting tools. 

Production — 52 sec. each. 

Inspection — Location, diameter and form of recess; diameter of base. Limits: 
loc. recess, 0.475 in. and 0.485 in.; diam. recess, 2.355 in. &nd 2.365 in.; form recess 
by limit gage, diam. base, 2.472 in. and 2.487 in. 

Remarks — Rejection for rough shoulder. 

OPERATION J, THREAD-MILLING NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — ^Holden Morgan thread miller. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Special arbor. 

Production — 1 min. 45 sec. each. 

Inspection — Ring thread gage. 

Remarks — Rejection for imperfect shoulder and for marred or imperfect thread. 

OPERATION 18. ASSE&OBLING BODY AND NOSE-PIECE 

Machine Used — None. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Shell holder and wrench. 

Production — 27 sec. each. 

OPERATION 19. ROUGH PROFILING 

Machine Used — Gisholt lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Air chuck, tool block, profile tool. 

Production — 25 sec. each. 

OPERATION 20. FINISH PROFILE 

Machine Used — Oliver lathe. 

Special tools and Fixtures — Air chuck, profile tool, etc. 

Production — 1 min. each. 

Inspection — By profile gage. 

OPERATION 21. BEVELING BOTJRLETTB 

Machine Used — Forming lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Female centers, etc. 

Production — 10 sec. each. 

OPERATION 22. GRINDING BOURLETTB 

Machine Used — East Jersey grinder. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Female centers, etc. 

Production — 35 sec. each. 

OPERATION 23. FORMING GROOVE AND RADIUS 

Machine Used — Engine lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Screw arbor, shallow steadyrest. 

Production — 25 sec. each. 

OPERATION 24. FILING AND POLISHING 

Machine Used — Speed lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 
Production — 45 sec. each. 

OPERATION 25. PRESSING ON COPPER BAND 

Machine Used — Hydraulic band press. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 
Production — 12 sec. each. 



Chap. IX] RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 453 

OPEBATION 26. TITBNINQ COPPER BAND 

Machine Used — ^E^t Jersey band turning lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Tool post, roller stop, tools. 
Production — 15 sec. each. 

OPEBATION 27. REMOVING BURR 

Machine Used — ^Lathe. 
Special Tool Fixtures — None. 
Production — 8 sec. each. 

The stock from which the body blanks are cut comes in bars, 125 in. 
in length by 3}^ in. in diameter, has an average carbon content of 0.55 
per cent.; manganese, 0.70; phosphorus 0.027; and sulphur, 0.035 per 
cent. Its tensile strength, after heat treatment, is about 135,000 lb., 
with 95,000 lb. elastic limit. 

These bars are received at a siding adjacent to the machine shop, 
are unloaded by an electric chain hoist in loads of about five bars and 
conveyed by a monorail to the hack-saw department where they are cut 
into 11 ^-^-in. lengths. This work is done with Racine high-speed power 
hack-saws, one operator attending to nine saws. A stop on 
the saw-frame measures off the stock as it is fed to the saws, and as each 
piece is cut off, the operator re-feeds the saw and places the severed 
piece on the adjacent roller conveyor. This takes the blank to the 
inspector who records the number and stamps each piece with its heat 
number. The blanks are then placed on another gravity conveyor, 
passed under the railroad siding and by the aid of an incUned chain 
conveyor are delivered to the machine shop proper at an elfevation 
sufficient to enable them to reach the furthest of the heavy East Jersey 
hydraulic drilUng machines over the first section of the shop gravity 
conveyor system. 

The first operation in the machine shop is that of drilling the blanks. 
This work is done on the East Jersey hydraulic drilling machines. 
The operator who cares for four machines — ^a setter-up being employed 
for every eight machines, takes a blank from the supply conveyor and 
simply inserts it in the work holding clamp of the machine and raises 
the operating lever. A hole 2 in. in diameter and 10 in. deep is drilled, 
the entire operation of feeding the machine, drilling and subsequently 
removing the drilled blank occupying about 5 min. While the drill is 
being fed into the blank, the operator attends to his other machine, 
withdrawing a drilled blank and inserting a fresh one. The drilled blank 
he places on the roller conveyor bound for the inspection table, at the 
same time signalUng the completion of the work to the ^'Productograph." 

The work then goes to vertical driUing machines for the third opera- 
tion, ue.f centering. The drilled blank is simply sUpped over a vertical 
expansion mandrel under the drill, the drill brought down and the blank 
centered. 



454 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

The next operation is performed on an East Jersey Hydraulic Lathe. 
The work is sUpped onto the fluted driving arbor of the machine, the 
hydrauUcally operated tailstock and tool carriage brought up and a 
roughing cut taken the full length of the blank. The work, after inspec- 
tion, then goes to an East Jersey Hydraulic of the facing type for the 
fifth operation. 

The shell is placed in the machine, as for the driUing operation, and 
the base rough-faced. This squares up the base with the rough-turned 
body. A small central teat is left by the cutting tool for subsequent 
recentering. 

After the customary inspection, the roughly turned shell bodies pass 
from the machine shop to the heat treating department. This depart- 
ment (see Fig. 353) contains a number of oil-fired East Jersey heating 
pots, accommodating ten shells each. Two heat treatments of the shell 
are made, the heat and the draw. For the former, the temperature 
maintained in the pots is 1,500 deg. F. and the shells are subjected to 
this heat for 30 min. For the draw, the temperature is 1,100 deg. F. 
and the shells remain in the pots for 20 min. 

In the quenching, which constitutes an important part of this heat 
treating operation, the shells are slowly passed through the quenching 
oil on an inclined apron conveyor, the upper end of which elevates the 
shells some distance above the ground, while the lower end is below the 
ground level and passes between the pots. As the shells emerge from 
their subterranean journey the surplus oil drains back to the quenching 
tank. After the quenching, the shells are drawn and a test specimen is 
taken for subsequent test. A careful inventory is taken at the same 
time of all treated shells as a check on previous operations, etc. 

From the heat treating department, the shells return to the machine 
shop for the seventh operation, that of finishing the inside. This is done 
on East Jersey Turret Lathes. The work is held in a deep three-jaw 
pneumatic chuck and the turret is fitted with five tools. The end of the 
shell is faced, the shell bored and reamed to size and all interior work, 
other than counterboring, recessing and threading the body for the inser- 
tion of the nose-piece, done in this one operation, the complexity of 
which necessitates careful inspection. 

To assure accuracy in future operations, the shell is then recentered. 
For this operation, the shell is placed on a taper arbor, in a lathe, the 
tailstock carrying a centering tool is brought up, and a center made in 
the protruding teat. 

The shell then goes to an engine lathe for the ninth operation, which 
consists of the second rough body turning and the turning of the bour- 
lette. For this work the shell is held on an expansion stub arbor, the 
tailstock brought up to support the work and the cut taken with an ordi- 
nary lathe tool. 



Chap. IX| RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 













ill! 






al 



life 



I ^_a&av^t7.tlljj ^g il 



a - j;.*-.m 



■^.l^s^J? 



f'isi '' TX T Ljk" _"'???■ 






:?:i v^ 




456 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

The succeeding operation is performed on a Whitcomb engine lathe, 
the work being held again on an expansion stub arbor, and consists in 
finish-turning the body and finish-turning the base. The body cut is 
conunenced at the base and ended at the bourlette. 

The work is then transferred to a Gisholt Lathe for finish-facing the 
base. In this operation the work is held in a pneumatic chuck with 
inside stops, the cutter brought up and the base finally finished. 

The twelfth machine operation consists in counterboring the shell 
and cutting the recess below that section to be threaded for the acconmio- 
dation of the nose-piece. This is done on a Gisholt Lathe, the work being 
held in a deep jawed pneumatic chuck. 

The three operations following are done on Woods Lathes, in all of 
which the work is held in pneimiatic chucks. Operation 13 consists in 
cutting the groove for the copper band, operation 14 in undercutting the 
band groove and 15 in knurUng the band groove. These operations are 
all simple but nevertheless require care in their execution. 

The shell bodies are now in shape to be threaded, preparatory to 
receiving the nose-pieces. This operation is done on a Lees Bradner 
Thread Milling Machine, the base of the shell being held in a deep collet 
chuck and the nose mill-threaded on the inside. 

The shell is then thoroughly washed, two tanks being used for that 
purpose. The first tank contains a solution of potash for removing the 
oil and grease and the second a solution of ''oakite" which is maintained 
at boiling temperature. The hot shells are then set on a table to dry. 
This takes but a few minutes. After this cleansing process, the seven- 
teenth operation, the shell bodies are ready for the insertion of the nose- 
piece. 

The stock from which the nose-pieces are machined is similar to that 
from which the shell bodies are made, but somewhat smaller in diameter, 
i,€,y 2% in. The bars, which are of sufficient length to furnish 50 nose- 
piece blanks, are cut by Racine power hack-saws into pieces measuring 
1^ in. in length, nine saws being attended to by one operator. These 
saws are located within the machine shop building, but the operations, 
inspections, etc. are all similar to those performed on the body blanks. 

From the saws, the nose-piece blanks are conveyed to turret lathes 
for the first machine operation, which consists in both drilling and rough 
tapping the blanks for the detonator. The blanks are held in three- 
jaw chucks and the work performed in the usual manner. 

The next operation on the nose-piece is performed on turret lathes 
and consists in roughing out the conical profile. The drilled and rough- 
tapped blank is held in a three-jaw universal air chuck and the rough 
form cut with a single tool. 

In the fourth operation, the base of the nose-piece is held against a 
shoulder on a screw arbor and the conical end is squared and beveled. 



Chap. IXJ RUSSIAN 3-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 457 

An East Jersey Slot Miller is used for the following operation on the 
nose-piece. This work, operation J5, is about the prettiest performed 
in the shop. Two small end milling cutters stradle the conical end of 
the nose-piece as the tool carriage is brought up. These mills rotate in 
opposite directions and feed toward one another and simultaneously- 
cut the two slots in the rigidly mounted nose-piece, held by means of a 
pneumatic clamp. 

The screw hole in the nose-piece is next drilled on a drill press and 
then the hole is tapped out on an East Jersey Tapping Machine. 

The roughly tapped detonator hole is then finish-tapped to size and 
the work, after being gaged and inspected, is transferred to another 
lathe where the thread shoulder is sized and recessed — operation J. 

The tenth operation on the nose-piece is then performed on a Holden 
Morgan Machine. This consists of thread-miUing the nose for insertion 
in the body-piece. After being tested with a ring thread gage, the nose- 
piece loses its identity as an individual unit. 

The next operation consists in assembling the shell-body and nose- 
piece, both of which are finished as far as interior work is concerned. A 
cork is inserted in the threaded detonator hole to guard against foreign 
substances entering the shell during subsequent operations. The body- 
piece is then held rigidly in a vise, or work holder, mounted on a bench 
and the nose-piece firmly screwed down with a wrench. 

The assembled shell then goes to a Gisholt Lathe where the profile 
of the conical end is rough-formed. In this operation, the shell is held 
in a pneiunatic chuck. 

Finish-turning the profile follows, this work being done on an OUver 
engine lathe with a special forming tool. In this operation, a cutting 
lubricant is employed. 

Following the finish profiling operation, the shells are taken to form- 
ing lathes on which the chamfer behind the bourlette is formed, the 
twenty-first operation. 

The next step in the evolution of the shell is grinding the bourlette 
and is done on East Jersey Grinders in which the shell is held between 
female centers by means of pneumatic pressure. 

The gas check is then formed and the edge of the base rounded. This 
is an engine lathe operation in which the shell is driven by a screw 
arbor inserted in the nose-piece, the shell being supported by a shallow 
steadyrest. 

The shell is then filed and polished on a speed lathe preparatory to 
the final shop inspection. This constitutes the thirty-fourth operation 
performed in the shop, excluding the various inspections which are not 
considered as individual operations but chargeable to the shop operations. 

The corks are removed from the nose-pieces and the shells subjected 
to a thorough examination by the shop, dupUcating every previous inspec- 



4S8 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

tion. PssBing this exacting test, the sheila go to the government enclosure 
and are once more examined and gaged, inside and out, by the Russiaa 
Government inspectors. During the government examination, the nose- 
piece and shell-body are separated and on their return to the shop they 
are blown out and lightly sprayed inside with lacquer, before reassembhng. 
The copper band is then pressed on. The bands come in the form 
of rings which just slide over the base of the shell. They are slid onto the 
shell by hand and ht tightly enough to remain in position over the band 
groove while the sheila are placed into a hydrauhc band press — see Fig, 
354. These machines force the band into the groove under 1,500 lb, 
per sq, in. pressure. After one grip of the press plungers, the pressure 



pia. 354. BAND PRESS 

is taken oB, the shell revolved a few degrees and given another squeeze 
to assure band tightness. The shell is then shghtly elevated by a foot 
lever and the top of the band hghtly pressed. 

From the banding machines the shells are taken to East Jersey band 
turning lathes on which three tools are employed; the first one for rough- 
turning the band, the second for beveling the edges of the band and the 
third for finishing the band to the proper diameter, The shells are then 
transferred to an engine lathe for the final operation, which consists in 
removing the slight burr left by the band turning lathe. In this last 
operation, the shells are held in female centers by means of pneumatic 
pressure. 

After the band has been carefully tested for tightness and gaged 
by the shop inspector, the finished shell passes once more to the govern- 
ment enclosure for its final inspection and acceptance. This examina- 
tioD is not as extended as the first government inspection, for the shells 
have already been examined, passed and stamped with the first of the 
Russian Government's marks. The bands are subjected to close scrutiny, 
however, and the shells weighed on the official scales. A variation in 



Chap. IX] RUSSIAN S-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 459 

weight of only an ounce or two either way is all that is permitted. Shells 
vaiying more from the specified weight of 10 lb. 14 or 15 oz. are returned 
to the shop. Those over weight go to the shop hospital (which is 
equipped with a complete set of machines for making the shells) and 
they can usually be rectified; while those which are too far under weight, 
and there are remarkably few such, have usually to be scrapped. 

The accepted shells then have the manufacturer's mark rolled on the 
base and are passed to the shop inspector who examines them to see that 
they carry all the required marks, the serial number, the batch number, 
the two Russian Government marks, the manufacturer's mark, etc. 
The records are carefully entered in a book by a clerk, the batch number, 
etc. being called out to him by an assistant who wears a pair of cotton 
gloves with which he carefully wipes each shell as he inspects it. 

The cleaned shells are then given a Ught coat of lacquer, after which 
they are slipped into cardboard containers and placed on the conveyor 
supplying the box car loaders. An ordinary box car, carefully loaded 
will accommodate about 7,000 shells, so that a car or more is loaded each 
day, aggregating between 8 and 10 carloads of Russian 3-in. high*explosive 
shells that leave the Paterson works of the East Jersey Pipe Corporation 
each week. 



CHAPTER X 
MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS' 

The shop of the Providence Engineermg Works, Providence, R. I., 
affords an example of the way in which a plant of moderate size can be 
transformed from heavy engine work to the making of shrapnel and 
high- ex plosive shells from 70 to 150 mm. in diameter. 

The shells are all made from forgings and in four diameters — ^70, 75, 
120 and 150 mm. They are again divided into shrapnel and high-ex- 
plosive shells, while the 120- and 150-mm. sizes are also made in two 
lengths. All of this goes to make the manufacturing problem more 
difficult, but adds interest to the final solution. 



Body Ogiye n3in+ 

FIO. 355. BERBIAN mOH-EXPLOStVE 120-MH. SHORT BHELL 

Taking the 120-nim. short high-explosive shell as the subject, the 
manufacturing operations will be followed through, and the methods 
used on the other sizes will be shown. Fig. 355 gives a general view of 
the complete shell, with the protecting point screwed in place. 

Thirty-four main operations are performed on the shells before they 
leave the manufacturer's plant, including two exhaustive inspections 
on the part of the Serbian officials and the boxing of the shell for shipment 
— ^25 on the shell body as a unit or with the ogive in place, 5 on the ogive 
and 4 in the manufacture of the point. The sequence of these opera- 
tions, together with brief tabulated data for the individual tasks, 
follow : 

' Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinist. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBLAJ^ SHELLS 461 



SEQUENCB OF OPERATIONS 

1. Cutting-off end of shell forging. 

2. Centering base. 

3. Facing base. 

4. Rough-turning shell. 

5. Boring shell. 

6. Threading nose of shell. 

7. Grooving and knurling for copper band. 

8. Finish-turning shell/ 

9. Finish-facing base. 

10. Marking base. 

11. Washing shell body. 

12. First government inspection. 

A. Drilling ogive. 

B. Forming and threading ogive. 
C Boring and reaming ogive. 
Z>. Threading ogive nose. 

E, Rough-turning ogive. 

13. Screwing-in ogive. 

14. Finish-turning ogive and shell. 

15. Pressing on copper band. 

16. Turning copper band. 

17. Washing shdl. 

18. Final shop and government inspections. 

19. Cleaning completed shells. 

20. Varnishing shells. 

21. Baking varnish. 

22. Painting shells. 

23. Dr3ang shells. 

A'. Forming and threading point. 
B\ Milling key slots on point. 

C. Shaving point. 
Z>'. Rethreading point. 

24. Screwing-in point. 

25. Packing. 



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mimUl Mil ii|Wi mil \\ UtlHHH tNi»" ft^.^^ 



v.^s^SiW" ' ' ..".''M-.'-' " ' " > ij J,""" " ".XW-"' 



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.J 







OPBBATION 1. CUTTINQ OFF END 

Machine Used — Espen-Lucas. 

Special Fixtures and Tools — Milling 
cutter face back end. 

Gages — Special depth gages on ma- 
chine. 

Production — 10 per hr. 



OPERATION 2. CENTERING BASE 

Machine Used — Snyder 24-in. vertical 
drilling machine. 

Special Fixtures — Swinging drill jig. 

Gages — None; use stop on center 
drill. 

Production — 60 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVB SHF.T.TJ 




OFEBATION 3. 

Maohines Used — Blaisdell and LeBlond 21-ii 
Special Fixtures — Driviiig mandrel, multiple tool block. 
Oages — lilat former A, length; B, form of bevel. 
ProductioD — 2^ to 4 per hr., depending on lathe. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 463 




OPERATION 4. BOUOH 



Machine Used— LeBlond 2I-m. lathe. 

Special Fixture— Same driving mandrel aa operation 3. 

Gages — A, diameter. 

Production — 4 per hr. first cut, 8 per hr. for second cut. 



fiORINQ SKEU. 

Machine Used — LeBlond 21-in. turret lathe. 
Special Fixtures — Stops, position index — special chuck. 
Gages — A, bore for thread; B, form of bore; C, thickness of bottom 
tongue; E, length of tongue; F, recess for thread. 
Production — iO min. each. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPEKATION 6. THREAOINa HOSB Or SHELL 

Machines Used — Automatic threading lathe and Le«8-Bradaer bobber. 
Special Fiiiture— Roller rest; one tool only in lathe. 
Gage— Threaded plug. 
Production — 8 per hr. 



f= 




OPERATION 7. QROOVINa 



Machine Used — LeBlond 21-in. lathe. 

Special Fixtures — Stops for carriage in undercutting driving plug. 
Gages — A, location of groove; B, width of groove; C, diameter of groove. 
Production — fi t« 6 per hr. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 465 



OPEBATION 8. FINISH TURNING 

Mtichiiie Used — Prentice geared bead lathe. 

Special Fixtures — Driving plug and multiple tool block. 

Ga^es — A, diameter, one for rise, one for relief; B, length of reli^ from groove. 

Production — 14 min. each. 



M^W * M^ r^ 



OFEKATIOK 9. riNISH BASK 



e Used— LeBlond 21-in. lathe. 
Special Fixture — Flap jaw chuck. 
G^ea — A, thickness of bottom; B, length. 
Production — 11 min. each. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEIifl 



OFBBATION 10. UABKINO BABE 



Machine Used — Noble 4 Westbrook. 
Special Fixture — Roll eUmp. 
Gage— None. 
Production — 50 per lir. 



OPERATION 11. WABHINO BHELL BODT 



Machine Used — None. 
Equipment — Soda tank. 



OPBRATIOIT 12. FtltST aOVBBNllENT 

Machine Used — None. 

Equipment — Inspection bench, full eet of gages, etc. 



OPERATION A, OOIVE — DBILLma 



Machine Used — Barnes gang drilling machine. 
Special Fixtures — Holding chucka. 
Gage— None. 
Production — 5 per hr. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 467 



OPERATION B. OQITB— rORU IKSIDV AND THRBADfi 

Machine Veed — Joaes & Lamson. 

Speci&l Puttures— Chuck jaws. 

Gages — A, thread diameter; B, recesa for thread; C, length of thread; D, depth 
t4 bore; E, form of bore; F, diameter of annular groove; G, depth of annular groove; 
H, operation gage for groove. 

Production — IH to 2 per hr. 




OnSRATION C. OOtVE — BOBB AND BEAU NOBE 

Machine Used — Jones & Lamson, 
Special Fixture — Holding ring on chuck. 

Gages — A, length; B, diameter of hole; C, hole for thread; D, diameter of n 
below thread. 

Production — 8 to 10 per hr. 



HIGH-EXFLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION D. OaiVZ — TBREADINO NOSE 



Mactuae Used — 21-ui. lathe. 
Special Fixture — ^Hobbing head. 
Gage — Plug thread gai;e. 
Production — 9 per hr. 



OPEBATIOM ■. OarVB — BOUOH 




Machine Used— LeBIond 21-in. lathe. 
Special Fixtures — Form on taper slide, chuck. 
Gage— None. 
Production — 15 per hr. 



13. 

Machine Used — None. 

Special Fixtures — Vise and screw plug. 

Gage — None. 

Froduotion — 30 per hr. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILU METER SERBIAN SHELLS 469 



14. 

Machmes Used — Hendey and LeBlond 21-ii 
Special Fixtures — Chuck and formers. 
Gage — Form of nose. 
Production — 2 to 2H per hr. 



OPGBATION 15. t>BESSINa-ON COPPER BAND 

Machine Used — West tire-setter. 
Pressure — 1,500 lb. per sq. in. 
Production — 30 per hr. 




OPERATION 16. TURN HAND 

Machue Used— LeBlond 21-in. lathe. 

Special Fixtures — Chuck; tool post. 

Gages — A, width of band; B, distance from end of shell. 

Production — 20 per hr. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



OPERATION 17. WASBINO SHELL 



Equipment — Tank and ajr jet. 

Cleaosing Liquid — Solution of heated soda. 

Production — 50 per hr. 



OPERATION 18. riNAL SHOP AND C 

Equipment — Inspection benches, gages, etc. 



iNBFEtrnoNS 



OPERATION 19. PINIBH VASKINO 

Equipment — Special compartment tank, washing pipes, etc. 
Cleansing Liquids — Hot solution of soda, hot water. 



OPERATION 20. 

Equipment — Inside varnishing machine, Fig. 378. De Vilbisa painting machine 
for outaide varnishing. 

Production — Inside vamishiog, 120 p«r hr. Outside ramishing, 120 per hr. 




OuUld* (Ncnivlw 



Machine Used — Gridley 4!^-in. automatic. 

Special Fixture — None. 

Gages — A, total depth of hole; B, depth of straight hole; C, thread diameter; 
D, adjustable ring gage sealed over screws; G, total leugth; F, form of head; G, form 
of inside; H, diameter of outaide. 

Production — 5 per hr. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTtltaNG 120-MlLHMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 471 




OPEBATION B . POINTS MILL KET a 



Machine Used — HBud miller. 

Special Fixture — Split chuck. 

Gagefl — A, center distance of slots; B, thickncaa of metal below slot. 

Production — 25 per hr. 




OPERATIOM C 



POINT — SHAVE 



Machine Used — Bardons & Olive hand screw machine. 
Special Fixture — Split chuck. 
Gage — Foim of head. 
Production — 20 per hr. 



ho^ 



OPERATION D'. 



POINT — RETHREAD 



Machine Used — Vertical drilling machine. 
Special Fixtures — Prong die and chuck. 
Gage — Adjustable ring thread gage. 
Production — 22 per hr. 

The rough forcings weigh about 55 lb. and are approximately 5J4 
in, in outside diameter, 3J^ in. in the bore and probably average 14J^ 
in. long. The first operation is cutting off the open end to length on the 
Espen-Lucas saw. The forgings are clamped in the holders at each side 
of the saw, being handled in pairs, as shown in Fig. 356. They are gaged 
from the bottom of the forged hole by means of simple stops, shown on 
the machine and also in detail in Fig. 357. There is a varying amount 
to be cut off, owing to the difference in the depth of the forged hole, 
but all operations are gaged from the bottom of the pocket. The back 
end of the shell is also faced off by a large milhng cutter suitably spaced 



472 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEU^ 



ISec. II 



on the aame arbor as the cutting saw, so that the face of the shell is given 
an approximately equal thickness in each case. 

The device for setting these shells in the cutting-off machine, as 
shown in Fig. 357, has several points of interest. It consists primarily 



no. 356. sspEN-LUCAB saw fob operation 2 




FIQ. 357. DETAILS OF DEPTH STOP 

of the arm A, which swings on a stud screwed into the bed and carries 
the gages B and C. These are a good sliding fit through the arm A, 
have the inner point tapered and the outer end knurled for easy handling. 
They also have two ^^-in. grooves, one near each end, for locking them 
in either the in or the out position. 



Chap. XJ MANUFACTURING 120-MlLiaMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 473 

Thia locking is done by the latch handles D and E, which are pivoted 
so that the weight of the hooked end will keep them in place in the 
notch unless they are lifted out by the other end. The latches hold them 
in either position, and the whole arm can be easily swung out of the way 
except when the blanks are being g^ed for location in the machine. 

Next comes the centering of the back end. This operation is done 
in the fixture shown in Fig. 358, which is mounted on a 24-in. Snyder 
vertical drilling machine, that carries a centering pintle mounted on 
trunnions in the side of the fixture and is fitted with two sets of three 
centering fingers, so as to insure the hole being drilled central with the 
bore of the shell. This fixture is shown in two positions in Fig. 358, 



Fia. 358. BWINGINO DRILL JIG 

while Fig. 359 gives the details of its construction. The action of the 
centering fingers can be easily seen from the sectional view in Fig. 359, 
these fingers A and B being forced out by adjusting the nuts C and D 
on the rod E. The nuts carry right and left threads, and the rod E 
is easily controlled by the handwheel F, beneath. 

In operation the shell is placed over the spindle while in the horizontal 
position shown. The shell is then thrown into the vertical position and 
locked by the index pin G, on the side. The handwheelf is turned until 
the locking fingers grip the bore of the shell, centering it for the drill, 
which comes through the bushing at the top. Details of thia pintle are 
also shown in Fig. 359. The fingers A and B are held in a closed position. 

The third operation brings the shell blanks to the lathe for rough- 
facing the back end and turning the bevel, which is considerably larger 
on these shells than on some others. This operation removes a large 
amount of metal, as can be seen from the operation sketch, which, together 
with the time required for handling, consumes some 15 to 25 min. 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



4^ 



no. 350. DETAILS OF DBILUNO ilO 



FIO. 360. DETAILS or DBtVINO UAtfl>ltEL 



Chap. XI MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN 8HELI£ 475 

The ehell is held on a three-jawed mandrel, or pintle A, these jaws 
being expanded by a taper draw-in plug operated by a handwheel on 
the rod that goes through the hollow spindle. The three jaws are of 
hardened steel and are curved on the bottom to insure even seating on 
the inside forged surface of the shell. 

The operation sketch gives a view of the tool layout, with the squar- 
ing tool C and beveling tool D shown in position in the turret tool post. 
This picture also shows how the face of the firer is set into a recess in the 
faceplate and is then bolted to it. Fig. 360 shows all details of the holding 
mechanism. It is set into the faceplate, as shown at B. 

A similar holding device is used for the fourth operation of rough- 
turning the outside diameter of the shell. This work is in reahty split 



na. 361. the lathe with btopb and ini 

into two Buboperations, the first lathe leaving about H5 in. to be removed 
by a second lathe, as this method has been found more satisfactory 
in maint^ning the desired allowance for finishing on the last cut. No 
particular lathe set-up is required, except as represented in operation 
sketch, the only difference between this and the layout in the previous 
operation being in the tool used. The production on the first lathe is 
4 per br.; and on the second roughing cut, a production of 8 per hr. is 
easily reached. 

The work has now progressed to the boring of the shell, which is done 
in a LeBlond turret lathe equipped with a s[>ecial chuck, shown in Fig. 
361. The tool layout is shown in Fig. 362, while Fig. 361 gives a general 
view of the lathe set-up for this operation. 

Details of the special chuck are shown in Fig. 363 and contain several 
interesting features. It consists of the cylindrical body, which is bolted 
to the faceplate by the flange A and turned on the outside at B to run 
in the steadyreet shown. The chuck carries two adjusting collars C 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




VV 



I J--- J 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 477 

aod D. The front coll&r carries the split taper bushing E, which is forced 
inward by the front plate F, and closes on the shell by means of the saw 
cuts on the comparatively thin taper section. The other end of the 
shell is screwed up by the collar C forcing three equally spaced pins F 
down against the shell. 




no. 363. DETAILS or chuck and bust 

The boring tool, shown in Fig. 364 at A, is for rough-boring the inside 
of the shell and consists of a heavy steel shank carrying a }^-ia. square 
high-speed steel cutter. This is hollow and has a brass tube that carries 
the lubricant direct to the cutting point. The construction of the other 
boring bars can be readily seen from the details and require Uttle explana- 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 




Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 479 

tion. Another reamer is shown at J3, carrying two long blades, that lap 
by each other so that each can present its cutting edge on the center 
Une. Each also has adjusting and clamping screws. 

Behind the cutter blade is the pilot bushing A, which is pressed for- 
ward by the helical spring B, This pilot enters the shell body in the space 
bored for the thread and assists in guiding the bar so that the whole will 
be reamed true to the correct taper of 1° 12' 42". The finishing reamers 
are shown at E and F, also the tool for recessing at the bottom of the 
thread. This carries a central stud, or distance piece A, which locates 
the recess with reference to the bottom of the bore. The necessary side 
movement is obtained by means of the lever J5. 

Fig. 361 shows the carriage stops at C, a separate stop being provided 
for each turret position. A large multiplying lever A has also been 
added on the front of the lathe carriage to aid in quickly setting the turret 
central at any time. The short end of this, at the left of the capscrew 
B that forms the pivot, is in the form of a bell crank, having a curved 
surface presented to the end of the turret slide. 

The upper surface of the cross-slide way is graduated so as to make it 
easy for the operator to bring the turret to the desired position quickly. 
This view also gives a good idea of the construction of some of the tools 
shown in Fig. 364. It shows the roughing reamers, the tool for trimming 
the end of the shell, and the circular recessing tool, which cuts the groove 
at the bottom of the thread in the shell nose. 

The boring is divided into six suboperations, the first being to rough- 
bore by using the taper attachment at the back of the carriage, which has 
been fitted with a form of the proper shape. This is then released by 
means of a special nut, and the turret is brought to its central position 
by using the pointer already referred to. 

The second suboperation rough-faces the bottom of the hole and 
rough-bores the thread diameter. The third suboperation finishes the 
taper at the bottom of the shell with a two-bladed reamer, shown at 
JS? in Fig. 364 and also in the turret-tool layout. The fourth suboperation 
finishes the taper reaming and also finishes the thread diameter. Sub- 
operation No. 5 takes care of the recess for the thread and chamfers the 
inside of the shell, while the sixth and last suboperation finishes the 
tongue at the outer end of the shell, completing the fifth operation in 
an average time of 40 min., although the operation has been done in 
24 min. 

After this comes a bench inspection, from which the shells go to a 
Lees-Bradner thread miller, to have the threads cut in the nose. Three 
threading lathes of the Automatic Machine Tool Co. are also used for 
this work, a roller rest being provided, as shown in Fig. 365. Only one 
threading tool is used on the work in the automatic threading lathe. 
The production averages 8 shells per hr. 



480 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sic. 11 

The seventh operation is grooving and knurling. The driving plug 
is screwed into the nose of the shell, as shown, the work being done in 
a 21-in. LeBlond lathe with a turret tool post. The groove is roughed 
out with a square-nosed tool in an Armstrong holder. The second sub- 
operation cuts the eight small grooves, leaving seven ridges. The third 
suboperation is undercutting the back side of the groove, this being done 
by a tool fixed at the proper angle and fed into the bottom of the groove 
before cutting. By moving the carriage the desired distance to the 
right the undercut is easily made. This is controlled by two stops on 
the lathe bed, as shown, the depth of all the tools being determined by 
a single stop at the back of the cross-slide. 



no. 365. AUTOMATIC tbreadino lathb 

The fourth and last suboperation is the knurling, with a knurl about 
2 in. in diameter and having plain, straight grooves properly spaced so 
that the resulting effect at the bottom of the band groove is a series of 
square raised points all around the groove. The use of the large knurl, 
mounted on a substantial 3^-in. pin, makes this a comparatively easy 
operation. 

With the driving plug still in the end of the shell, it goes to the eighth 
operation — finish-turning in a Prentice geared head lathe. Three tools 
are used in a special tool post, as shown in the operation sketch. One 
tool turns the rehef ahead of the groove, the second roughs the back end 
for the cartridge case, and the third finishes. This operation averages 
14 min. each. 

Then foUows a bench inspection, after which the driving plug is un- 
screwed and the shells go to a lathe equipped with a flap chuck, as shown 
in operation 9, to have the back end faced off and the finish bevel put on 
the corner. This requires 11 min. Details of the chuck are given in 
Fig. 366. 



Chap. X) MANUPACTUEING 120-MlLLrMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 481 



no. 366. DETAILS OF FLAP CHUCK 



no. 367. BENCH INSPECTION aAQE ron thickness or bottou 



482 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sk. II 

The back end is theD marked on a machine of the Dwight-SIate pattern 
at the rate of about 50 per br. After the stamping, the shells are cleaned 
in a soda tank to cut out all the grease and oil, after which they go to 



it THREAD^INSPECnON 



L BORING OQIVES 



the inspection bench to be looked over by the Serbian Government 
inspectors. If satisfactory, the shells are stamped and passed for 
further operations. 



Chap. X] MANUFACTURING 120-MlLUMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 483 

The mspection benches are well equipped with g&giea and are built 
of the most convenient height for the work to be done. A gage used for 
testing the thickness of the back end is shown in Fig. 367. The shell is 
placed over the center spindle A, being guided by the enlarged portion B. 
The measuring upright C carries the head D, which is located by a 
shoulder on C and carries the adjustable measuring point E. This can 
be handled very rapidly and gives good results. 




Turning Thnod Dhxn 



' ReceMferTliraad 



Shape cif Insid* 




Pia. 370. 



OPERATION 



For testing the threads in the ends of shells a belt arrangement is 
used, as shown in Fig, 368, which saves both time and fatigue on the part 
of the inspector. This belt runs continuously. By laying a shell on the 
belt-covered pulleys it is revolved so that the plug gage need only be 
held still in the band. For running the gage out, the inspector uses the 
gage as a handle and turns the shell end for end on the belt. In this 
way the rotation is reversed and the plug gage is unscrewed. 



(4 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sic. II 

The shells are now ready to have the ogives screwed in, so that these 
in be finished in place on the shell body. 
The opve, which is the term for the nose, or "pointed arch," comes 



in the shape of a forging weighing about 15 lb. The first operation is 
to drill a IH-iQ- hole through the ends, a three-spindle Barnes gang 
drill being used for this purpose, as shown in Fig. 369. One man handles 
about 5 pieces i>er hour on this machine. 



CoAP. X] MANUFAGTURINO 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 485 

The second operation forms the inside, turns the outside, and threads 
for screwing into the body of the shell. This operation is performed on 
a Jones & Lamson machine, its threading attachment proving very 
satisfactory for this work. The gages for this operation are shown in 
Fig. 370. The production is 20 for a 10-hr. day. 

Two alternate methods of boring the ogives are shown in Fig. 371. 
Both are on Bullard vertical lathes, the difference being in the method 
of using the forming cam. In the first, at the left, the boring was done 
by the side head, the cam being placed at A, as shown. This formed the 
inside of the ogive as the side head was fed down. 

The second method is an improvement over this, as by placing the 
cam so as to utihze the boring tools in the turret it leaves the side head 




no. 372. QAOES pob third oqive opxbation 



free to turn the outside for the thread at the same time. The difference 
in these methods is seen in the production times. For 150-mm. ogives 
the first way required about 2J^ hr, each; and the second, 35 min. 

For the third operation also performed on a Jones & Lamson machine, 
the ogive is held in a special chuck having a steel ring fastened to its face 
and threaded to receive the large end of the ogive. After it is screwed 
in place, the three inside jaws grip it firmly, while the outer ring not 
only centers it, but also prevents distortion. 

The small end is then bored out, enlarging the drilled hole to the 
proper size; a recess is cut for the end of the thread and the outer end 
faced to length. The gages for this operation are shown in Fig. 372. 

The fourth operation threads the hole in the [>oint, a special thread- 
hobbing fixture being used, as shown in Fig. 373. The hob runs 225 
r.p.m., while the work turns 1 revolution in 2 min. This gives a produc- 
tion of 9 per br. 

The fifth and last operation rough-forms the ogive on a Prentice 
geared head lathe, using a form at the back of the carriage. The inspec- 
tion is then made before the ogive goes to be assembled for final turning. 

The ogives are then screwed soUdly into place, operation 13. This 
work is done by hand while the shell itself is held in the vise of a clamp, 
shown in Fig. 374, which is mounted on a stand so as to be of convenient 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELI^ 




Vise for Aseambling 
no. 374. 



Cbap. XI MANUFACTURING 120-MILLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 487 

height. The shells are clamped in this vise by means of the cam shown, 
the ogives started in by hand and the assembUng plug screwed into the 
nose of the ogive. 

This plug consists of a central stud squared at one end, threaded at 
the other and having a thrust collar against which the ball thrust, shown, 
bears. The ball thrust is held in position by the three side fingers with 
hooked ends so that it is perfectly free to move. The stud is screwed 
into the nose of the ogive, and the ogive itself is forced into the shell by 
a large ratchet wrench fitting on the squared end of the plug. 

These parts must be forced together very tightly, both on account of 
the necessity of their being virtually one piece of metal and on account of 



375. FINI8H-TUBNINO OGITE AND BBBLI. 



the difficulty of varnishing in case they are not. The latter difficulty 
comes from the fact that, if the stud and the ogive are not tight, oil is 
apt to be forced out when the shells are cleaned by air pressure on the 
inside, and this makes it difficult for either the varnish or the paint to 
dry satisfactorily. Two men working in conjunction obtain an average 
output on this operation of 30 pieces per hour. 

The fourteenth operation, Fig. 375, uses the same style of chuck as 
that shown in operation No. 9 and finishes the curve on the ogive by a 
form on the back of the lathe-carriage turret. It also finishes the front 
end of the shell body itself, this curve continuing from the ogive back 
on to the body for about IH in. The finishing is done on 21-in. lathes 
of both Hendey and LeBlond makes, the production being from 2 to 
2H per hr. The gages are shown in Fig, 375. 

The copper bands are next swaged on the shells, on a West tire- 
setting machine, each band being pressed in three positions at 1,500 lb. 
pressure. This work is handled at the rate of 30 per hr. 



488 HIGH-EXFLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. U 

Then comes the turning of the band by the use of two tools in a tool 
post, Fig. 376. The first tool turns the band to the approximate outside 
diameter, while the second forms both aides and the outside diameter 
at the eame time. The finished band is a trifle wider than the slot 



. 376. TDRNINO THB BAND 



in which it is held. This operation uses the same style of chuck as 
that in operations 9 and 14, and production is 30 per hr. per machine. 
The whole shell is then cleaned in a tank- of heated soda that is blown up 
into the inside by an air jet at the rate of 50 per hr. Then comes the 



FIG. 377. OPERATION 19; TANK K)E CLEANING 

final shop inspection and at the same time the inspection by the represen- 
tatives of the Serbian government. 

From here the shells go to the finishing department, where they 
arc again washed in hot soda and also hot water. The tank used for 



Chap. XJ MANUFACTURING 120-MmLIMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 489 

this purpose ia shown in Fig. 377, the compartment at the left being for 
soda water, while the other two compartments contain simply hot water 
aa free from soda as can he maintained as the shells pass from one to the 
other. 

Arrangements are made for a gang of six men, three on each side, 
each being provided with an upright washing pipe that has radial per- 
forations at the upper end. The central stem controls an air valve, so 
that by dropping a shell over the upright pipe and pressing down, the 
air valve at the bottom is opened and a shower of hot water, either soda 
or plain, is forced all over the interior, cleaning it perfectly and allowing 



no. 378. OPERATION 20: tabnishinq shells 

the shells to be handled very rapidly. The exact rate varies of course 
with the size and weight of the shells to be handled and the strength and 
agility of the men. 

After cleaning, the shells are then ready for the inside varnishing, 
which forms the twentieth operation and is done on the machine shown in 
Fig, 378, This consists merely of two pairs of rollers, which are revolved 
by power and on which the shell to be varnished is laid as at ^. The 
vamiBhing head is seen at B, carrying a nozzle that reaches to the bottom 
of the shell. This nozzle sprays the varnish on the inside, but does not 
become operative until the head has been pushed into the shell. Then 
an air valve is tripped, and the varnish is sprayed over the interior of 
the revolving shell as the varnishing head moves out by power. The 
spray is cut off at a predetermined point, as it is only necessary to varnish 
the lower part of the bore in most eases. This limi t can, however, be 
easily varied for any length of shell and to varnish either a part or the 
whole interior, as may be desired. This inside varnishing can be done at 
the rate of 120 per hr. 



490 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHEII£ [Sec. II 

The auboperation is the varnishing of the outside of the shell, which 
is done under a hood, shown at the right. A revolving spindle supports 
the nose of the shell and revolves it vertically, while the operator sprays 
on the varnish with the sir-spraying arrangement shown at C. The 
protector D is swung in front of the shell to keep the varnish off the band. 
Inside the hood is a large exhaust fan to keep the atmosphere as clear of 
the varnish vapors as possible. The .outside varnishing of the shells 
can also be handled at the rate of about 120 per hr. This is done in the 
De Vilbiss painting machine. 

The next, or twenty-first, operation is baking the varnish for 8 hr. at 
a temperature of about 300 deg. F. For this purpose the shells are placed 
in metal trucks, one of which is shown in Fig. 379. The trucks vary 



pia. 379. TRUCK FOR baking shells 

somewhat in construction, according to the size of the shell. The one 
shown is for the 70- and 75-mm. shells and contains movable separation 
strips, as shown. The trucks for the larger shells contain permanent 
divisions formed by crossbars of angle iron. 

Operation 22 — painting — is shown in Fig. 380. As can be seen, it 
is divided into stages, according to the number of operators. Four men 
are generally used, the first painting the end of the shell, the next a band 
the width of his brush, just below the bronze rifling ring, the third a 
band at the other end, and the fourth filling in the unpainted space. By 
working in this way 120 shells per hr. can be handled regularly. 



Chap. X) MANUFACTURING 120-MlLLlMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 491 

Higli-explosive shells are painted a bright yellow, while shrapnel 
are painted a vivid red; but no paint muBt go on what might be called 
the bearing surface of the ehell — both the copper band and the part 
just behind the ogive, which is an important diameter, as it fits the gun 
bore. 



THE SHELLS 

After painting, the shells go to another drying oven at a temperature 
of 150 deg. F. for 12 hr. They are then ready to have the point screwed 
into place in the nose as a protector; this is done just before packing. 
Tbeae points have previously been varnished in the same place as the 
outside of the shell, some being shown in Fig. 378. 




FORUINfl AND THRBADINO POINT 



The point, or cap, that protects the thread in the ogives so that the 
fuse can be screwed in without difficulty is made from bar stock. This 
usage is an interesting variation from the brass, zinc and wooden caps 
that are now employed for this purpose. These points are turned from 
2Ke bar steel on Gridley 43-i-in. automatics. The first operation is 



492 H1GH-EXHX)SIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

shown in Fig. 381, together with the tool layout, the production being 
5 per hr. The side wrench slots are then milled, the point being held in 
a split chuck on a small hand miller and indexed in two positions, so that 
the end mill can cut the desired slot, the depth being determined by a 
suitable atop. The production here is 25 per hr. 

The cone end of the point is shaved on a Bardons & Oliver hand turret 
at the rate of 20 per hr., the point being held in a screw chuck and a 
single tool used in the cross-slide for this purpose. 

Then comes the rethreading, which, instead of being done by band, as 
in most cases, is handled on a vertical drill, as shown in Fig. 382 (spring 
prong) dies are used in the drilling-machine spindle, while the point to be 



rethreaded rests in a suitable pocket in a holding fixture on the table. 
The cap is prevented from turning by two studs that fit the wrench slots. 

No difficulty seems to be experienced in catching the thread, a tapping 
head being used for reversal. It is also easy to prevent the die going on 
too far, by simply lifting the whole spindle so that the prongs do not 
engage, allowing the point to revolve with the die. This method is 
certainly easier than rethreading by hand, even though the production 
may not be as much higher as might be imagined. In this case it is 22 
to 25 per hr., but it must be remembered that these points are of steel 
and that the thread is nearly 2 in. in outside diameter. The points are 
then inspected and after being varnished inside are screwed into place 
on the otherwise completely assembled shell, operation 24. 

Each shell is then wrapped in oiled paper and packed four in a box, 
as shown in Fig. 383. Separators are used to hold the shells firmly in 



Chap. X] MAmJFACTURlNG 120-MILUMETER SERBIAN SHELLS 493 

position, and corresponding forms go on top of the shell, so that the cover 
holds them tightly in place. The construction of the box, the handles 
of light rope and the marking of the box are clearly shown. 

The covers are screwed in place, and it will be noticed that some of 
the screw holes A are counterbored to nearly an inch in diameter — before 



no. 3S3. BoxiMO bhfobe smppiifa 

the official seaUng. After the screws have been put in place, sealing wax 
is powed into these holes, and the inspector presses into the wax a seal 
bearing the Government coat of arms. This is to insure against the 
shells being tampered with between the last Government inspection at 
the factory and their arrival at the various [>oints where they are to be 
loaded. 



CHAPTER XI 

MANUFACTURING FRENCH 120-MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE 
SHEIXS* 

The manufacture of 120-inillimeter high-explosive shells for the 
French Government {see Fig. 384) entails exacting work with very httle 
tolerance and is further complicated by the requirements of a test for 
hardness of shell, hydraulic pressure tests, volumetric measurements and 
a test for the center of gravity of the shell. Altogether, from the un- 
loading of the rough shell forgings at the manufacturer's plant to the 
shipping of the completed shell, some 52 distinct operations have proved 
advisable. These, in the order in which they are performed, are as 
follows : 



Ml 



SEQUENCE OP OPERATIONS 

1. Unloading the shell forgings. 

2. Pickling the forgings. 

3. Cleaning-out and inspection of forgings. 

4. Centering the base. 

6. Reaming out powder pocket. 

6. Cutting-ofi open end. 

7. Cle&uing out burr and rough turning. 

8. Reaming out lower end of shell. 

9. Facing closed end and gaging for thickness of bottom. 

10, Re-cent«ring base. 

11. Turning to profile. 

' Reginald Trautschold. 

494 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120-MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 495 

12. Inspection. 

13. Nosing-in open end of shell. 

14. Rough4x>ruig nose and facing to length. 

15. Washing and testing for volume. 

16. Heat treatment. 

17. Quenching. 

18. Drawing. 

19. Testing for hardness. 

20. Pickling nosed-in shell. 

21. Finish-boring and tapping nose. 

22. Tapping nose on drill press. 

23. Facing bottom to thickness. 

24. Washing. 

25. Screwing-in center plug. 

26. Turning body. 

27. Rough-turning taper. 

28. Finish-turning taper. 

29. Rough-turning nose. 

30. Finish-turning nose. 

31. Forming band groove. 

32. Grinding shoulder. 

33. Grinding taper and back of band. 

34. Finish-turning body. 

35. Preliminary weighing. 

36. Re-turmng nose to weight. 

37. Removing center plug. 

38. Cutting-off centrsd teat. 

39. Re-facing nose. 

40. Hydraulic pressure test. 

41. Banding. 

42. Hand tapping. 

43. Band turning. 

44. Washing. 

45. Final gaging. 

46. Final interior inspection and eccentricity test. 

47. Government inspection. 

48. Marking shells. 

49. Greasing shells. 

50. Putting plug in nose. 

51. Boxing. 

52. Loading shells into freight car. 

, PRINCIPAL EQUIPMENT AND OPERATING DATA 

OPERATION 2. PICKLING THE FOBaiNGS 

Equipment — Wooden pickling vats. 

Solutions — Vat No. 1, dilute sulphuric acid. Vat No. 2, hot water. Vat No. 3, 
solution of lime water. 

Production — ^20 to 25 per hr. 

OPERATION 3. CLEANINO-OUT AND INSPECTION 

Equipment — Wire brush, bristle brush, dectric lamp. 
Inspection — Interior gaging. 
Production — 35 per hr. 



496 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbo. U 

OPERATION 4. CBNTBBING BABB 

Machine Used — 24-m. stationary drill press. 
Special Tools and f'ixtures — ^Tilting arbor. 
Production — 15 per hr. (av.), 26 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 5. REAMINQ OUT POWDER POCKET 

Machine Used — ^Acme Bolt Cutter. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Cutting bar, work clamp. 

Production — 7.6 per hr. (av.), 15.6 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 6. CUTTING-OrF 

Machine Used — Acme Bolt Cutter. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Air chuck, cutting-off attachment, high-speed steel 
cutters. 

Production — 7.5 per hr. (av.), 12.1 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 7. ROUGH TURNING 

Machine Used — ^24-in. American Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Air chuck, cutting tools. 

Production — 7.6 per hr. (av.), 12 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 8. REAMING LOWER END 

Machine Used — ^Acme Bolt Cutter. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Reaming bar, clamp. 

Production — 7.5 per hr. (av.), 14.4 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 9. FACING CLOSED END 

Machine Used — ^24-in. Bradford Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Two facing tools. 
Inspection — Gaging thickness of bottom. 
Production — 6 per hr. (av.), 9.4 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 10. RE-CENTERING BASE 

Machine Used — Drill press. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tilting arbor. 

Production — 15 per hr. 

OPERATION 11. TURNING TO PROFILE 

Machine Used — 24-in. Boy & Emmes Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Guide plate and follower, air chuck. 

Production— ^7.5 per hr. (av.), 10 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 13. NOBING-IN 

Machine Used — 400-lb. Beaudry Hammer. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Hammer dies, chuck. 
Production — 30 per hr. 

OPERATION 14. ROUGH-BORING NOSE AND FACING TO LENGTH 

Machine Used — 24-in. drill press. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Drilling jig, high-speed drill, high-speed steel facing 
cutter. 

Production — 5 per hr. (av.), 7.6 per hr. (high). 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120.MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 497 

OPKRATION 16. HBAT TRBATUBNT 

Equipment — Tempering furnace. 
Temperature — 1,800 deg. F. 
Duration of Treatment — 30 min. 
Remarks — 16 shells treated at one time. 

OPERATION 17. QUENCHING 

Equipment — Special needle bath. 

Remarks — Shells to be sprayed with cold water, both inside and out, until cold. 

OPERATION 18. DRAWING 

Equipment — Drawing furnace. 

Temperature — 1,000 deg. F. 

Duration of Draw — ^20 min. 

Production — 2 men average 15 shells per hr. 

Remarks — Shells are allowed to cool in sand. 

OPERATION 19. TESTING FOR HARDNESS 

Machine Used — Brinell Ball Testing Machine. 
Duration of Test — 30 sec. 
Production — 30 per hr. 

OPERATION 20. PICKLING NOSED-IN SHELLS 

Equipment — ^Wooden pickling vats. 
Solutions — Same as for^operation 2. 
Remarks — Nosed-in shells are pickled while the rough forgings are being treated. 

OPERATION 21. FINISH-BORING AND TAPPING NOSE 

Machine Used — ^Turret lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Cutters and Murchey taps. 

Production — 5 per hr. (av.), 6 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 22. TAPPING ON DRILL PRESS 

Machine Used — ^24-in. drill press. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Work holder. 
Production — 20 per hr. 

OPERATION 23. FACING BOTTOM TO THICKNESS 

Machine Used — ^Engine lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Screw arbor and steadyrest. 

Inspection — Gaging for bottom thickness. 

Production — ^5 per hr. 

OPERATION 26. TURNING BODY 

Machine Used— 24-in. American Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Tool carriage and two tools. 

Production — 6 per hr. (av.), 10.6 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 27. ROXTGH-TURNINO TAPER 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Flat turning tool, profile plate. 

Production — 8 per hr. (av.), 16 per hr. (high). 

32 



498 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sec. II 

OPERATION 28. 7INIBH-TUBNING TAPER 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Profile plate. 
Production — 8 per hr. (av.), 20 per hr. (.high). 

OPERATION 29. ROUGH-TURNING NOSE 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Profile plate. 
Production — 5 per hr. (av.), 8.5 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 30. FINI8H-TXTRNING NOSE 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Profile plate. 
Production — 6 per hr. (av.), 15 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 31. FORMING BAND GROOVE 

Machine Used — 24-in. turret lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Grooving and undercutting tool, scoring and knurling 
tools. 

Production — 10 per hr. 
Remarks— -4 sub-operations. 

OPERATION 32. GRINDING SHOULDER 

Machine Used — 24-in. Modem Grinder. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Profile plate. 
Production — 12 per hr. (av.), 26 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 33. GRINDING TAPER AND BACK OF BAND 

Machine Used — 24-in. Modem Grinder. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — Profile plate. 
Production — 12 per hr. (av.), 20 per hr. (high). 

OPERATION 34. FINISH-TURNING BODY 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 
Production — 10 per hr. 
Remarks — Shells turned to 4.665-in. diameter. 

OPERATION 38. CUTTING-OFF CENTRAL TEAT 

Machine Used — Power hacknsaw. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Production — 15 per hr. 

Remarks — ^The stub left by the saw is removed on a Besley ring grinder. 

OPERATION 39. RE-FACING NOSE 

Machine Used — 24-in. American Lathe. 
Special Tools and Fixtures — None. 

Remarks — This operation required only for shells on which the nose has become 
roughened. 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120.MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 499 

OPEBATION 40. HTDRAULIC PRESSURE TEST 

Machine Used — Special hydraulic press. 

Pressure — 15,700 lb. per sq. in. 

Duration of Test — 30 sec. 

Maximum Allowable Expansion — 0.004-in. (permanent). 

Production — 35 per hr. 

OPERATION 4L BAXDINO 

Machine Used — West Tire Setter. 
Pressure — 1,500 lb. per sq. in. 
Production — 60 per hr. 
Remarks — Shell subjected to 3 squeezes. 

OPERATION 42. HAND TAPPING 

Machine Used — Portable air drill. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — ^Adjustable hand taps. 

Production — 2 men, 12.5 per hr. 

OPERATION 43. BAND TURNING 

Machine Used — Engine lathe. 

Special Tools and Fixtures — Tool carriage and tools. 
Production — 12 per hr. (av.), 30 per hr. (high). 
Remarks— 5 sub-operations. 

Making the Shells. — Fig. 385 depicts an efficiently laid-out factory 
engaged in the manufacture of French 120-millimeter high-explosive 
shells and illustrates an economic routing system, back tracking being 
reduced to a minimum. 

The rough shell forgings are received at a railroad siding adjacent 
to the pickling department and as unloaded are stacked in storage piles 
along the track. From this storage, the rough forgings are trucked to 
the pickling house where the scale is removed and the shells thoroughly 
cleaned. 

In the pickling house there are three wooden vats, one containing a 
solution of 10 per cent, sulphuric acid, the next water and the third 
lime water. The liquids are maintained at a temperature of about 200 
deg. F. by steam pipes from the gas heated boiler located in the build- 
ing. The forgings are first placed in the sulphuric acid vat, laid on their 
sides, for about 30 min., or until all scale is eaten off. They are then 
rinsed in the hot water vat and placed in the lime water vat for 20 min. 
to nullify their acidity. Two men can handle from 20 to 25 forgings per 
hour. 

From the pickling house, the forgings are trucked to the machine 
shop where they are laid on tables and thoroughly brushed out inside, 
first with a wire brush and then with a bristle brush. At the same time 
they are carefully examined for exterior cracks and seams and inspected 
for general dimensions. An electric lamp is next inserted in the shell 



500 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



and the interior examined for seams, cracks, pit holes, etc. One inspector 
can examine about 35 forgings per hour. 

The cleaned forgings are then taken to a 24-in. stationary drill press 
furnished with a tilting arbor for centering. The shell forging is slipped 




over the arbor and a 60-deg. center drilled, care being taken to have the 
center as near concentric with the inside of the shell as possible. Accuracy 
is secured by revolving the forging to a different position after the center 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120- MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 501 

has been about one-half drilled and completing the drilling with the shell 
in the new position. This operation should be performed by the average 
operator at a rate of 15 per hour, while 25 shells per hour can be centered 
by an expert. 

The centered forginga are then taken to an Acmfe Bolt Cutter for the 
fifth operation — i.e., reaming out the powder pocket at the bottom of 
the shell. The shell forging is placed in a powerful clamp and backed 
up agiunst a center on the work carriage — see Fig. 386. The boring, 
or cutting, bar carries a tool steel cutter conforming to the shape of the 



no. 386. ACHE bolt cdtteb set-op por rbauing out powder pocket 



powder pocket and is fed into the forging until clean metal is cut. In the 
illustration the boring bar is shown equipped with a heavy cast-iron pilot 
with commodious chip grooves to assure rigidity and maintain con- 
centricity. A cutting lubricant is used in this operation which should 
be performed at a rate of 8 min. per shell. Such production can be 
materially bettered, however, for as high as 156 forginga have been reamed 
out in 10 hours. 

Cutting-off the open end of the forging is also done on an Acme Bolt 
Cutter, one furnished with an air chuck and a Hurlburt-Rogers cutting- 
off attachment carrying two high-speed steel cutters. One tool cuts in 



502 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS [Sbc. II 

front and the other at the back of the forging — see Fig. 387. The tail- 
stock on the machioe is also somewhat unusual in being hinged so as to 
permit the rapid insertion and removal of the work. Eight minutes are 
ordinarily required for this operation, but 121 shells have been trimmed off 
in 10 hours. 

After this the shell is turned over to the operator of a 24-in. American 
Lathe who first cleans out the burr left by the cutting tools of the previous 
operation and then rough-turns the forging. The shell is driven by an 
air chuck. Two tools are again used, one roughing on the back and the 
other finishing on the front, the shell being turned to 4i^f g-in. diameter. 



Fia, 387. ACME BOLT CniTER BBT-OP FOR CUlTING-OrF FORQINGS 

This consumes from 5 to 8 min. the former being the record and the 
latter the average time. 

The work is then taken to an Acme Bolt Cutter, similar to the one 
employed for operation 5 but with a somewhat different carriage and 
clamp, and the lower end of the shell reamed out concentrically with its 
roughly turned outside. The average time for this operation is about 
8 min. and the record 4j^ min. 

The ninth operation is performed on a 24-in. Bradford Lathe and 
consists in facing the closed end of the shell. A steadyrest supports the 
deep overhung ehuck (see Fig. 388) and two cutting tools are employed 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120-MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 503 

one set 1 in. in advance of tbe other. One tool faceB off the end of the 
shell and the other faces the central teat so that it protrudes but 1-in. 
from the base of the shell. The central teat is also reduced to Ij^ in. 
in diameter. The facing of the base leaves only enough metal in excess 
of the required bottom thickness for tbe final facing cut, so the thickness 
of the bottom is carefully g^ed after this operation. The required 
rate of production is 6 shells per hour but as fa^h as 94 shells have been 
faced in 10 hours, by one operator. 

The operation of facing the base having removed the base center of 
the rough for^ng, the base is now re-centered and the new center counter- 



na. 3SS. 24-in. BBAoroaD lathb bet-dp fob wAcma basb 

bored for protection during the subsequent nosing-in operation. This 
is done on a vertical drill press similar to the one employed for operation 
4 and the production rate, owing to the double operation of centering 
and counterboring, is rarely in excess of 15 per hour. 

The re-centered shell is then placed in a Boy & Emmes Lathe and a 
straight taper from 4.9 in. to 4.6 in. in diameter, 5}4 "". long, taken on 
the open end of the shell preparatory to the nosing-in operation. The 
required production per lathe is 7.5 per hour but 10 per hour have been 
produced. The shell is driven by an air chuck, as in operation 7, but 



504 HiaH-EXPLOSlVE SHELLS (Sec. II 

only one tool is used, care being taken to see that the chuck turns cen- 
trally and that an even thickness of metal is left. 

The nosing-in is preceded by a thorough inspection of shells as to their 
concentricity and thickness of walls and to determine whether they run 
tnie when revolved. Kough spots on the inside, which might interfere 
with the proper closing of the nose, are removed by means of a portable 
electric grinder. Though thorough, thia inspection does not consume 
much time, one inspector passing as many as 35 shells in an hour. A 
view of the inspection table is shown in Fig. 389. 



no. 389. iNSPECTon'a bench 

The inspected shells are then placed in a 7-hoIe Tate-Jones Furnace 
and about 8 in. of the open end of the shell brought to the proper condi- 
tion of heat for working under the hammer. The heated ahelis are 
placed in the holding chuck of a 400-lb, Beaudry Hammer (see Fig, 390) 
and the heated end hammered into required form. The hammer dies 
are of forged steel and stand up well under the work, as all surplus metal 
has previously been removed from the shells. The nosed-in shells are 
allowed to cool oS naturally. Two men are employed on this operation, 
one to run the hammer and the other to take the shells to the cooling 
ground. They can handle as many as 300 shells in 10 hours. 

Forming the nose about closes the shell so the first operation follow- 



Cbap. XII FRENCH 120-MILUMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 505 

ing the QOBing4ii con^Bte in rough-boring the nose and facing the nose 
end to length. Both of these tasks are performed on a 21-in. drill press, 
the boring with a IH-ii^- high-speed drill and the facing with a high- 
speed steel facing cutter. From 5 to 7 min. are required for the drill- 
ing and 3 to 5 min. for the facing, the production being from 5 to 7.6 
shells per hour. 

The chips which fell Into the shell while boring the nose are then 
washed out and the shells tested for volume. This test is found to be of 



via. 390. TATE-JONB8 CO. rUBNACE ANP 400-LB. BEAUDRT HAMMER 

considerable assistance in arriving at the correct weight of shell, for if the 
volume is correct and the outside of the shell is subsequently finished to 
correct proportions, the weight of the finished shell will be uniform and 
correct. 

Aa ingenious gage employed for making such volumetric test is 
shown in Fig. 391. To conduct the test, 1.610 Uters of water are poured 
into the shell and then the gage plug, through which passes a Me-^^- 
hole, inserted into the shell nose. The gage rod is pressed down until 
water issues from the hole in the plug. Two marks on the gage rod 
indicate the minimum and maximum allowable shell contents, corre- 
sponding to a tolerance of 30 cu. cm. in volume, and for correct volu- 



506 



HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



metric measure water should issue from the ^{e'i^- ^^^^ while the top 
of the gage plug is between the minimum and maximum lines on the rod. 
The volume is too great, when water does not issue from the hole before 
the maximum mark is below the gage plug, these shells are returned to 
the hammer and nosed-in further. The volume is insufficient, when 
water issues before the minimum mark has reached the gage plug, 
these shells are returned to a lathe and metal removed from the inside 
of the neck. One inspector can test about 30 shells in an hour. 

From the inspector's bench, the shells go direct to the heat treating 
department (see Fig. 392) for the heat-treatment, quenching and drawing 

operations. For the heat, the shells are placed 
in a furnace, 16 at a time, and allowed to re- 
main about 30 minutes. The heating furnace 
is kept at a temperature of 1,800 deg. F. 
From this furnace, the shells are taken immedi- 
ately to a needle bath for quenching. This 
must be done quickly to avoid air cooling. A 
detail of the needle bath is shown in Fig. 393. 
The shells are sprayed inside and out until 
they are cold. 

The cold shells are then placed in a draw- 
ing furnace and subjected to a temperature of 
1,000 deg. F. for 20 minutes. At the expira- 
tion of such time the shells are removed to a 
sheltered, sanded floor, no two shells being al- 
lowed to come in contact, and there allowed 
to cool off gradually. 

About 15 shells pass through the heat treat- 
ing department in an hour and two men are re- 
quired to run the furnaces and do the quenching. 
On cooling off, the shells are presumably of the correct hardness but 
this is verified by a test in a Brinell Ball Testing Machine — see Fig. 394. 
The test is made at a point about 5 in. from the base of the shell and lasts 
about 30 seconds. During this time, the indentation of the 10-miUi- 
meter ball, under 3,000 kilo pressure, should measure between 3.5 and 
4.1 mm. in order that the shell may pass inspection. Shells which do 
not show the minimum indentation must be redrawn, and those in 
which the ball sinks in deeper than measured by the 4.1-mm. diameter 
must be hardened and again drawn. One operator can handle about 30 
shells per hour. 

The shells are then returned to the pickUng house and subjected to a 
treatment very similar to that accorded the rough forgings in operation 
2. In this case, however, the shells are first filled with the dilute sulphuric 
acid solution and then placed in the vat in an upright position in order 




PiQ. 39L 



VOLUMETRIC 
GAQE 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120- MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 507 

that no air may be trapped in the shell. The shells remain in the sul- 
phuric acid for about 30 minutes, or until all scale has been removed from 
the inside. After rinsing and washing, the shells are dried and then 
greased on the inside to guard against rusting in stor^e. The pickling 
of the nosed'in shells is carried on while rough forgings are being simi- 
lariy treated and is much more expeditiously conducted. The rough 
forgings weigh in the neighborhood of 70 lb. and require two men for 
handling, while the heat-treated shells only weigh about 45 lb. and can be 
easily handled by one man. 



392. HEAT TREATINQ DEPARTUENT 



The next operation on the shell, the twenty-first, consists in finish- 
boring and tapping the nose on a turret lathe. The shell is driven in a 
deep chuck similar to the one used in facing the base in operation 9, 
the nose protruding from the chuck in this case instead of the base of the 
shell. The turret carries three boring bars and two Murchey taps. The 
shell is first rough-bored with a single cutter, then rough-bored with a 
double headed cutter and finish-bored with a double-sided cutter. One 
Murchey tap then roughs out the thread and is followed by the second 
tap. This operation ordinarily consumes about 12 min. but 60 shells 
have been bored and tapped in 10 hours. 



508 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS {Sec. II 

The shells are then trsDsferred to a 24-iD. drill press where the tapped 
nose is brought up to rough size with the passage of one tap. This simple 
operation consumes about 3 min. 

The base of the shells are next faced off to bottom thickness. This 
is done on an engine lathe, the shell being mounted on and driven by a 
screw arbor and supported in a steadyrest. This takes about 12 min. 
Accurate ga^ng of bottom thickness forms a part of ttiis operation. 

The next step is thoroughly to wash the shells by first immersing them 
in hot soda water and then rinsing in clear water.. 



na. 393. DETAIL OF irXBDLE BATH FIO. 394. BKINELL BALL TEBTIira UACBINX 

A hard steel center plug is screwed firmly into the nose, careful inspec- 
tion of the shell for imperfect threads being made before this is done. 
Shells with defective or broken threads are returned to the blacksmith 
and re-nosed sufficiently to allow correction of the fault. 

The plugged shell is then placed in a 24-in. American Lathe and the 
body turned with two tools, one in back and one in front. The produc- 
tion required per naachine for this twenty-seventh operation is 6 per hour, 
but as high as 106 shells have been body turned in 10 hours. 

The bottom taper and the nose of the shell are turned and finished 
in the next four operations, a roughing and finishing cut constituting the 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120-MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 609 

two operations for each end of the shell. These are done on 24-in. 
American Lathes, suitable profile plates being employed for each opera- 
tion. Rough- tm*ning the taper is done with a flat tool and consumes 
about 73^ min. on the aveiage. Finish turning the taper consumes 
about the same amount of time, while the rough-turning and finish- 
turning of the nose each occupy about 12 min. High records for the 
four operations are: rough-turning taper, 15 per hour; finish- turning 
taper, 20 per hour; rough-turning nose, 8.5 per hour; and finish-turning 
nose, 15 per hour. 

The thirty-first operation consists in forming the band groove and 
though performed on a turret lathe requires but three tools for four sub- 
operations: one tool for both grooving and undercutting, one tool for 
scoring and one for knurUng. The resulting groove has seven rounded 
scores circUng the shell and a series of sharp-pointed knurled ridges 
running lengthwise on the shell. The band grooves are finished at a rate 
of from 12 to 26 per hour. 

The next two operations consist in grinding the shoulder for one and 
grinding the taper and the section from the back of the band to the com- 
mencement of the taper for the other. This work is done on 24-in. 
Modem grinders, the average time required for either operation being 
about the same — i.e., 5 min. per shell. For high productions, grinding 
the shoulder leads, 26 per hour against 20 per hour for grinding the 
taper and behind the band. 

FoUowing the grinding operations, the sheU is placed in a 24 in. 
American Lathe and the body finish-turned to 4.665 in. in diameter. 
This consumes about 6 min. per shell. 

A preUminary weighing of the shell is then made and if found excess- 
ively heavy it is returned to the profile lathe used for operation 29 where 
it is retouched for weight. This constitutes the thirty-sixth operation 
and is only required for such sheUs as are unusually heavy. 

The center plug is next removed and the teat protruding from the 
base then cut ofif with a power hack-saw. Removing the teat in this 
manner leaves a sUght stub which is ground ofif with a Besley Ring 
Grinder, the time consumed in removing the teat and grinding ofif the 
stub being about 4 min. 

Inasmuch as practically all the shells are sUghtly scarred on the nose 
face at this stage of development, another minor operation is here intro- 
duced, consisting of re-facing the nose so that a tight connection may be 
made for the following hydraulic pressure test. 

This pressure test is made in the presence of the French inspector 
and consists in subjecting the shell to 15,700-lb. hydraulic pressure for 
30 seconds. The shells are first filled with water, the sealing gasket 
inserted in the nose and the shell then connected under the yoke of 
a hydraulic press built by the Cleveland Tool & Supply Co. — see Fig. 



510 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS (Sec. II 

395. A permsnent expansioQ of 0.004 in. is allowed but even this is 
very seldom, if ever, encountered, slightly defective shells being more 
apt to burst under the strain and those which are correct in proportions 
showing no permanent expansion. The capacity of this machine is 
about 25 shells per hour. Tested shells receive the inspector's stamp. 



FIO. 395. THE HYDRAULIC 

The copper band is then pressed into the knurled groove by a West 
Tire Setter, three squeezes at 1,500 lb. per sq. in. being given each shell. 
One operator can band 500 shells in 10 hours. 

The forty-second operation consists in hand tapping the nose to size, 
the sealing gasket in the hydraulic test having slightly damaged the top 
of the threads. The shell is rigidly held in a work holder and an air tap 
employed. Two men can tap 125 shells in 10 hours. 

The final machining operation on the shell, the forty-third in the 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120- MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHEIiS 511 

evolution of the shdl, is done on an engine lathe with two tools in 5 
sub-operations and consists in turning the copper band. The shell is 
held in a deep collet chuck and a roughing cut over the width of the 
band is first taken, followed by a finishing cut which leaves the diameter 
of the band just under 123 mm. A 45-deg. taper is then turned on the 
front edge of the band until the edge of the groove is located. The 
back edge of the band is then faced to width and the secondary taper cut 
on the forward section of the band leaving the flat section 10 mm. wide. 



The time allowed for this operation is 5 minutes but the work has been 
done at the rate of 300 shells in 10 hours. 

The finished shells are carefully washed in soda water and thoroughly 
cleaned with a brush and rags preparatory to the final gaging. This 
examination is most thorough, consisting of gaging the shell for all dimen- 
Bions, inspection of threads, etc. For any irregularity, the shell is 
returned for correction to the operator whose work offends. 

The shells which satisfactorily pass the gaging test, and they nearly 
all do, are then sent to the head inspector's bench for the forty-sixth 
operation, where they are inspected for thickness of bottom, diameter of 
barrel, diameter of base, interior defects, contour of nose and the nose 



512 



HIGH-EXPLQSIVE SHELLS 



[Sec. II 



thread plug-gaged a second time. The shells are also tested for eccen- 
tricity and weighed — see Fig. 396. The correct weight is 15.575 kg. 
plus or minus 0.160 kg. 

The eccentricity test is performed with the aid of the brass "eccen- 
tricity weight" shown in Fig. 397 and two perfectly level and parallel 
hardened steel bars. The shell is first laid across the parallel bars and 
allowed to come to rest, when its center of gravity, if the shell is not 
exactly concentric with its gravity axis, will lie below the longitudinal 
axis of the shell. The "eccentricity weight" is then clamped to the base 
of the shell with its weighed end up, that is, opposite the heavy side of 
the shell, and is then adjusted by moving its weight up or down so that 
its center of gravity is 15 mm. off the center axis of the shell, toward the 
weighted end of the "eccentricity weight." The shell is then rolled on 







iiii'^-/--> 




Bras5^ -^-5'>i ,/'Too/5tufJcn¥,lxix/ilong 



n 




C2tX 



3'l 




Pin A, § Diam., 2^ longy j^ Spring, \ long 

FIO. 397. ICCCBNTRICITY WEIGHT 

the parallel bars until the "eccentricity weight" is in a horizontal posi- 
tion, then released. If the shell remains stationary or the weighted end 
of the "eccentricity weight" rises, the eccentricity of the gravity axis 
of the shell equals or exceeds the tolerance of 0.6 mm.; if the weighted 
end of the "eccentricity weight" drops the tolerance is not exceeded and 
the shell is satisfactory as far as the distribution of its weight about its 
longitudinal axis is concerned. 

The center of gravity is then located by balancing the shell, longi- 
tudinally, upon knife edges and measuring the distance from the normal 
plane of the center of gravity to the base of the shell. The fixture shown 
in Fig.. 398 is used for this purpose. The shell is carefully balanced on 
the knife edges of the yi-va. balance plate and the adjustable square 
brought up against the base of the shell, the scale of the square accurately 
measuring the distance of the center of gravity from the base of the shell. 
A tolerance of but 0.1969 in., 5 mm., either way is all that is allowed. 



Chap. XI] FRENCH 120-MILLIMETER EXPLOSIVE SHELLS 



513 



Locating the gravity axis of the shell and also balancing for the center 
of gravity are shown in Kg. 396. The order in which these sub-opera- 
tions are performed can be reversed, of course; i.e., the shell may first be 
balanced on the knife edges and the eccentricity of the longitudinal 
gravity axis found subsequently, or vice versa. 

The 15-mm. oflfset of the center of gravity of the " eccentricity weight " 
is arrived at by direct proportion. The weight of the completed shell is 
15.575 kg. and the maximum eccentricity allowance of the gravity axis 
of the shell is 0.6 nmi., giving a 9,345 mm. gram moment (15,575X0.6). 
This moment divided by the weight of the "eccentricity weight," 600 
grams, gives the offset of the center of gravity of the testing device re- 
quired to balance the 9,345 mm. gram moment (9,345 Xj^oo = 15'565 










-^ 



* 



JIL. 



IITTmfHITnT 



Casf Iron.Square 



^f. 4.J;.— 9' 




A 



SahnceFiote C — 



h-?"->t^>k-2-->l 




FIO. 398. DETAIL OF BALANCING FIXTURE 



mm.) — ^that is, as regards the gravity axis of the shell. This necessary 
offset is taken as 15 mm. in order to be on the safe side. 

The shells are then presented in lots Of 500 to the French inspector 
who selects 25 from the lot and goes over them for all measurements, 
weights, eccentricity, etc. If he finds the 25 all acceptable he passes the 
balance of the 500 and affixes his stamp on the nose of each shell. 

The shells are then stamped with the manufacturer's symbol, the 
lot number and the year. The stamps are made on the nose of the shell, 
halfway between the shoulder and the end of the shell, and also in an arc 
of a circle on the base of the shell, midway between the center and outer 
circumference. Two men, with the aid of a stencil plate, can mark about 
500 shells in 73^ hours. 

The shells are then greased on the inside with vaseline and on the 

33 



514 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELLS ISkc. II 

outside with a mixture of white zinc, tallow and oil, two men doing the 
work of greasing 500 shells in about 10 hours. 

The fiftieth operation consists simply in driving a wooden plug into 
the nose of the shell to keep out foreign matter. The shells are then 
packed in substantial wooden boxes. They are laid flat, nose and tail, 
four to the box, separated from one another by strips of wood extending 
the full length of the box. The cover is securely screwed down, the boxes 
being proportioned so that there is no possibiUty of the contents shifting. 
An endless rope passing under the box and cleated to its sides forms 
handles by which two men can easily carry a loaded box. Three men 
can box about 500 shells in 10 hours. 

The loaded boxes are then transferred to a departing freight car, 
which, by two men and a truck, can be loaded with 1,000 shells in 10 
hours. This constitutes the fifty-second and final operation. 



SECTION III 
CARTRIDGE CASES 

By 

EOBEBT MaWBON 

Pagb 

CHAPTER I. Manufacture op Cartridge Brass 617 

CHAPTER II. Making 1-Lb. Cartridge Cases 536 

CHAPTER III. Making the 18-Lb. Cartridge Case 655 

CHAPTER IV. Making the 4.6-In. Howitzer Cartridge Case 695 



616 



CHAPTER I 

MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS^— ROLLING 

CARTRIDGE BRASS' 

The characteristics of cartridge brass, chemical, phjrsical and thermal, 
are of the utmost importance, for the efl&ciency of a gun depends in large 
part upon the behavior of the cartridge case at moment of discharge, the 
ease and rapidity with which it can be ejected, etc. These requirements 
call for extreme care in the manufacture of the cartridge cases from the 
blank, but of just as great if not even greater importance is the necessity 
that the bars from the casting shop should be homogeneous, compara- 
tively free from all impurities, and of uniform composition — i.e., of 
definite chemical analysis. 

Cartridge brass should analyze about 70 per cent, copper and 30 per 
cent, spelter, though a variation of plus or minus 1 or 2 per cent, is usually 
allowed. The principal requirements of the average specifications are as 
follows: 

AVERAGE SPECIFICATIONS FOR CARTRIDGE BRASS 

1. Quality op Metals. — Pure electrolytic or pure lake copper and "Horaehead", 
spelter, or its equivalent. 

2. Impurities Allowable. — In copper: not to exceed 0.03 per cent. In spelter 
(maximum) : lead, 0.03 per cent. ; iron, 0.04 per cent. ; cadmium, 0.20 per cent. ; total 
not over 0.25 per cent. 

3. Scrap Allowable. — 50 to 60 per cent, of scrap brass, consisting of scrap from 
blanking press, overhauling machines and shears. 

No foreign scrap, skimmings or scrap from floor and mold pits allowed. 

4. Chemical Analysis, Finished Metal. — Coppei, 67 to 71 per cent. Spelter, 
33 to 29 per cent. Impurities, (average), 0.2 to 0.4 per cent. Arsenic, phosphorus 
and cadmium from 0.04 to 0.08 per cent. 

5. Physical Tests. — Breaking lead; (Min.) 40,000 to 44,000 lb. per sq. in., 
(Max.) 48,000 to 50,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elongation: (Min.) 60 to 62 per cent. Cupping Test — Advisable but not always 
specified. 

6. Variations in Dimensions of Finished Blanks. — In diameter, plus or minus 
0.005 in. to plus or minus 0.015 in. 

In thickness, plus or minus 0.003 in. to plus or minus 0.007 in. 

7. Inspection. — 100 per cent, visual examination for flaws, folding cracks and 
other defects in the surface and for pipes and cracks in the edge of the blank. 

8. Purchaser's Reservation. — Right to take samples and make chemical 
analysis of metals in stock, to check for conformity with specifications, etc. 

In addition to the foregoing, other clauses are usually inserted in the 
specifications covering number of rehandlings allowed on rejected materials, 

*C. R. Barton. 

. 617 




PLAN AND SECTION OF CABTINO BHOP 



Table or Equipuent fi 



B Set of Tbm Fobnacm' 



Crucible tonga 

Spelter tonga 

Stining'rod tongs 

Band tonga 

Mold tongs 

Bar tongs 

Skimmer 

Scrapers 

Punch bara, 7 ft. of l-ii 






CSiiBe], ^-in. hexagon flat, 14 in. 

long 

Files, IS-in. bastard-cut mill. , 
Hammers, 6-lb. croaapeen black- 

smitha', l2-in. handle 

Fuel cover 

Wtrebniehes 

Charcoal box, wooden, 4X4X3 ft. 
Oil pail, heavy 2-qt. bucket . . . 

Oil bruahea, 4-in. flat paint 

Salt pail, heavy 4r<it. bucket . . 

Molds 

Bands 

Wedgea 

Strainers 



7,000 

800 

2,500 

Indefinite 

Indefinite 

7.000 

35 

Indefinite 



«6,00 

1,25 

. 1.25 



Per Lb. 
0.05 
0.06 
0.03 
0.03 



1 The figures are approximate, i 



6 instances they are baaed on estimate 



Chap. II MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 519 

size of lots submitted for inspection, micro-photography and the manu- 
facture of selected disks into cartridge cases for the development of 
interior flaws or defects not shown by visual examination. 

Layout and Equipment of a Plant. — A typical layout of a casting shop, 
the department which covers the work from receipt of copper and 
spelter to delivery of sheared bars to the rolling department, is shown 
in Fig. 399. The unit of equipment is known as a set of fires, generally 
consisting of 10 furnaces and the necessary auxiliary equipment— see ac- 
companying table of equipment. Each set of fires (Fig. 399 shows four) 
is handled by one caster and his helpers, and occupies a space of 10 
furnaces. The pots are lifted from the furnaces by a jib crane which 
carries them to the molds in the mold pits. 

The Fontace. — A furnace proportioned for handling a No. 90 crucible, 
13^-ia. outside diameter, is shown in Fig. 400. The furnaces are made 
square to facilitate grasping the crucibles. Below the crucibles, the 
furnaces should be deep enough to permit m^ntaining, when the bottom 



no. 400. TTPICAL eQUABE PIT CRDCIfiLB FITBNACa 

of the flue opening is above the top of the crucible, a fire of at least 12 in. 
in depth, in order that the pot may be subjected to an even heat. The 
furnace should be bricked up so that but one course of brick around the 
inside need be removed when the furnaces are relined, putting in only 
enough tie-bricks to the second course to hold the lining. The life of the 
lining varies greatly with the fuel used, coke making a much hotter 
fire than coal. Operating two shifts for four months made relining neces- 
sary on furnaces burning coke. The quality of firebrick and fuel must 
be considered as in other furnace work. The grate bars are 1 in. square, 
set on two bearers, such as a piece of 60-Ib. rail. The draft may be 
natural or induced. A forced-draft system does not give satisfaction, 
as it rarely balances, thus throwing out into the room intense heat, 
which becomes a serious consideration in hot weather. 



620 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sec. Ill 

The ash alley should be of a crpss-section that will allow easy passage 
of a wheelbarrow for removing the ashes when cleaning the fires. The 
coke bin, as shown, should provide storage for at least two days' require- 
ments, and the monorail trolley is probably the simplest means for filling 
the bin from outside storage. 

The quickest fire is not always the most desirable in the long run. 
Using a special 21-in. square furnace, we have been able to take out 21 
heats in 24 hr., including cleaning fires twice. This is during cold 
weather; but it is doubtful if it is economical, as men cannot be secured 
readily who will stand up to such work, and the life of the crucible is 
greatly reduced. We believe 14 and possibly 15 heats per 24 hr. in win- 
ter a good production, falling oflf to 10 or 12 in warm weather. 

There are other styles of furnaces, such as reverberatory furnaces, 
the Schwartz furnace and the type known as the tilting furnace, in which 
the crucible is tilted for pouring. In all these a distributing ladle must 
be used, which means a second pouring of the metal. Repeated installa- 
tions of the old-style crucible furnace, replacing some of the foregoing, 
show that for certain classes of work it is still the best in spite of the 
crucible expense. 

Fuel. — Of late there has been considerable experimenting with various 
kinds of fuel. The plant here discussed is laid out for burning coke or 
coke and coal. Where maximum production is demanded, that method 
is most efiicient which will enable the greatest number of heats to be 
obtained from one furnace in a given time. Hard coal is probably the 
slowest fuel used, and the length of time required for getting out a heat 
is the only objection to it, -as in other respects it is very satisfactory. 
Coke gives a much hotter and therefore faster fire, with a greatly increased 
wear on the furnace lining. Both oil and natural gas would seem to 
be desirable. The author has not had experience with oil-fired furnaces. 
Twenty of the furnaces shown were equipped for burning natural gas, 
using forced draft. Different methods for venting the furnaces were 
tried, but without great success. The heat from the furnaces was such 
that the cover brick became red hot and conditions were made intoler- 
able for the workmen. We do not beUeve that the gas fuel was given a 
thorough trial, as it is no doubt the ideal fuel for crucible furnaces and 
will prove successful as soon as it has been put through an experimental 
stage in a large plant, where furnaces are necessarily set close together. 

The fuel consumption varies with the rate of production and the siase 
of the crucible furnace. No exact data can be given; the most reliable 
figures indicate from 0.4 to 0.6 lb. of coke and coal (mixed) per pound 
of metal melted during a period of several months, with 18-in. round and 
21-in. square furnaces. 

Molds. — The molds for the cartridge brass may be seen in Figs. 401 
and 402. They are made of gray iron containing 2.5 silicon and finished 



Chap. 11 



MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 



521 



as shown. The size of the mold is determined by the width of bar re- 
quired and the weight, which should be such that one pot of metal will 
make full-length bars. For convenience in handUng, the bars are usually 
made from 80 to 125 lb., unless the size of the finished bar or sheet re- 




PIG, 401-402. MOLD rKONT AND BACK 



quires more metal. In rolling, the metal flows almost entirely in the 
direction of the rolls, so that if bars are passed through straight, there is 
no appreciable widening. Bars are cast in regular work up to 15 in. wide 
in short bars and up to 10 and 13 ft. long in narrow bars. It is always 
best to cast the bar of a thickness that will avoid as much rolling as 




possible, and the K-in. thick bar is now about standard size, although 
1^-in. bars are made at times. 

The mold is held together, as illustrated in Fig. 403, by three bands 
wedged up tightly. The bands and wedges should be made of first- 
quality cast steel, if the use of expensive forged pieces is to be avoided. 



522 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



The order and manner of driving the wedge are shown by the numbers. 
This method has been found to reduce leakage. 

The life of a mold is very uncertain. Some few foundries make a 
specialty of ingot molds, and their product has a high reputation. One 
of the largest brass makers in this country, after some years of experiment 
and experience, found that the molds of one firm gave uniformly 50 per 
cent, longer Ufe than any other make. Molds should average at least 
2,000 to 2,500 heats. 

An important adjunct of the mold is the strainer. Fig. 404. In 
pouring, the strainer should be kept full, so that the slag and dirt passing 
the skimmer will not enter the mold. 







li' 



\ r H 



^a■ 



AiOril! 



' of- A 



•fr 









« • 



}</#>i^-?4f-»- 













Fia. 404. MOLD STRAINER 



Tool Equipment — The several kinds of tongs may be seen in Fig. 405v 
All are made of wrought iron by the blacksmith shop in the plant. The 
most important are the crucible tongs for handling the crucibles. In 
forging, these tongs should be shaped to a cast-iron crucible of the same 
size as that to be used. Tongs should always be refitted whenever there 
is a change in either the make or the size of the crucible. 

Other tongs are spelter tongs for dipping the spelter in the molten 
copper, mold tongs for lifting the fronts and backs of molds, band tongs 
for handling the hot bands, stirring-rod tongs for holding the graphite 
stirring rods, and bar tongs for lifting the hot bars from the pit when the 
molds are stripped. These different kinds are illustrated in Fig. 405, 
and the weights, number required and other data are given in the table. 

The remaining equipment includes skimmers for skimming the pot 
when it is lifted from the fire and for holding back slag and charcoal that 
is not removed by skimming when pouring, scrapers for scraping the 
molds, wire brushes for cleaning molds after scraping, heavy bucket-s 
for mold dressing, powdered charcoal and flux, cheap 4-in. flat brushes for 



Chap. IJ 



MANUFACTURE OP CARTRTOGE BRASS 



523 



applying mold dressing, sledges, hamioers, etc. Some of these tools may 
be seen in Fig. 405, and other data are given in the table. In most 
cases two sets of tools are allowed for each set of fires, as the tongs become 
too hot to be comfortably handled if used continuously. 



■--1 fi'i 




stirring Rod Tongs 






no. 40S. A VARIBTT OF TONOS OSED FOB HANDUNQ THZ WORK 

Crucibles. — Crucibles are, aside from losses, the greatest single item 
in the cost of producing brass. For this reason many attempts have 
been made to get away from the use of crucibles. Long experience in 
crucible making shows that the best materials are Ceylon graphite and 
Klingenberg crown clay. Ceylon graphite is free from mica and is 
about 98 per cent. pure. The Klingenberg clay comes from a small 
district around the village of that name in Germany. The materials 
are blended and mixed in proper proportions, molded, dried and burned in 
a kiln. The amount of excess air in the kiln determines whether or not 
the graphite is burned out of the surface of the crucible, thus making the 
white or blue crucible. Obviously, the matter of color is of no importance, 



524 CARTRIDGE CASES Sec. Ill 

although manufacturers are called upon to supply crucibles of a given 
color. Crucibles usually contain from 50 to 60 per cent, of graphite. 

Crucibles are known by niunber, each unit in the number representing 
nominally the capacity to hold 3 lb. of molten metal. Therefore, a No. 
90 should hold 270 lb. service. This is frequently done by storing them 
on a floor on top of the muffle furnaces used for annealing in the rolling 
mill. A careful record of the size and number of crucibles given to the 
casters should be kept. 

The life of a crucible is shortened by ill-fitting tongs by excess fluxes 
of various kinds, by soaking in the fire longer than necessary to melt the 
metal, by too high furnace temperatures in the endeavor to get quick 
heats, by wet or sulphurous fuels that attack the outside of the crucible, 
by carelessness in stirring the metal and by general lack of care in 
handling. 

In the employment of fluxes such as fluorspar and various silicates a 
mean must be determined so that the metal will be purified with a minimum 
erosion of the crucible. The crucibles should be thoroughly dried and 
annealed for two of three weeks before being put into the brass. About 
80 to 90 per cent, of the capacity of the crucible may be used, depending 
on the care of the caster. 

The best size of crucible has been found by long practice to be the 
No. 80, holding a charge of 200 to 220 lb. of brass. This crucible makes 
two bars of convenient size in narrow metal or one in wide metal. It 
seems to have a somewhat longer life than larger crucibles and therefore, 
striking a mean between labor and crucible expense, gives the lowest cost 
of production. 

Broken crucibles should be freed of any metal adhering to the inside 
surface, for old crucible material conunands a market price of from 
$10 to $15 per ton. The metal chipped from the crucibles can later be 
reclaimed with the ashes. 

Fluxes. — For clean scrap and new metals such as must be provided in 
making cartridge brass, phosphorus and common salt seem to give the 
best results. The phosphorus is in the form of 15 per cent, phosphorized 
copper, 1 oz. per 100 lb. of metal. A larger quantity may be used if 
needed, but not enough to give a perceptible amount of phosphorus in the 
finished metal. Common salt, somewhat finer than crude rock salt, 
should be added, about one handful per 100 lb. of metal. Care should 
be taken to avoid an excess, as this attacks the crucible. 

The impurities to be removed are mainly copper oxide, sand and dirt. 
The foreign metals — tin, iron and lead — cannot be removed, and none 
should be introduced by iron stirring rods, brass scrap containing lead, 
etc. The copper oxide forms readily, and for this reason the melting 
metals should be covered with powdered charcoal to prevent oxidation. 
Patent fluxes are generally to be avoided. 



Chap. I] MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 525 

The Scraproom. — The scraproom of a braas manufacturing plant is 
the department at which the new metals are received and stored, all 
scrap received and weighed, and the charges for each heat are propor- 
tioned. In Fig. 399, it is shown at one end of the shop. This illustra- 
tion shows the usual equipment of a scraproom and Fig. 406 shows one 
of the small iron pans, the tote box, in which the charges are weighed 
and carried to the furnace. 



no. 406. TOTB BOX and sbeltbr-bkeakino block 

Processes of Making Cartridge Brass. — The first operation, starting 
each day's work, is to clean the fires by puUing out the grate bars and 
removing the ashes, car§ being taken to punch out the chnker that has 
formed at the bottom, as this sometimes reduces the cross-aection of the 
grate to one-third its actual size. A fresh fire is then built, which in 
continuous operation is usually lighted by the hot bricks in the furnace. 
As the fire comes up to heat, the crucible, which has been previously 
warmed by being on top of the furnace, is placed in the fire, and the 
heavier metal of the charge, which was weighed up in the scraproom 
is brought out on the casting floor and set behind each furnace. The 
charge, except spelter, is there laid carefully in the crucible, care being 
taken that the metal does not tend to wedge the pot apart during 
melting, when the pot becomes soft. Ordinarily, a ring made from the 
upper half of an old crucible is placed on top of the crucible to hold the 
scrap and copper that cannot be put inside. In this case thescrap should 
be put in the bottom, as it melts faster than the copper. 

After all the metal is melted and up to a bright heat, the spelter, 
which has been warmed by lying on the furnace, is thrust beneath the 
surface of the metal and is rapidly melted and alloyed with the copper. 
The brass is then stirred thoroughly with a graphite stirring rod, so as 
to secure a homogeneous mixture. The graphite stirring rods are expen- 
sive, but are the best for high-grade brass, as iron from an iron stirring 



526 CARTRDIGE CASES [Sac. Ill 

rod will alloy with the brass and thus increase the impurities. During 
the melting, salt and powdered charcoal are thrown on the metal, the 
charcoal to protect the molten metal from the atmosphere and the salt 
to act as a flux. After a vigorous stirring, the metal is given a minute 
or two to allow the impurities and dirt to come to the surface in the form 
of slag. The crucible tongs are then placed on the crucible, which is 
raised from the fm-nace by means of the jib crane. The outside surface 
of the crucible is cleaned, and it is then lowered on clean sand on the 
floor. The slag is skimmed off and a block of wood thrown on the clean 
surface of the metal. 

The crucible is then raised and placed over the strainer on the mold 
and poured, tipping the crucible forward with the tongs, keeping back the 
residue of slag and charcoal with the skimmer. 

The block of wood in biu'ning tends to keep the air away from the 
metal and is useful in reducing the amount of spelter burned out. The 
strainer should be kept full of metal so that the slag and dirt passing the 
skimmer remain on the surface and do not enter the mold. The molds 
should not stand slanting sidewise, as there is a possibility that impurities 
and gas pockets will lodge in the corner of the mold instead of coming to 
the surface, so that one edge of the bar may be defective for the entire 
length of the mold. 

The molds are prepared by scraping with the scraper and brushing 
down thoroughly with a wire brush, after which they are painted with 
lard oil. Many substitutes are offered as a mold dressing, but lard oil 
seems to secure the best results. The molds are then banded and wedged 
up tight and are ready for use, the strainer being placed on top. After 
pouring, the metal is soon chilled sufficiently to allow the bands to be 
knocked off and the mold opened. The bars are raised with the bar tongs, 
and the burrs are filed off. Then the bars are piled on the floor behind 
the mold pit and allowed to cool until they can be handled and taken to 
the shears in the scraproom. 

The term "losses" covers the difference between the metal weighed 
out and melted and the total metal returned. The gross loss includes the 
metal in the ashes, and the net loss is that determined after the ashes have 
been put through the recovery plant and a large part of the metal in the 
ashes reclaimed. The net loss is therefore the difference between metal 
melted and that retiu'ned from all soiu'ces. 

The melting loss varies with the type of furnace used, size of charge 
and proportions of mixtiu'e. On cartridge brass under the conditions 
outlined the gross loss varies from 3 to 5 per cent. No figures are 
available for the net loss, but in other plants it varies from 1 to 3 per cent. 

The loss represents a greater money value than the profit in manu- 
factiu'e and therefore should be given the most careful attention. 

Metal spilled in handling and pouring is recovered from the mold 



Chap. I] MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 527 

pits and floor each day. This is known as floor scrap, and to it is added 
the solid metal picked from the skimmings and ashes, which contain the 
metal representing the difference between the gross and the net losses. 
No figures are available to give proportion by weight of recoverable metal 
in the ashes in the plant described, but it has been found by other firms to 
run from 0.25 to 0.5 per cent, by weight of ashes. 

This recovery is made by concentrating and refining processes. The 
quantity of ashes is not sufficient to warrant a recovery installation in 
any but a large plant. The floor scrap may be melted directly with the 
charge in small quantities or remelted and sheared before using, as the 
quality of work may require. Some specifications for cartridge brass 
permit the use of floor scrap; and if used judiciously, no bad effects will 
be noticed. 

In addition to the tools and equipment mentioned the following 
materials are required in the approximate quantities given, which are the 
results of several months' operation: 

Coke 50 lb. per 100 lb. metal melted 

Charcoal (lused in lighting fires) 0. 1 bu. per 100 lb. metal melted 

Lard oil No. 2 0.04 gal. per 100 lb. metal melted 

Salt 0.25 lb. per 100 lb. metal melted 

Phosphorized copper 1 oz. per 100 lb. metal melted 

Graphite stirring rods, l}i X 18 in. long . 30 heats each 

For a plant having 40 furnaces, or four sets of fires, there will be 
required 4 casters, 16 to 20 casters' helpers and 4 laborers. These men 
will be able to produce from 5 to 7 heats from each furnace in about 9 hr. 
The casters are paid on a tonnage basis at the rate of 17 to 20c. per 100 
lb. of good sheared metal. The casters pay two helpers at 65c. per 
round, which is one heat from each of the two furnaces comprising a set 
of fires. The firm supplies additional helpers at the same rate, giving 
three men if special circumstances require them. A better arrangement 
is to pay on a tonnage basis for the entire crew about as follows, per 100 
lb.: caster, 8c.; floor helpers, SJ^c; pit, 43^c. 

In this scheme the bars are marked with the crew number, and a deduc- 
tion is made for bars scrapped at the overhauling machines in the rolling 
mill, as metal apparently good at the shears may be poor metal when 
overhauled — that is, the process of scraping off the surface metal, dirt, 
etc., preparatory to rolling. 

The scraproom requires about 10 men — 4 on the shears and 6 on the 
scales. The pay of these men runs from 20 to 30c. per hr. 

The direct cost for producing sheared bars ready for rolling is about 
J^c. per lb. of metal melted, divided about evenly among labor, supplies, 
renewals, etc. To this figure must be added the value of metals lost and 
burden. These items may vary greatly. The distribution of metals 
between weighed charge and sheared bars is as follows: 



528 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sbc. Ill 

Per Cent. 

Metal weighed out 100.00 

Net loaSi volatilization, etc 2 . 50 

Recovered metal, ashes 2 . 00 

Moor scrap 5 . 00 

Shear scrap 10 . 00 

Good sheared bars 80. 50 

These figures represent what may be called fair to good operation, but 
undoubtedly offer opportunities for further economies. The importance 
of accurate records will be appreciated in making an estimate. Several 
of the most necessary are shown. 

To many it might seem that the crucible-furnace method of making 
brass is antiquated and that units of larger capacity should be used. 
But segregation, gas occlusion, rehandUng and consequent cooling in 
ladles and higher losses are still disadvantages of the large furnace that 
must be taken into consideration. 

» 

ROLLING CARTRIDQB BRASS 

A typical layout of a rolling mill, to which the sheared bars from 
the casting shop are delivered, is shown in Fig. 407. The building 
should be well ventilated, of mill construction, free from the dirt and 
dust-laden air of the other parts of the plant. 



•APCTY wrrmoH.. 



MMB 



vmcM 

MUHS 




■< ► 



SJL 



DOUBLE MUFFLE 
FURNACE 

r 



.1 PULL-OUTFLOOR 

'I 

-JTCHCS ? / I A , 



■J4 



— -l^kJC] 



U0ADIH6 FLOOR 



kLL ^ Jt I 



l?kw 



£T 



I ss' 






js. KhTOH CRWIE.TRAVEL EM7?RE LENGTH 
N -<— ^ 



ndwi"fuB5'f*. WJr^*^* 



1 



lABLE I 
I 



III"? 



FINISHING 
MILL 



TiOT^ ST1WI6HTEHIN6 






BREAKING-DONNf 
HUJL 



iO 



4>^ i ■ T 



tf^' 



FIQ. 407. PLAN OF ROLLINQ MILL 




The standard size of rolls for heavy metal is 20 in. diameter by 30 
in. face. The breaking down rolls (mills) are run at about 14 r.p.m., 
approximately 73 ft. per minute, and the finishing rolls at 18 r.p.m., 
about 94 ft. per minute. These mills are gear driven and are fitted with 
positive brakes for quick stopping in case of accident. Lubrication of 
the rolls is achieved by laying a swab of waste covered with heavy graph- 
ite grease against the necks of the rolls. In addition a cold water spray 
is turned against the necks from each side as shown in Fig. 408. 



Chap. I] 



MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 



529 



Scrsw 




Bahnctdb^ipouirttnmghi 
lohtpl^fpirKbilagairsf 
Scre¥ir 



Bunch cf 
WosHtutd 

Onast 



First RoUing Operation. — In the first rolling operation, breaking 
down, the reduction should be as great as possible without making the 
bar too long for the table of the overhauling machine. For this reason 
a gage stick for the maximum allowable length of bar is kept at the rolls 
and the reduction varied, so that the full-length sheared bar will not come 
too long and all bars of the same nominal thickness are given the same 
reduction. In sticking (entering a bar in the rolls), the bottom end of 
the bar is entered first as it will be square, clean and free from oil, which 
is not the case with the sheared or top 
end of the bar. The presence of oil will 
prevent the rolls biting on the bar and 
occasionally it is necessary to dust char- 
coal on the sticking end of the bar in 
order to make it enter. A dab of 
kerosene oil is placed on the upper side 
of the bar a few inches from the stick- 
ing end. This helps to lubricate the 
rolls and tends to keep the metal from 
turning up. After breaking down the 
bars are ready for overhauUng. 

At times bars will come curved and 
bent in some direction, will gage im- 
evenly or not finish smoothly, and 
patience must be exercised in finding the 
cause. Some of the troubles may be 
owing to bars being cast in old or im- 
properly made molds, and therefore be of uneven thickness; to a differ- 
ence in diameter of the rolls; to the heating of the necks of the rolls; 
to incorrect height of the bottom guide above the center of the rolls; to 
the kind of lubricant used on the metal; to dust and dirt in the atmos- 
phere; to uneven annealing; to improper pickling; to unusual variation 
in chemical composition of different bars or within the same bar, or other 
causes. 

The fundamental principles to be remembered in any consideration 
of the action of the rolls on brass bars of uniform thickness are that the 
rolls spring apart in proportion to the total pressure exerted on the metal; 
that the amount the metal flows or the bar elongates at any point de- 
pends upon the pressure the rolls exert and the hardness of the metal; 
that the metal may vary in hardness owing to chemical composition and 
inequality in annealing or previous working; and that, theoretically, the 
peripheral velocity of both upper and lower rolls should be the same. 
In addition, a further consideration is that bars are not always of uni- 
form thickness and that variations in thickness may occur in the same 
bar. From these facts it is evident that unless the metal is uniform and 

84 




FIG. 408. 



^Brvftze Shoes k^ftdin 



METHOD OF KEEPING THE 
BEARINGS COOL 



530 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



.'' 



Cast Sieef Back" 
picrfe with Hard 
/Brass Ptini 



FUedBars 
inRollSiandy 




■Bar 



Tumbuck/e 
^Adjusfmenf 



FIO. 409. POSITION OF BACK PLATE 



homogeneous in every particular, bars will tend to turn up or down in the 
rolls, hoop, curve or bend, and it is in handling the metal with usual mill 
variations from uniformity that the skill of the roller is brought into 
play. 

If there is a small difference in the diameter of the rolls, the larger roll 
should be placed on the top as this will tend to turn the bar down. In 

breaking down it is difficult to set the 
guides so that all the bars will come 
straight as they are rolled from the 
rough, and therefore it is the usual 

^ ^, ; i_, fj I practice to make the bars turn down. 

Ijraj \Q?~r x\ The curve in the sticking end of the bar 

^ '^ ' /^ ^ 1 will be determined by the setting of the 

back plate as shown in Fig. 409. The 
back plate is set up as far as possible, 
care being taken that the rolled bar 
does not catch and tear out the plate. 
This back plate should have a hard brass 
wearing plate or point. The front guides should have adjustable bottom 
guides of bronze so that the metal will not seize or tear. The side 
guides may be of cast iron or steel with hard steel wearing plates. 

Straightening the Bars. — Preliminary to overhauling, the bars must 
be straightened so that they will Ue flat on the table of the overhauling 
machine. The straightening is done with a set of rolls, the upper and 
lower rolls being staggered as shown in Fig. 410. The number of rolls 
required depends on the thickness of the metal and degree of flatness 
required. For many purposes a three-roll straightener is satisfactory, 
but several passes are needed to bring the bars flat. The principle of 
straightening is to curve the bar in one direc- 
tion on the first pass, turn it upside down 
and remove the curve in the further sue 
cessive passes required. Obviously, a five- or 
seven-roll machine is simply a combination of 
three-roll straighteners in series, and the 
operation may be done in one pass in such a 
machine. The rolls are set to remove the 
greatest kink in the bars, and small varia- 
tions in thickness have no effect other than 

increasing the driving power required. Derived from some experience 
with two different types of machines, the following points should be 
considered in selecting a straightener. All rolls should be driven — that 
is, no idler rolls; rolls should be as small in diameter as possible consistent 
with strength for the work to be done, rolls should be set on close centers 
horizontally — that is, within J^ in. of the diameter; the housings should 



Adjustmenf of l^per 
1^1 Is, -Jf fo */g 



c^y^ 




€i Rolls, fCioC 

FIG. 410. DIAGRAM OF BOLL 
POSinOMB 



Chap. 1] 



MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 



531 




532 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



be such that a broken roll may be removed and replaced without tearing 
down the machine; a parallel adjusting device should be attached to the 
adjusting screws so that the rolls may be set parallel, quickly and accu- 
rately; and the power should be ample. On a seven-roll machine with 
rolls 6% in. in diameter on 7-in. centers about 20 hp. was required. The 
speed of the rolls varies from 40 to 70 ft. per min. 

Overhauling. — After straightening, the bars are stacked in front of 
the overhauling machines, Fig. 411. These are simply light, high-speed, 
draw-cut shaping machines adapted to the special requirements of re- 
moving the surface metal from the sides of the bars. The tool is pro- 
vided with a cam lift for the reverse stroke. The machines run at 200 



BAR 



TA81S 




Too! SUeL 
fHaroknecO 



no. 412 TYPE OF CLAMPS USED 



r.p.m. and have a 9-in. stroke of which about 7^ in. is effective, the loss 
being due to the cam action. The table slides in both directions hori- 
zontally on rollers, and is moved by hand. The entire table and rails 
are raised, and the work fed to the tool, by a foot lever that enables the 
operator to vary the pressure against a stop and thus obtain a slight 
variation in depth of cut. The metal removed is from 0.020 in. to 0.040 
in. in thickness. The tools are of high-speed steel % XlK in. in section, 
and are held in a special holder. 

The bars should be overhauled all over, and for this reason the method 
of holding them on the table of the machine is important. The clamps 
provided with the machines described would not permit the tool to pass 
over the end of the bar, therefore a special device shown in Fig, 412 was 
designed. In this the pull of the tool makes the jaws bite into the brass 



Chap. I] 



MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 



533 



sV 



Riyeh,ifD/am 

Coufrhrsunk 

and Chipped 

op far Side 



and holds them more finnly. The bars are then turned end for end to 
clean up the portion covered by the front clamp. 

Inspection follows, after which the bars may be returned to the opera- 
tor for proper machining, rejected as scrap, or passed to the running- 
down rolls. 

The overhauling-machine oper- Vi- 
ators are paid on a piece-rate^ iL i "7 
basis of from 23^ to 4c. per bar, *y ^' 
depending upon material and size 
of bar, irrespective of mill varia- 
tions from nominal length. The 
output per machine should average 
ten to fourteen bars per hour, 
overhauling all over. 

Running Down. — The bars 
which have passed inspection are 
then nm through the breaking 
down rolls and reduced to a suita- 
ble thickness for finishing. They 
are then sorted into loads (lots) of 
60, which load is used as a unit 
quantity of metal until it is finished. 

The run-down bars gage to within 0.020 in. of the same size, but may 
vary 'somewhat in temper or hardness so that they are annealed in order 
to facilitate the finishing operation. This annealing is done in order to 
bring all the metal to the same condition as regards temper rather than 
because the metal is too hard to allow further reduction without splitting 
or cracking. 




PL,72H''^9^^Long 



o o o 
o o o o 



Qi 



.f.0 



fyzmniixing 



I 

! 
I 

Jl 



FIG. 413. BAB-ANNEAUNQ PAN 




V-lkOiaai'A 



VlioiamrA. 
FIG. 414. .PAN HOOK 



•) i 



»•* 






L 



First Annealing. — The furnaces generally used for both the'first and 
final annealing operations are of the muffle type, using gas, coal or oil 
as fuel. A usual size is about 6 ft. 6 in. wide, 32 ft. long and 3 ft. high, 
allowing three 6 X 10-f t. annealing pans (see Fig. 413) to be used in tandem. 



534 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sec. Ill 

• 

These are coupled together by pan hooks, each as shown in Fig. 414 and 
are handled by a motor-driven winch. 

The bars are kept in the furnace until the metal is brought to an even 
heat all over. The temperature of the furnace is not as important in the 
first annealing operation as in the final, but ordinarily about the same 
temperature is maintained in the furnace, approximately 1,250 deg. F. 

Second Rolling Operation. — The cleaned bars then go to the finishing 
mills and pass through the rolls adjusted to deliver bars closely approxi- 
mating finished size. The bars are then sorted into lots, covering a 
range of variation of not more than 0.002 in. Each lot is then rolled to 
finish gage in a final pass on one setting of the rolls, a different setting 
being determined for each lot. 

The finishing rolls require regrinding once or twice a week. This is 
done by traversing the rolls with a stick fitted to the curve of the rolls, 
using a mixture of No. 60 emery and oil. This operation consumes 
3 or 4 hours. 

Final Annealing. — The finished bars are then subjected to another 
annealing operation which must be performed with great care as to the 
proper temper, tensile strength and elongation of brass depends mainly 

* • .i'- ... 

-T 

^ MACHINE STEEL / 

I ffachhie-sieef phs are inseHedin Hie holes fthenin use'''' 

FIQ. 41. FIXTURE FOR HOLDING BARS 

upon the temperature reached in annealing, and the bars must be uni- 
formly heated. To secure even heating the bars are set on edge on a 
fixture as shown in Fig. 415 before being put into the annealing pans. 

For annealing 67 to 33 per cent, brass to secure minimum tensile 
strength of 43,000 lb. per in. and a minimum elongation of 57 per cent, 
in 4 in., a temperature of about 1,250 deg. F. is sufficient. The bars 
must remain in the furnace until the metal has been brought to the same 
heat throughout. 

Pickling. — The annealed metal has a slight scale on it that must be 
removed before finishing. This is done by dipping the bars in a pickle 
solution of 10 to ] 5 per cent, sulphuric acid. Acid and water are added 
each day to make up the strength of the solution and to replace the drip 
loss on each bar. The acid acts more quickly and effectively if heated 
by a steam coil to about 150 deg. F. 

The concentration of copper sulphate in the solution should be 
checked frequently, for when it is high a large amount of acid will be 
required and there is a tendency under certain conditions to plate out 



1 c 


h 


o 


h 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


" \ 


K- 





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Chap. I] MANUFACTURE OF CARTRIDGE BRASS 535 

copper on the bars. This is especially objectionable when pickling the 
finished metal after final annealing. 

Metal is rarely handled in bar form longer than 18 ft. as greater 
lengths are coiled. Tanks about 4 ft. wide, 30 ft. long and 2 ft. 6 in. 
deep are standard. Timber such as cedar, yellow pine, etc., in finished 
planks 3 in. thick mortised and bolted together with 3^-in. iron stud bolts 
is usual construction. The acid tank is lined with ^-in. sheet lead. 

The method of dipping the bars varies with the crane facilities. 
Excellent work has been done by pickling each load of sixty bars in 
sUngs made of brass bars bent up for this purpose. A ten-ton crane 
picks up the load from the furnace front and carries it directly to the 
acid tub. An immersion of ten or fifteen minutes should be sufficient 
to clean the bars to a bright yellow, free from scale or discoloration. 
Afterward the load is rinsed in two tubs of clear water — the latter pref- 
erably hot to assist in drying. The water from the second tub is led 
through an overflow into the first. The bars are dried by covering 
with sawdust that is then removed by brushes. This is best determined 
directly by the color or by a pyrometer working on the radiation principle. 
The points of thermo-couple pyrometers are not always the same tem- 
perature as the metal and each may be affected differently by cm-rents 
of gases in the fiu'nace. The length of time the metal is exposed to a 
constant temperature does not seem materially to affect the strength 
of the metal, at least for small differences of an hour or two. Usually, 
• however, the temperature continues to run up after the firing of the fur- 
nace has stopped and thus the condition of constant temperature is not 
realized. Quenching or cooling slowly does not seem appreciably to 
affect the strength of the metal. Care should be taken to avoid an 
excess of air, as the atmosphere of the furnace should be more nearly 
reducing than oxidizing. 

Summarized a scheme of reduction for one grade of cartridge brass 
is as follows: 

Inolies 
Cast bar 1.000 ± 0.020 

Breaking down 0.750 ± 0.015 

Running down 0.650 ± 0.012 

Running down 0.550 ± 0.010 

Running down 0.450 ± 0.008 

Anneal 

Finishing 0.384 ± 0.005 

Finishing 0.374 ± 0.003 

Finishing 0.368 ± 0.002 

Anneal 



CHAPTER II 
MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES' 

The manufacture of cartridge cases, almost entirely a punch press 
imdertaking, calls for exceedingly accurate work, on account of the 
close limits imposed on allowable variations. This is well demonstrated 
in the methods employed by the New York and Hagerstown Metal 
Stamping Co., Hagerstown, Md., in producing 1-lb. cartridge cases for 
the British Government. 

These cartridge cases, illustrated in Figs. 416 and 417, are made from 
sheet brass, analyzing approximately 70 per cent, copper and 30 per cent. 




sacsEaasESB 



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FIQ. 416. DETAILS OF 1-LB. CARTBIDGB CASE 




spelter, with a variation of about 1 per cent, either way and an allowance 
of J^ per cent, for impiu'ities. The stock is piu'chased in the form of 
blanks measuring 2]^ in. in diameter and 0.20 in. in thickness. The 
physical requirements of the completed case are 48,000 to 54,000 lb. per 
sq. in. tensile strength at the mouth with 58 per cent, minimum local 
elongation, a minimum tensile strength of 60,000 lb. per sq. in. at the 
head and under the head a minimum tensile strength of 58,000 lb. per 
sq. in. 

The requirements called for in manufacturing the cartridge cases 
are as follows: 

1. The cases must be cold drawn from brass of the proper quality. 

2. The curvature at the neck shall conform to that of the standard 
gun chambers shown on the drawings, within manufacturing limits. 

3. Ten from each lot of 5,000 shall be selected by the inspector to 
be proved. 

^ Robert Mawson, Associate Editor, American MachinUL 

536 



Chap, m 



MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES 



637 



4. The proof ehall be the firing of each of the selected cartridge cases 
onoe with service charge and shell. Two of the fired cases shall then be 
selected by the inspector ; and from each of them three additional service 
rounds shall be fired without re-forming, but the forward end of the 
cylindrical part of the neck may be contracted sufficiently to grip the 
shell at each reloading. 

5. The proof cases of accepted lots may be incorporated in the r^ular 
lots, provided they are re-formed and again pass inspection. 

6. No cases must show signs of weakness or excessive hardness. 

The manufacture of the cartridge cases involve some 27 main opera- 
tions, aa given in the following table, some of which are shown in the 
series of sketches. 



QEB OP I-LB. CASE FBOW BI.ANK T< 

Table of SEgtJBNCE of OpERATiotra 



13. Trim to length 

14. Anneal and pickle 

15. Fifth draw 

16. Trim to length 

17. Head 

13. Anneal open end and 

19. Form taper 

20. Face and finiBh-machine 
flange and rough out 
primer hole 



1. Blank 

2. Cup 

3. Anneal and pickle 

4. Indent 

5. Anneal and pickle 

6. First draw 

7. Anneal and pickle 

8. Second draw 

9. Aoneal and pickle 

10. Third draw 

11. Anneal and pickle 

12. Fourth draw 

Summarized a scheme of reduction for one grade of cartridge brass 
is as follows: 



21. Machine to length 

22. Burr inside of primer 
hole 

23. Finiah-machine primer 
hole and form recess 

24. Wash 

25. Final inspection 

26. Stamp 

27. Pack ready for shipping 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 2. CUPPIKQ 

Machine Used — Ferracute 6-in. stroke press. 
Production — 625 per hr. 



OPERATION i. INDENTING 

Machine Used — Special 2?^-in. stroke press. 
Froduction — 475 per hr. 



OPERATION 6, FIRST 

Machine Used — Ferraouto 6-in. stroke press, 
Production — 550 per hr. 



MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPBRA-nON 8. SBCOND DRAWINO 



Machine Used— Blisa S-in. stroke presa. 
Production — 550 per hr. 



Machine Used — Bliss 8-in. stroke prcsa. 
Production— 550 per hr. 




OPBBATION 12. FOOBTH DRAWING 



Machine Used — Bliss 15-in. stroke press. 
Production — 400 per hr. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 13. 

Machine Used — Special lathe. 

Special Toola — lAthe, chuck, wooden tonga and parting tool. 

Production — 200 per hr. 



OPERATION 15. FIFTH DRAWIKQ 



Machine Used — Bliss 15-iii. stroke press. 
Production — 100 per hr. 



MAKING 1-LB. CAETRIDOE CASES 



OPERATION 17. HKADINO 



Machine Uaed — Bliss 12-in. stroke press. 
Production — 400 per hr. 



Machine Uaed — Perracute 20-in. stroke press. 
Production — WW per hr. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 20. UACHININO FLANOE 

Machine Used — Dreses & Windaor turret lathe. 
Production — 100 per hr. 



Machine Used — Pratt & Whitney drilling machine. 
Picfduction — 200 pet lir. 



OPERATION 22. BCRRINa 

Machme Used — Pratt it Whitney drilling machine. 
Production — 300 per hr. 



MAKING 1-LD. CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPKRATION 23. FINISH UACHININQ PRIUER BOLE AND RECESS 

Machine Used — Pratt ft Whitney drilling machine. 
Production— 200 per hr. 



OFBRATIOir 26. BTAMPINO 

Machine Used — Foot-controlled press. 
Special Tools — Arbor and steel stamp. 
Production — 600 per hr. 

The first machine operatioo conaiata in cupping the blanks in a Ferra- 
cute press. The fonn of the punch and die employed is shown in Fig. 
418. The die is supported on a bolster of the style illustrated in Fig, 419 
and the punch is held in a special holder, Fig. 420. 

The cupped blanks are then annealed in gas-heated ovens in which 
the temperature is kept at approximately 1,380 deg. F. Here they are 
allowed to remain 30 min., a sheet of flame playing under the trays 
holding the parts. 

After annealing, the parts are conveyed to the pickling tanks, Fig, 
421, and washed in "Edis" compound, to remove the scale. The parts 
are then transferred to the indenting machine where the cupped shell 



544 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sbc. in 



is placed in the die and the punch fed down with the machine to form 
the indentation. 



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Ojippxnq Die 

no. 418. DETAIL OF PXTNCH AND DIB 



The retainer plate, Fig. 422, the punch holder, Fig. 420, the punch. 
Fig. 423, the center section. Fig. 424, the die, Fig. 425, and the bolster, 
Fig. 426, are used for this indenting operation. 



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FIG. 419. DETAIL OF BOLSTER 

The parts are then annealed and pickled in a similar manner to that 
described for the previous operation. After the pickling they are re- 
turned to the Ferracute press, and the first drawing operation occurs. 



MAKING 1-LB. CABTRIDQE CASES 



K-^'-H r 



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FIO. 421. FICKLINO T 



CARTRIDGE CASES 




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no. 423. DETAIL OF INDENT PUNCH TIQ. 424. 



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L OF CENTIB SECTION 



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no. 425. DETAIL OF INDENT PUNCH 



n 



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MKtimC STCCL-' 



— -J 



Chap. II] 



MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES 



647 



The punch holder, Fig. 420, punch die of the type shown in Fig. 427, the 
bolster, Fig. 419, and the retainer plate. Fig. 422, are used for this first 
drawing operation. The parts are then annealed and pickled in a similar 
manner to that previously described. 

The next operation is the second drawing. The machine used for 
this work is a Bliss press. The punch holder. Fig. 420, the bolster. Fig. 




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FIG. 427. DETAILS OF DRAWING PUNCHES AND DIES 

419, the punch. Fig. 422, the die, Fig. 427, the retainer plate. Fig. 420, and 
the stripper. Fig. 428, are used in performing this operation. 

The cases are again annealed and pickled. Then the next operation 
on the shell is the third drawing, which is also done on a Bliss press. 
The punch holder. Fig. 420, the bolster, Fig. 419, the stripper. Fig. 428, 




W 



A 

FIG. 428. DETAIL OF STRIPPER 

the punch. Fig. 422, the die. Fig. 427, and the retainer plate. Fig. 422, are 
used for the third drawing operation. 

The parts are annealed and pickled once more and are then taken to 
a larger Bliss press for the fourth drawing operation. The punch holder, 
Fig. 420, the bolster Fig. 418, the stripper, Fig. 428, the punch and die, 
Fig. 427, and the retainer plate, Fig. 422, are again employed for this 
operation. 



548 CARTRIDGE CASES |Sbc. Ill 

The case is next taken to the special lathe, Fig. 429, and the open eDd 
trimmed so that the overall length is 4^ in. The case is gripped with 
the wooden tongs A and slipped into the chuck B against a stop surface. 

The handle C is drawn forward, actuating the jaws of the chuck so 
that they grip the case securely. The parting tool D is fed against the 
revolving case, and the end is trimmed to the correct length. 

The handle is pushed back, thus releasing the chuck, and with the 
aid of the tongs the case is removed from the machine. The case is 
transferred to the oven, annealed and afterward pickled in a manner 
similar to that previously described. 

The case is then subjected to the last drawing operation, the fifth, 
which is done on a long stroke Bliss press similar to that used for the 
fourth draw. The tools and fixtures employed resemble those used for 



FIO. 429. TRIUMING END OP 3RELL 

this previous operation, but are of such proportions as to leave the shelf, 
below the section which is subsequently contracted, finished, but for 
certain minor operations. 

The case is then trimmed to length and headed. The latter operation 
is performed in a 12-in. stroke Bliss press equipped with the tools and 
fixtures illustrated in Fig. 430, 

From the press, the cases go to the washing tank where they are 
submerged for one minute in a solution of "Carlsrhue" heated to 420 
deg. F. to remove any grease. After this they are rinsed, first in hot 
water and then in cold, and the open end of the shell annealed by dipping 
in a solution of saltpeter heated to about 760 deg. F. The shells remain 
in this liquid for 2 min. 

The next operation is tapering, which is performed with the tools 
seen in Fig. 431. The case is slid into the die and the hunter placed on 



MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES 













HmkI Bolrtw Hal9 



Knock CXH- ■ 

ND KNOCK-OUT rOB HBADIHO 



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Toper Bolster No.19 lotMr Knockout 

, 431. DETAILS OF PUNCH, BONTBR, DIE, BOLBTER AND KNOCK-OUT FOR 
OPEBATION 



550 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



the head. The punch is fed down by the machine, a Ferracute 20-in. 
stroke press, and the case is forced into the die, (see operation 19). 

The shell is then taken to the small turret lathe, the flange faced 
and turned to size and the primer hole roughed out. For this operation 

i'sq-i VbaCKTOOL 




^RADIUS TOOL 
FIG. 432. TOOL SET-UP FOR MACHINING FLANGE 

the shell is firmly held in the chuck, being pushed against a stop surface. 
The tool in the turret is pushed up and the primer hole is rough-drilled 
and counterbored. The front post carries two tools, one machining the 




Shell 




] 



FIG. 433. DETAILS OF CLAMP AND HOLDING FIXTURB 

outside surface of the flange and the other forming the radius in the 
flange. Stops are used on the turret slide and both tool posts, so that 
the correct dimensions may be obtained. Details of the tools for the 
operation are given in Fig. 432. 



Chap. 11} MAKING 1-LB. CAATRIDQE CASES 551 

The case is then transferred to a Pratt & Whitney drilling machine, 
operation 21, and machined to length. The shell is placed on an arbor 
and, the table being raised to a stop, the revolving tool machines the 
case to length. It is held by the operator with the wooden clamp, Fig. 
433. A detail of the cutter used is shown in Fig. 434. 



WJ 



The inside of the primer hole is then burred, see operation 22. For 
this operation the case ia held with the wooden clamp, as for the preceding 
operation. 

The next operation — reaming the primer hole and forming the recess 
— is also performed on a Pratt & Whitney. The shell is held in a special 
fixture and the primer hole is reamed and counterbored. The combina- 
tion tool and holding fixture for the machining ia illustrated in Fig. 435. 




Fia. 435. COUBINATION TOOL AND HOLDING nXTUBE 

The cases are then taken to the inspection department for the final 
examination. The various gages used are shown in detail in Fig. 436. 

After the final inspection the caeea that have been passed are stamped 
and then washed to remove the grease. They are then packed ready for 
shipment. 

A novel method of shipping the cartridge cases is employed at this 
factory. The firm was originally in the business of manufacturing seam- 



552 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[S£C. Ill 



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Umif Plug Gage for 
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FIQ. 436. GAQES FOB TBSTIKG 



MAKING 1-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES 




I* 3i —>i ^- H »l 



60901 "^ Primar C(x/n4vbor« Plug &agas "fbr Primer Ho[a 



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Shall Ma»Hr fbr Chamb«r 



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554 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sio. Ill 

less steel caskets. These are now being used for the finished cartridge 
cases. Each casket will hold 516 cases, which are placed in two traya. 
Attached to each trayisa board properly spaced to keep the cartridge cases 
from moving. The advantage of this method of packing is the ease with 
which the cases may be placed in the tray. Further, by removing the 
trays individually and turning them over, the cases will drop out straight 



Fid. 437. PACKING CABB FOR CARTRIDGE CASES, WITH CAPACITI FOR 516 CASES 



and in a convenient position for forcing the steel projectile in position. 
Another advantage is that the shipper can readily see when the correct 
number has been put in, without the necessity of calculation, 

One of these caskets is illustrated in Fig. 437 with the upper tray 
removed, so that the method of packing may be easily observed. 



CHAPTER III 

MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE"— DRAWING 18-LB. 
CARTRIDGE CASES ON BULLDOZERS AND FROG 
PLANERS^ CARTRIDGE HEADING PRESSES 
AND ACCUMULATORS AT THE 
ANGUS SHOPS' 

Typical of cartridge case manufacture in general is the task of making 
cases for the British 18-pounders (see Fig. 438) and a description of the 
processes employed by the American Locomotive Co., Richmond, Va., 
and the work performed by that company gives a clear conception of 
the difficulties encountered in such work. By radical changes in equip- 
ment and methods in this plant, an average daily output of about 18,000 
cases was attained. 

The stock blanks are purchased in the form of brass disks 6.375 in. 
in diameter by 0.0380 in. thick, analyzing about 70 per cent, copper and 
30 per cent, spelter. This composition varies to some extent, the range 
being approximately as follows: 

Copper 67 to 72 per cent. Lead under 0. 10 per cent. 

Zinc 33 to 28 per cent. Iron under . 10 per cent . 

The physical properties of the metal are — ^ultimate tensile strength, 
48,000 lb. per sq. in.; elastic limit, 17,000 lb. per sq. in.; elongation, 
71 per cent. As the blanks are procured from three different concerns 
it is found advisable to mark them with a distinguishing symbol. The 
blanks are therefore marked with a letter, number or character so that 
the cases may be traced should any defect arise during the machining 
operations. 

The operations followed in the manufacture of the case are: 

1. Blank 12. Fourth draw 

2. Mark for identification 13. Second indent 

3. Cupping 14. Anneal and pickle 

4. Anneal and pickle 15. Fifth draw 

5. First draw 10. First trim 

6. Anneal and pickle 17. Anneal and wash 

7. Second draw 18. Sixth draw 

8. First indent 19. Second trim 

9. Anneal and pickle 20. Wash 

10. Third draw 21. First and second heading 

11. Anneal and pickle 22. Flash anneal 

^ Robert Mawson, Associate Editor, American Machinist, 
' John H. Van Deventer, Managing Editor, American Machinist. 

555 



556 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 






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Chap. Ill] MAKING THE Ifr-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 

23. Pint taper 28. Hand-tap for primer 

24. Second taper 29. Final inspection 

2&. Machine head 30. Government inspection 

26. First inspection 31. Stamp, box andship 

27. Stamp and broach 



OPERATION 3 



Machine Used — Bliss No. 77J^, 12-in. strolce, press operating at 13>i r 
Production — 800 per hr. 
Lubricant Used— Lub-a-tone. 
Pressure Required— 120 tons. 



( i. ANNBAUNO AND PICKLING CONTINUOUS NO. A-258-8 

Apparatus Used — Quigley crude-oil furnace and trays, water and " Edis " compound 
oka. 
Production — ^1,400 per furnace per hr. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 5. riBST DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss Ho. 77K. 10-in. stroke, press operating at 13^ r. 
Production — 800 per hr. 
libiicant Used — Lub-a-tone. 
Pleasure Required — 75 tons. 



OPERATION 7. SECOND DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss No. 77^, 12-in. stroke, press operating at 13^ r.p.m. 
Production— 800 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Lub-a-tone. 



OPERATION 8. FIBST INDENT 

Machine Used — Bliss No. 78J^, 10-in. stroke, press operating at 12 r.p.m. 
Production— 700 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — None. 
Pressure Required — 150 tons. 



MAKING THE 1&-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



OPBRATIOK 10. THIRD DB&W 

Machine Used — Blies No. 77Ki lO-in. stroke, press operatiog at 13K '■ 
Production — 800 per hr. 
Lubricant Used^Lub-a-tone. 



« 12 OPERATION 13 

OPERATION 12. FOURTH DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss No. 87, 16-iii. stroke, press operating at 13^ r.p.m. 
Production — 750 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Lub-a-tone. 

OPERATION 13. SECOint INDENT 

Machine Used — Bliss No. 78^, 10-in. stroke, press operatii^ at 12 r.p.m. 
Production — 700 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — None. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



Machine Uaed — Bliss No. 60!^ reducing press. 
Production — 250 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Lub-a-tone. 

OFEBATtON 16. FIRBT TBIUUINQ 

Machine Used — Bliss trimmer, apeed of spindle 5S5 r.p.n; 

Production — 800 per hr. 

Note — Case trimmed dry to 9^ in. 



OPERATION 17. WASHINQ 

Apparatus Used — Tanks and tongs. 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



Machine Used— Bliss reducing presa No. 60^. 
Production— 230 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Lub-a-tone. 

OPERATION 19. SECOND TRDlUINa 

Machine Used— Bllas trimmer, speed of spindle 585 r.p.m. 
Note — Case trimmed dry to lI^Ko '"■ 



« 21. nUBT AND SECOND BEADINO 

Machine Used — Blise embossing press No. 27. 
Productioi> — 300 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Lub-a-t<)nc. 
Pressure Required — 800 tons. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 22. FLASH ANtTEAUNO 

Machine Used — Special tour-burner ga« furnace. 
Production— 200 per hr. 



OPERATION 23 OPERATION 24 

OPERATION 23. nRBT TAPER 

Machine Used — Bliss wiring press No. 2W, Id-in. stroke, operating at 16 r.p.m 
Production — 900 per hr. 
Lubricant Used — Neatsfoot oil. 

OPERATION 24. SECOND TAPER 

Machine Used — Bliss wiring press No. 2W, 16-in, stroke, operating at 16 r.p.m. 
Production — 800 per hour. 
Lubricant Used — Neatsfoot oil. 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



OPERATION 25. UACHININQ HBAD 

Machine Used — Bullard cartridge lathe operating at 670 r.p.m., for tapping. 

Production — 55 per hr. 

Note — All machine work perfonned dry except threading, where lard oil is uaed. 



OPERATION 27. BTAMP AND BBOACB 

Machine Used — Bliss No. 39B marking machine. 
Production — 1,200 per hr. 
Iiubricant Used — None. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 28. HAND-TAPPINQ POK PBIHER 

Machine Used — Holding fixture with wooden ejector. 
Production— 150 per hr. 
Lubricant Used— Lard oil. 



Production — Seven men pack and five men fasten boxes together at the rate of 
DO in 10 hr. 



Chap. HI) 



MAKING THE Ifr-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



565 



The first machining operation is that of cupping; the machine used 
for performing this operation is a 12-in. Bliss press. The punch and die 
for which are shown in detail in Fig. 439. The cupped blanks are then 
taken to the oil burning furnaces for annealing; the temperature is kept 
at from 1,180 to 1,200 deg. F. The average consumption of oil is 15 gal. 
per hr. per furnace. 

When annealing, two men load the trays. The furnace holds nine, 
one tray accommodating about 150 blanks. Every 6 min. one of these 



1;:;=::^^ 



is pushed into the furnace. The cartridge cases are left in the furnace for 
approximately 45 min. Two men, stationed at the furnace, draw out 
the trays according to the time noted and lower them by an air hoist 
into the water tank. 

Three furnaces are attended to by another man who watches the 
pyrometers and regulates the heat. The pickling is done in a bath of 
"Eldis" compound made from 1 lb. of the compound and 1 gal. of water. 
This mixture is kept at a temperature of from 180 to 210 deg. F. The 








p- «■■ 




Oils 


i 


^i^-^ 


"4 


B!fc^=HV^..«^ -*: 



OPERATION 



blanks are allowed to remain in the pickling tank for approximately 8 
min. 

The cases are then washed in hot water in a separate tank. The 
baskets that are used during this operation are made from copper so as 
to prevent any discoloration of the cases. 

The next operation is the first drawing; the press used for this opera- 
tion 18 a 10-in. Bliss press. The punch and die for which are shown in 
Fig. 440. 

The cases are again annealed and pickled after which they are ready 



566 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



for the second drawing operation, which is performed on a 12-in. BUbs 
press. Details of the punch and die used for this second drawing are 
shown in Fig. 441. 

The cases are then taken to another Bliss press for the first indenting 
operation. Details of the punch, die and center post used for this opera- 
tion are shown in Fig. 442; details of the die holder and punch bolder 
in Fig. 443. 









^, 






Q 


o 


1 


j 




.-% 














k 


,a 




..,.-4 



W NOTt-AflPunchti andOitS 
^ ore madeof Tool Stte 



. 441. DETAIU 



OPEBATIOM 



The third draw is performed on a No. 77H Bliss press. Details of 
the punch and die used for this third drawing are shown in Fig. 444. 
The cases are then again annealed and pickled as before. 

The next operation is the fourth drawing; the press used is a 16-in. 
stroke Bliss No. 87. The punch and die used for the drawing operation 
are shown in detail in F^. 445. 

The case is now ready for the second indenting, which is performed 
on a Bliss No. 78^. Details of the die and punch holders used in this 

TOOL STTElCHarden emd Grind) 




;<^'4<.-...j^'...,>}^ 



Itt lnden+ 



Fia. 442. 



Operation are shown in Fig. 443. The punch and die are also shown in 
detail in Fig. 446. The cases are then annealed as described and pickled 
by dipping in a bath made in the proportion of 1 part sulphuric acid to 
10 parts water, and kept at a temperature of 120 deg. F. 

The next operation on the case is the fifth drawing; performed on a 
Bliss No. 60)^ reducing press. Details of the punch and die used for 
this drawing are shown in Fig. 447. 



Chap. lU] MAKING THE l^-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 




no. 444. DETKIIB OF PONCH AND DII FOR THIRD DRAWINQ OPERATION 



a 



-J — I — 



_f_yin!-u--±tM»5f" 



no. 445. DETAILS Of PUNCH AND DIS FOE FOUETH DRAwInO OPERATION 



568 CARTRIDGE CASES ISbc. Ill 

The case is then trimmed to 9J^ in. long in a lathe; details of the 
trimming cutter and holder for which operation are shown in detail in 
Figs. 448 and 449. 

-7CXH. S7W.(HardenanefGrM}- ^ -iSmO- 

^r . 




-t4i « 

£"J' Indent 

no, 446. PUNCH AND DIE FOB SECOND INDENTtHO OI'BRATION 



diB3! 



> DIB FOR riFTa DRAWINO OPERATION 



&n'// and Couiftrsini 




K -2 Xj« 
Triniming-Cu+*«r Holder 

FIQ. 449. DETAILS OF 



CCTTER HOLDER 



The cases are then annealed as before, after which they are dipped in 
the sulphuric acid bath. The contents of the bath are made up of 300 
gal. water, 30 gal. sulphuric acid and 40 lb. bichromate of soda. The 
mixture is kept at a temperature of 100 to 120 deg. F. A detail of the 



Chap. IlIJ 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



569 



tongs used to dip the cases in the bath is shown in Fig. 450. It will be 
noted that this time the cases are only dipped into the bath, whereas 
before they were allowed to remain in the bath suspended in a basket. 




l< 



-^t^ 



^.-.-^.i-.f. 



BRASS 
FIQ. 450. DETAILS OF TONGS 



->l 



It will be observed also that the bath mixture is different. After being 
removed from the bath they are plunged into water at a temperature of 
210 deg. F. and then quickly transferred to the air dry. 




4VihperlndJ. 
1^ 



7Wi>km 



JfDntf and Ofunhnunk 



^6 
1 III I r I 

€T!« DRAYI 
FIQ. 451. DETAILS OF PUNCH AND DIE FOR SIXTH DRAWING OPERATION 

The next operation, the sixth drawing, is performed in the Bliss 
reducing press. Details of the punch and die used for this final drawing 
are shown in Fig. 451. 

The case is now transferred to a lathe and 
trimmed to 11 ^He ^' ^^ length over all. The 
tools used for this operation are shown in detail 
in Figs. 448 and 452. The case is then dipped 
in a sulphuric-acid bath. The tongs shown in 
Fig. 450 are used to hold the case. The bath 
is composed of a mixture of sulphuric acid and 
water in the proportion of 300 gal. of water to 2 
gal. of acid and is kept at a temperature of 210 
deg. F. 

The next operations are the first and second 
headings performed in a Bliss embossing press, 
two sets of heading tools, one set performing the first and the other the 
second heading operation. In front of the press is the stripper which, by 




FIG. 452. DETAIL OF 
TRIMMING CUTTER 

This machine carries 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



ISec. ni 






II 



l^affloft - jZ£W? ►] 







IT 




TT 




^' 


IM^S' 




f. 


h" 




.H 


HJ ;., 


'ii 


f, 


•i i -■; 




r. 


r^ ' 


A 


' 




. 






1 * 




m3E& 


1 i 




',> 








k?ii 




Ji i 


3?"T 










,ai£P 


i j 




Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



571 



means of two latches, raises the case from the die after it has been 
headed. Details of the heading post, heading-post die ring, slide and 
pad holder and heading pads are shown in detail in Fig. 453. 



MACHIUE STEEL 





^Rivef t.-5harp Comers filed off 

•if \ ^ V "■ 1 i C J ■ ■»» ----- -^ 



H- 



-::f 



FIG. 454. DETAIL OF TONGS 



_. TOOL STEEL'- 



^.-^/(Kf— -S 



it - — 

Ik 



J ^ 1 



:t 




I 
I 
1 
I 

\ 

I 
I 

I 

. Y 

I 
t 
I 

I 

I 



-€398'—\ i 



<-- 






n 



67 •#■ — 

'6998-- 

l^Toper 
FiG. 455. 



ixH 



CAST IRON 

(Harden"^ 

andOrinc^ 



^ 



332: 



I 



±JL 






-1 3 — r 



->4 






v^f 

21^ Taper 
DETAIL OF FIBBT TAPEBING DIB 



3 



■X^ 









■ *— ^^»«^*-»' 



O 




lonrtdudvin 



l*^/fefr 




FIG. 456. 



0O6S Brass Band made from J 
Discarded Carindge Coaes^' 

DETAILS OF DIE HOLDER AND BEINFOBCING 



The case is then taken to a gas furnace and mouth-annealed. The 
furnace holds four cases, which are kept revolving by means of pulleys 
driven by belts at the lower end of the device. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 
„^'.. ^ 



na. 457. detail of qaqe for taperinq 



ki^' 



.' J ** 

1-4. ) -^j?-^ 



, < „• ■***. for -^ wCA^'1 ^-rflooTr' 

I I*'" I ;l III6H-SPCC0 




H - 

R«C«Mlri9-Tool Hold»i- 

FIQ. 468. DETAILS OF HACBIHINQ TOOIA 



-S.*T11S'- 
Coinbina+ion Drill ond Coun+Brbora 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



573 



Jets of gas flame are allowed to play against the outside of the case 
until it becomes low red hot, after which it is removed with the tongs, 
Fig. 454, and allowed to cool in air. 

The next operation is the first taper, which is performed in a Bliss 
wiring press. A detail of the tapering die is shown in Fig. 455. The 
die holder and the reinforcing ring are shown in detail in Fig. 456. The 
reinforcing ring is placed on the inside of the case to prevent distortion 
during the tapering operation. 

The second tapering, which is the next operation, is perfprmed in a 
press similar to the one used for the first draw. The die used for this 
operation is shown in Fig. 455, the other tools being the same as shown 




I 



rfrga 







1^. 



-ZSOO 



O" 









^ / ' ^^^^ Gage for Leng+h of 
y.'rrk Primer Hole 

IT" 



; ;o] 






<V4 



f45S>\ 



r^^ 



••^te 



J 



6age 'for Thickness 




4b ^9« "f<)r Dep+h +6 Shoulder 
-X- Under Thread in Phmer Hole 



^"" ^ K2t«??l aim f- 

I n 



Thickness 



MTor injcKnew -^ Gage ^ Se^'ng Thickn 

of Base of Case Gage for Diameter ^ ofBase<S6age 

of Top Flange 

FIG. 459. DETAILS OF INSPECTION GAOES 



in detail in Fig. 456. The gage used to test the tapered case at the 
machine is shown in Fig. 457. 

The case is next taken to a BuUard cartridge lathe where the head is 
machined and the case itself is faced to length. The sequence of opera- 
tions performed in the lathe are: 



1. DriU 

2. Form recess and face boss on inside 
of case 

3. Face flange to diameter and thickness 
— using cross-slide, at the same time 



face the shell to length with the cutter 
at rear end of the machine 

4. Tap 

5. Ream and counterbore 



Details of the tools used for these operations are shown in Fig. 458. 
The case is now given its first inspection, using the gages shown in 



CARTRIDGE CASES 




w~-...j^- — >| gl V 5 




Chap. Ill] MAKING THE I8-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 575 

Fig. 459. The receiving g^e for testing the chamber gage is shown in 
Fig. 459(a). For the inspection, the case is placed on a long b«nch and 




no 461 DETAILS or tap and holdihq fixtubb 



a gang of seven inspectors test the dimensions, the case being passed 
along the hne until all the surfaces have been examined With a gang 
of seven men about 700 cases are inspected per hr 



576 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



The case is then conveyed to the Bliss No, 39B markiog machine, 
the hole broached, and the flange stamped. For this operation the case 
is placed on a steel post which fits on the inside, the case resting on the 
upper end. The fixture is made to slide forward, enabling the operator 
easily to place the case in position. The fixture and case are then slid 
back against a stop, the punch is made to descend, and the hole is 
broached and the case stamped. Details of the broach and stamping 
tool are shown in Fig. 460. 

The next operation is the hand-tapping of the primer hole. To do 
this the fixture is fastened to the bench, and after being tapped the opera- 
tor pushes down a treadle with his foot and forces out the case. 

Details of the tap and holding fixture are shown in Fig. 461. The 
case is then given a final wash through four vats. The first of these 



ii 





&iss->Ht— ?i-. 

FIO. 462. DETAILS OF OAQEH 

consists of a mixture in the proportion of 8 
oz. lye (Fords alkali special) to I gal. of 
water; the second, hot water at 210 deg. F.; 
_^ the third, a solution of 4 oz. of sulphuric 
-*J acid to 1 gal. of water and, finally, in a vat 
of hot water at 210 deg. F. 

The inspection of the tapped and 
broached holes in the head, and also of the flange, is the next opera- 
tion, using the gages shown in Fig. 462. The average for this opera- 
tion is one man 120 cases per hr. The case is then transferred to the 
Government inspection department where it is again inspected, using 
gages similar to those shown in Fig. 459. 

Several cartridge cases have been tested for hardness with the Shore 
acleroscope and the average was found to be 



TOOL SJEEL(Hcrchn an^HrincO 



1. froraflanRe 3&-40 

1. from flange 30-35 



At flange 45-55 

K in. from flange 40-50 

2 in, from flange 40-50 

The average weight of a finished case is 3 lb. 2 drams, and the contents 
94.80 cu. in. 

It might be of interest to know what weight ia lost by the case while 
it is passing through the various stages of manufacture. For this purpose 
the company took about 50 specimens at different times and the average 
obtained was as follows: 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE Ig-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 577 

Lb. Oz. Drams 

Average weight of disk 3 11 8 

Average weight before first trim 3 11 l}i 

Average after first trim 3 9 11 J^ 

Average before second trim 3 9 5M 

Average after second trim 3 7 12 

Average before machining head 3 7 12 

Average after machining head 3 9H 

After the Government inspection, those cases that are accepted are 
packed into boxes the covers of which are fastened down and marked 
on the outside. They are now ready for shipping. 

DRAWING 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASES ON BULLDOZERS AND FROG 

PLANERS 

The Angus shops of the Canadian Pacific undertook the manufacture 
of 18-lb. cartridge cases along lines quite dissimilar from those employed 
by the American Locomotive Co., employing bulldozers and frog planers 
for all operations other than those of heading and indenting. This 
unusual use of apparently unsuitable machines for accurate press opera- 
tions proved highly successful and is one which could be profitably copied 
by any plant engaged in the production of cartridge cases. The Angus 
shops attained a production rate of 3,000 cases per day with a work 
force which had no previous experience in brass drawing or in work of a 
similar nature. 

Arrangement of the Cartridge Department. — A truck-shop building 
was cleaned out and made over into the cartridge department. The 
arrangement of machines, inspecting room, pickling and washing tanks 
and other equipment are shown in Fig. 463. 

A bit of dust or grit on one of the drawing dies or plungers makes an 
ugly scratch in the case, and it was considered more advisable to keep 
this shop free from smoke and dust than to try to avoid transportation. 
Therefore, as the nearest available building for the anneaUng furnaces 
was the blacksmith shop across the midway, this shop was used for the 
drawing operations, and the indenting and heading presses were also 
installed there. 

List of Operations. — The operations as performed on cartridge cases 
at the Angus shops are as follows: 

1. Blank 10. Anneal 19. Second trim 

2. Cup 11. Third draw 20. Head 

3. Anneal 12. Anneal 21. Semi-anneal 

4. First draw 13. Fourth draw 22. First taper 

5. Anneal 14. Anneal 23. Second taper 

6. Second draw 15. Fifth draw 24. Head turn 

7. First indent 16. First trim 25. Parallel cut 

8. Anneal 17. Anneal 26. Stamp 

9. Second indent 18. Sixth draw 27. Shop inspection 

37 



578 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 




a« 
o 
H 

OD 

00 

P 

o 






» 

O 

Q 

M 

O 



H 
O 

< 

o 

$ 

o 

H 

OD 

P3 
O 

< 



CO 

* 

o 



k-;^ - 



Chap. Ill] MAKING TEE l^LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 57& 

There are six drawing and seven annealing operations; the cupping 
and first four draws are handled on bulldozers, and the last two draws, 
on frog planers. The round blank is punched out of strips of sheet 
brass, and each disk weighs 3 lb. 9j^ oz. at the start. By the time it 
has become a finished case, it has lost IKo lb. due to trimming, the 
finished weight being 2.49 pounds. 

All stages in the process are represented in Fig. 464. The round, 
flat blank punched out of strip brass is shown at A; the cup made directly 
from this is shown at B, and C and D represent the first and second 
draws respectively. The indented case is shown at E, the indenting 
being performed after the second draw. The third, fourth, fifth and sixth 
draws are shown at F, G, H and /. At J is the headed cartridge case, 
while K represents the completely tapered case with its base machined 




rta. 464. the evolution of a cabtkidoe case 

and ready for the primer, which, of course, is not furnished at this shop 
nor attached untU the complete cartridge is in government hands. 

Motor-driven Machines. — The bulldozers and planers are all motor- 
driven. There are four of each of these machines, one of the bulldozers 
being provided with three sets of plungers and dies and the others having 
but one set each. On the bulldozers, the die is mounted on a special 
crosshead, and the plunger, on the rail. On the planers, the punch is 
mounted on the rail, and the die-holder, on an angle-block on the table. 

Little was known at the start about the pressures required to accom- 
plish the various drawing and heading operations. To throw light on 
this subject, experiments were made with brass disks of the same compo- 
sition as the cartridge cases, the effect of pressure upon them being studied. 
The results of these experiments are shown in Fig. 465, and they served as 
the basis for calculations when the presses were built. 



580 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. m 



no. 465. 




10 20 50 40 50 60 



I'Disk 



70 



60 90 100 



20 40 60 60 too 120 140 160 180 200 

E'Dlsk 
Load in Thousands of Pounds 

CUBYB8 SHOWING RELATIONS BETWEEN STBBSS AND STRAIN IN CABTRIDaB 

MATERIAL 







^ LUB/flCANT: 

2MIM5RAL 
hTALUm 
DISK 



5AM£ LUBRICANT 

AMMEAL FOR 35 HIN. 

AT6S0C 

CUPPIN6 



LUBRICANT: 

TALLOW AND OIL ON TNORK 

SOAP AND WATER 

ON TOOLS 

ANNEAL FOR 55 MIN AT 6S0C 

IVDRAW 



SA/fE 
LUBRICANT 




3 



\<—3i9S4- ->\ 



0.9S" - */^ 
Q!44f 



J156J 






H*' ■ 56'- 

NO LUBRICATION . NO LUBRICATION 

ANNEAL FOR 20 NIK A76SOC ANNEAL FOR SS/f/N A 7 6S0C 



^.5845--->* 



~J 







SAME LUBRICANT 



INDENT 



3VDRAW 



ANNEAL fOP 50 MIN AT 650 C 
4^^ DRAW 
FIG. 466. BULLDOZER OPERATIONS ON CARTRIDGE CASE 



Chap. Ill] MAKING THE I8-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 581 

tfillJCtuiatimS^ f* .n *#>'^- 




1= 



U ;9— .- -le :-,-iT» J " 



I 



"iS 



ii 



U^....^,.......4< ,fH- J i 

f* ^f^ >^n«- J 



U — -,» =4<- -,r*- J 1 



f — ^ I l~li — i J^ 

ErnEn 

U 9 J--- // jJ 







I 3 



t a 
-I 



U^ji+^i/J-Ji 



582 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sec. Ill 

The Bulldozers. — Owing to their limited stroke, bulldozers are em- 
ployed only through the fourth drawing operation. The machine for 
the cupping operation is equipped with three sets of plungers and dies, 
the center set caring for the cupping of the disk, while the two outside 
sets handle the iSrst draw. 

A recess is provided in front of the cupping die to hold the flat disk 
while the plunger advances, but no such provision is necessary for the 
drawing operations, as the cup, or shell, is simply slipped over the plunger 
while it is in its withdrawn position. 

As the work passes through the dies, the pieces pass into galvanized 
iron conductor pipes which guide them to the* back of the machine, where 
they roll down a chute into boxes. As each case passes through the die, 
it pushes forward those ahead of it, causing them to climb the slight in- 
cline in the pipes. 

Sectional views of the case after the cupping and the four drawing 
operations performed on the bulldozers are shown in Fig. 466. Fig. 
467 shows details of the plungers and dies used for making 18-lb. British 
cartridge cases, the first five of which are used on the bulldozers and the 
last two on the frog planers. 

The Planers. — Frog planers are used for the last two draws for two 
reasons — first, they have a longer stroke than the bulldozers; second, 
they are more accurate. A special head is mounted on the planer cross- 
rail, from which the feed screws are removed, and upon this the plunger 
holder is secured, the plunger fitting into it on a standard taper. The 
die is held upon a heavily ribbed cast-iron angle-block which is in one 
piece with the frame casting. The whole thing weighs some four or 
five tons and serves not only to secure the die-holder, but also to prevent 
the table from rising. 

At first thought, the natural plan would apparently be to mount the 
die-holder upon the cross-rail and the plunger upon the angle-block. 
There is a good reason for the opposite procedure, however, since any 
lift that occurs during the operation will undoubtedly take place in the 
planer table and not in the cross-rail, which is a rigid member. The 
plunger, on account of its long overhang, would be thrown out consider- 
ably by a few thousandths of an inch rise of the table; whereas the die, 
having a thickness of but 2 to 23^ in., is not perceptibly affected, as 
evidenced by the fact that the thickness of shell in these cartridge cases 
does not vary over one-thousandth of an inch. 

Sectional views of the case after the two drawing operations performed 
on the frog planers are shown in Fig. 468. 

Speeds of Bulldozers and Planers. — The bulldozer which handles 
the cupping and first draw has a working stroke of 24 in., makes 240 
strokes per hour and has a speed on the effective stroke of 18)^ ft. per 
min. The bulldozer on the third draw has a 20-in. stroke and makes 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



583 



240 strokes per hour, having an effective speed on the working stroke of 
l&H ft- per min. The planer on the fifth draw, with a stroke of 37J^ 
in., runs at an average of 130 strokes per hour and ao average ejwed on 
the effective working stroke of II ft. per min. 






CUAii m avsTK xm 

DRY m SM CUST 



no. 4ft8. rRoo planer and 



OPEBAnONB 



FIG. 469. lAjEKicKtrt 



Tote-Boxes and Lubricant Tank-tables. — The cases are transported 
in tote boxe« holding about 24 cases. Four hundred cases are considered 
a^"lot." To this, 10 per cent, is added aa an allowance for loss andtwo 



584 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sue. lU 



more cases are added to each lot for the firing and proof tests, so that the 
total "lot" number as it originally starts through the factory is 442. 

A convenient combination of work table and lubricant tank is shown 
in Fig. 469. It consists of a wooden table, containing a galvanized iron- 
lined lubricant tank in which the shells are stood until the operator is 
ready for them, thus insuring a good coating of lubricant. These tables 
are easily portable and are provided with covers which prevent dirt from 
getting into the tanks when not in use. 

n 



' LJ LJ LJ U LJ LP 

RECORDERS 



I — ! 



•^PYROMETER 



L_J 





PYROMETER 



ACID BATH S::|" 



WATER 



WATER 



ACID BATH 



I 

I 



HwmwfTCT 



n 



i^j 



DOUBLE 



FURNACE 



^PYROMETER 
FIG. 470. ARRANGEMENT OF THE HEATING FTTRNACBS 



Annealing and Semi-annealingi Etc. — ^After every draw the cases 
are annealed in order to counteract the hardening eflfect of the draw and 
to secure the ductility required for subsequent operations. This is 
performed in oil-fired furnaces in which the temperature is maintained 
at 650 deg. F. The arrangement of the heating furnaces is shown in Fig. 
470. 

For the first seven annealing operations, the cases are placed directly 
in the furnaces in special anneaUng baskets constructed of angle iron 
frames with heavy wire cloth lining on two sides and further reinforced 
by angle iron struts. 

After the cupping, first, second and third drawing operations, the 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 



585 



cases remain in the anneaUng furnace 35 min.; after the first and second 
indenting operations, 20 min. ; and after the fourth draw, first and second 
trim, which follow the fifth and sixth draws, 30 min. 

A heat treatment, the eighth, known as '•'semi-annealing," is per- 
formed just before the cases are tapered. In this operation, which lasts 
for but 35 sec, the cases do not come in direct contact with the flames, 
but are placed inside of incandescent cast-iron tubes extending into the 
furnace. 

After coming from each machine operation in which a lubricant is 
used, the cartridge cases are washed in boiling lye water to avoid excess- 
ive scale and smoke during the anneaUng. In addition, each batch of 
cases coming from the annealing ovens must be pickled to remove the 
scale, which would injure the dies. The acid bath for this purpose 
consists of 23^ parts sulphuric acid to 20 parts of water. 

For dipping the product in the washing tanks, in which the cases are 
freed from the lubricant before they go to the anneaUng ovens, angle-iron 






15 




SteejsBushingf^ 



/' 



> 

■> 






k 



>l^ 



,_\y 'Y ! 



I X 



^i^^Y^^HoksM^DJam. '^R. 



/^r- 



U- /?i >^ 

FIG. 471. 'SECOND TAPERING DIE 




washing baskets of a type similar to those employed in the anneaUng 
furnaces are employed. 

Very substantial wooden dipping boxes are used in the acid tanks. 
These are made out of 2-in. stock and two of them lengthwise fill one acid 
tank. They are handled by means of air hoists from swinging jibs. 

Pressing the Taper. — One of the most interesting operations in the 
entire process of making cartridge cases is that of tapering. This is done 
on a buUdozer, and requires two steps, both of which are completed on 
the same machine. The first taper is given the case in one die, after 
which it is further tapered and finished in the second die. The case is 
inserted in each of these dies by hand and is pressed home by means of 
the cross-head of the buUdozer. It is ejected after the stroke is completed 
by the return of the cross-head through the medium of the puU-back 
rods, which actuate the ejector plugs. Correct annealing for this opera- 
tion is a very important matter, and unless this is assured, there is a 
tendency for the case to wrinkle. A detaU drawing of the second tapering 
die is shown in Fig. 471. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Skc. Ill 



Some interesting tests have been made upon the pressure required 
to perform the tapering operations on a bulldozer. For the first opera-r . 
tioa, to press the cartridge flush with the die requires an average of 7,900 
lb. The second tapering operation exceeded this greatly, averaging 
between 19,000 and 20,000 lb. total thrust. The stripping of the tapered 



licKing Ta^ 




S.!nttrittil \f<\ 

t wo- 472. TDRRET LATHE BBT-DP FOR FtNISHINQ BABE AND FRIUBR HOLE 

cartridge also takes considerable pressure, this varying from 5,320 to 
11,000 lb. 

After the tapering operation, the cartridge case is sent to the turret 
lathes so that the base and primer hole may be machined. The set-up 
for this work on Bertram turrets is shown in Fig. 472. The production 
for this operation on these machines averages eight cases per hr. 



PIO. 473. ENOINE LATHS BET DP FOR CUT-OFF AND PARALLEL TtJBNlNO 

The next operation is known as "parallel turning." It consists of 
cutting off the open end of the shell to proper length and also of thinning 
down the thickness of wall on the inside so that the hole wiU pass a limit- 
gage test. This operation is performed at the rate of 30 per hr. on a 
modified engine lathe equipped with a special tool post and chuck, as 
shown in Fig. 473, Both the base and open-end turning will be done in 



Chap. lU) MAKING THE 1&-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 587 

the near future on Bullard cartridge lathes, which handle the two opera- 
tions simultaneously at the rate of from 20 to 25 cases per br. 

An ingenious and time-saving vise is shown in Fig. 474. It is used 
at the benches for retapping the primer hole, which is purposely left a 
little full in size and brought to full standard by means of a hand tap. 
This vise holds the case on its taper by friction and is fitted with a quick 
ejector operated by foot power. 



no. 474. SPECIAL BENCH VISE POR HOLDINQ CARTRtDOE CASES 



Indenting and Heading Operations.— The indenting operation is 
performed on a 285-ton atation-type hydraulic press, a machine, incident- 
ally, which was designed and built at the Angus shops. 

The cartridge cases are headed by means of three 800-ton hydraulic 
presses, also built at Angus. These are shown in Fig. 475 and are oper- 
ated by two large hydraulic accumulators working at 1,500 lb. per sq. in. 
pressure. 

Description of the 800-ton Heading Press. — The presses used for 
heading are built according to the design shown in Fig. 475. The cast 
iron plunger of 37 in. diameter, shown at A, works within a steel cyUnder 
casting R. Water from the accumulator at a pressure of 1,500 lb. per 



CARTRIDGE CASES 




FIG. 475. BBCnONS AND PLAN OF FOtTB-STATlON 800-TON HBADINO F 



Ghjlp. UI] making the 1»-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 589 

sq. in. is admitted aad discharged through the cylinder space G by action 
of the three-way valve F, which is operated by the foot lever E. (The 
press is set partly underground so that this lever is at a convenient height 
for the operator's foot.) An equalizing passage H is cored in the plunger 
in order to make the area of the 8-in, guide stem effective. A dial table 
C, mounted above a stationary table M, is arranged to rotate upon a 
center pivot P. This table carries four "stations," shown at S, T, U 



fia. '476. DETAILS OF HBADINQ PUNCH AND COMPOSITE DIES SHOWING LAMINATIONH 

and V. The rotating table is notched for indexing, which is accomplished 
through the table-operating lever D, which forces a hardened-steel 
wedge into the locating notch on the moving table. 

In the main sectional view, the station V is shown directly under- 
neath the punch B in correct position for heading a case. The station 
iS is in the fourth position, in which the headed case is ejected. A 4)^-in. 
hydrauUc cylinder L (shown more clearly in the minor section) is located 



590 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sec. Ill 

immediately beneath this position. An operating lever J actuates the 
three-way valve K which controls the plunger in the ejecting cylinder. 
When this is caused to rise, it pushes the cartridge case upward until 
the flange of the case is caught by the spring jaws of the stripping 
device 0. 

An enlarged view of the station tool-block is shown in Fig. 476, and 
reference to this will be helpful before taking up the description of the 
beading operation. The die consists essentially of three parts — the base 
ring F, which is bolted within the table-station block and which does 
not come in contact with the brass cartridge case; the upper ring E, 
which takes the radial pressure caused by the heading operation; and the 
internal die B, the top of which conforms to the shape of the inside of the 
cartridge base. 

During the heading operation on the station V, the base of the die 
B, indicated at D, rests upon the top of the 37-in. plunger, which raises 
the entire dial tabic. While this is in its high position, the ejecting 
plunger under the station S is brought into action, pushing the die B 
upward within the base ring. It will be noted that there is a possible 
movement of 5}/i in. for this, which is enough to eject the finished case 
into the stripping device. 

At the station T, Fig. 476, is the loading position. Here the cases 
are inserted into the composite die, being hammered down with a block 
of wood, when necessary. The station U is an idle position. 

The Process of Heading. — The process of heading as done at Angus, 
is shown in Fig. 477. The case as it comes to the heading press is shown 




FIO. 477. BTAOES IN CASE-UEADINO THE 18-I.B. BRASS CARTBIDGE CASE 



at A. The first pressing operation, shown at B, partially heads the 
cartridge, but leaves a depression in its central part, as shown at E. 
This is not the final shape of the headed case, the depression being pro- 
vided in order to spread the metal and make the operation easier. The 
third step, in which this top surface is smoothed out with a fullering die, 
is shown at C. After the press has performed the operation B, the table 
is lowered and the fullering die is inserted uqder the stationary punch, it 
being provided with a recess that fits the protruding part of the latter 
and centers the fullering block. It is held here by hand while the work 
is given another squeeze, which produces the smooth, flat surface shown 
at C. 



Crap. Ill) MAXING THE Ift-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 591 

Four men are required to operate one of these presses — the man in 
chai^ of the gang operates the machine levers; one of the others takes 
care of the loading station; another holds the fullering die in the pressing 





IN INDENTIKa 




operation and a third helper takes the extracted shell from the stripper 
and places it in the tote box. The entire time for the operation is 
approximately IH niin. 



592 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



The full capacity of the press appears to be required to take care of 
the leading operations. 

Details of the cartridge case after the heading operation and after 
the first and second tapering operations are given in Fig. 478. 

The punch and die used in indenting are shown in Fig. 479. At A 
is the section of the shell as it comes to the press, while B shows the indent- 
ing operation completed and also the construction of the punch and com- 
pound die, which are quite similar to those used for heading. 

The Hydraulic Accumulators. — These accumulators consist of sheet- 
iron tanks filled with pieces of scrap steel and the like and mounted on 
cast-iron cylinders which sUde up and down on cast-iron rams mounted 
on substantial bases. 



Fo»M C. C. 3. 



DEFECTIVE WORK REPORT. 



LOT 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



Toul Eumiacd 



D»te. 



RBCTIPIABLB 



NOT RECTIFIABLB 



Hif k to Cbamber gaage 

Low Primer Hole 

Hif h to Plug Genfe 

Hifh to Lcagth 

Low to Hone-Shce Geoge for body 

Low to Ping Gauge 

High TkickacM of Metal at month 

High ThickaeM of flange 

Toolmarka on body (alight) . 

s 
Rectified & Paiacd 

High Primer Hole 

High Diameter top of thrcada 

Low Thickneia of Metal at mouth 

Low Thickness of flange 

Low to Length (over .05") 

Toolmarka in body (dccp> 

Flaws 

Spilly Metal 

Spontaneous Splits 

Damaged threads 



Rejected 



Toul 



Examiner. 



FIG. 481. WAR DEPARTMENT INSPECTOR'S REPORT. THIS SHOWS THE DIFFERENCE 
BETWEEN " RBCTIFIABLE " AND " NONRBCTIFIABLE " ERRORS 

The completed cartridge cases (see detail Fig. 480), notwithstanding 
the rigid shop inspection, must pass an exceedingly severe government 
inspection and test before final acceptance, and the remarkably few 
rejected cartridge cases speak volumes for the excellence of the work- 
manship in the Angus shops and the eflSciency of bulldozers and frog 
planers in precise drawing operations. 

Methods of Inspecting and Testing. — The government inspectors 
carefully search for defective shells, as a flaw in one of these would cause 



Chap. Ill) MAKING THE 18-LB. CARTRIDGE CASE 593 

much injury to a field gun. One of the defective work reports is shown in 
Fig. 481 and will serve to illustrate the nature of the defects as they are 
classified. Some of them are rectifiable and others cause the Immediate 
and absolute rejection of the case. 

Two cases out of every 400 are subjected to government tests, which 
are known as the proof and firing tests. The former is conducted by 
subjecting the shell to explosions, the pressures of which are carefully 
measured. It may be wondered how the intensity of an explosion can 
be measured. This is very simply done by the arrangement shown in 
Figs. 482 and 483, which is a device purposely constructed for finding 
such pressure. 

A steel cylinder A is provided with a cap B in which the piston C fits 
snugly, its top surface being exposed to the air through the cap B and 



no. 4S2 no. 483 

noB. 482 AND 483. PRO0F-PRG38UBB 'nESTINQ DEVICE 

its lower surface resting upon the soft copper plug D. In making the 
proof test, this apparatus is placed inside of the cordite within the car- 
tridge case. When the charge is exploded, the gas pressure, being equal 
in all directions, presses upon the plunger C, Fig, 482, with a certain force 
per square inch, which causes it to compress the copper disk D, which 
has been carefully turned to a definite size and the resistance of which 
to compression is known. With these factors constant, measuring the 
increase in the diameter of the disk gives a definite measure of the inten- 
sity of the explosion pressure. 

Tensile Strength of the Brass. — ^To stand up against this severe 
service, the material used for making cartridge cases must be selected 
with great care. Some typical tests of the strength of this annealed 
brass are given below. 



594 CARTRIDGE CASES [Bttc III 



Tensile strength. 


tons 


Yield, tons 


Elongation in 2 in., per cent. 


20.1 




5.45 




67.0 


20.1 




6.38 




70.0 


20.5 




4.37 




62.0 


20.6 




6.02 




58.5 



Piece Prices on Machine Operations. — All of the work on cartridge 
cases at Angus is done on a piece-work basis. Some of the pieces are 
reproduced below and show that even with machines far different from 
those that would be considered suitable for this purpose, an excessive 
labor cost may be avoided. 

Cupping — One operator and helper. Helper to fill tank with disks 
and 13 boxes of 34 at the rear of machine and return empties. Per 100 
—27c. 

First Draw — One operator and two helpers. (Double operation.) 
Helper to fill tanks with cups, 12 boxes of 36, one box of 10 and return 
empties. Per 100 — 21c. 

Trimming — Operator only. Per 100 — 18c. 

Buffing — Operator only. Per 100 — 10c. 

Tapering — Oil and taper (first and second complete). Operator and 
helper. Per 100— 52c. 

Piece Prices for Handling and Washing. — Even the operations per- 
formed by laborers are worked out and paid for on a piece-work basis, 
some of the prices being as follows: 

Wash — In lye or water. Per 100 — 10c. 

Wash— In acid. Per 100— 20c. 

Trucking — To or from wash tubs to machine (in cartridge depart- 
ment). Per lot of 442— 20c. 

Trucking — ^To or from wash tubs to anneaUng ovens (blacksmith 
shop). Per lot of 442 — 45c. 

AnneaUng Ovens — Operator and four helpers. Remove from boxes 
and replace after annealed ready for trucking. Per 100 — 33c. 



CHAPTER IV 

MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE' 

The Worcester Pressed Steel Co., Worcester, Mass., undertook to 
furnish the British Government with 4.5-in. British howitzer cartridge 




^onfr^cioihLiitioharfi^ivgnr^'Bvdeffvk 



4.&-IN. CARTRIDOB CASE FROM BLANK TO riNIBHED PART 



eases at a rate of some 75,000 per week and in fulfilling this contract 
developed a highly efficient Bystem of manufacture. 

The brass from which these cartridge cases (see Fig. 484) were made — 

' Robert Mawson, Associate Editor, American Afachinitt. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sxc. UI 



analyzing 70 per ceot. copper aod 30 per cent, spelter — was purcbaBed in 
the form of fiat disks measuring 5J^ in. in diameter by 0.30 in. in thick- 
ness. Thirty-odd operations converted these disks into completed 
cartridge cases, see Fig. 485. The sequence of operations is given in the 
accompanying table, and the principle operations are illustrated by 
sketches and brief data. 



Table of Seqcknce op Operations 



1. Blank — purchased 

2. Cupping 

3. Firet indent 

4. Second indent 

5. Anneal and pickle 

6. Flatten base 

7. First draw 

8. Wash, anneal and pickle 
fl. Second draw 

10. Wash, anneal and pickle 
U. Third draw 

12. Trimming 

13. Wash and pickle 

14. Fourth draw 

15. Wash, anneal and pickle 

16. Fifth draw 

17. Trimming 



I. Wash 
I. First heading 
I. Second heading 
. Final trimming 
I. Pierce tor primer hole 
;. Tapering 
:. Shop inspection 

1. Face, square to length, rough- 
thread and eounterbore for primer 
I. Finish-thread 
'. Finish-counterbore 
I. Face ineide of boss 
I. Wash 

I. Final inspection 
. Stamping 
'.. Packing 



Machine Used — ^12-in. stroke Blisa. 
Production-~550 per hr. 
Pressure — 210 tons. 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.MN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 597 



OPERATION 3. nBST UNDENT 



Machine Used— Toledo 18-in. stroke. 
Production— 500 per hr. 
Pressure — MM) tons. 



OPERATION 4. SECOND INDENT 



Machine Uaed — Toledo 26-iii. stroke. 
Production — 450 per hr. 
Pressure — 100 tons. 



OPERATION 6. FI^TTBHINO B 



Machine Used — Toledo 8-iii. stroke. 
Production — 1,100 per hr. 
Pressure — 100 tons. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



r 7. FIRST DRAW 

Machine Used — ^Toledo 8-in. 'stroke. 
Production — 900 per hr. 
Pressure — 100 tons. 



OPERATION 9. SECOND DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss 12-in. stroke. 
PtoductioD — 550 per hr. 
Pressure— 76 tons. 



OPERATION U. 

Machine Used — Bliss 12-in. stroke. 
Production — 550 per hr. 
FraBmiie — 76 tons. 



Chap. IVJ MAKING THE 4.6-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 



OPERATION 12. TRIMHINQ 



Machine Used — Special high-speed lathe. 
Production — 250 per hr. 



OFERATION 14. roURTH DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss 12-in. stroke. 

Production — 550 per hr. Pressure — 75 tone. 



I 16. FIFTH DRAW 

Machine Used — Bliss 12-in. stroke. 

ProducUon — 450 per hr. Pressure — 60 tons. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPERATION 17. 

M&chine Used^-Specisl high-speed lathe with chuck and trimming attachment. 
Production— 270 per hr. 



itm 20. FIRST AND SECOND HEASINQ 

Machines Used — Waterbury Farrell foundry (hydraulic) 6-in. stroke press; Toledo 
2^-in. stroke press. 

Production— 260 per hr. 



OPERATION 21. FINAL 

Machine Used — Special high-speed htthe with chuck and trimming attachment. 
Production — 270 pet hr. 



CHi*. IV] MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 601 



PIKRCINO 

Machine Used — Toledo &jn. stroke press. 

ProducUon — 500 per hr. Pressure — 5 tona. 



OPBKATION 23. TAPKBINO 

Machine Used — Bliss 6-in. stroke press. Production — 400 per hr. 



OFEKATION 25. FACE, SQUARE TO 
LBNOTH, ROUOH-THBBAD A 
BORB FOR PRIkfXR 



Machine Used — Warner & Swasey 
turret lathe. 

Production — 70 per hr. 

Lubricant^All surfaces machined dry 
except threading, on which lard oil is used. 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



OPEBATION 26. PINISH-THRBAD 

Machine Used — Snyder drjUtng machine. 

Production — 380 per hr. Lubricant — I^ird oil. 

Note — Pilot used but not shown in the above iUuatration. 



f 



OPERATION 27. FINISH-COUNTERBORB 

Machines Used^ — LeIand-GilTord and Barnes drilling machines. 
Production— 380 per hr. 



OPERATION 28. FINISH INSIDE BOSS 
Machines Used — Barnes and Dwight-Slate drilling machines. 
Production — 380 per hr. 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE i.S-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 603 



31. BTAUPINa 

Machine Used — Dwight-Slate m&rkinK machine. 
Productioii — 1,200 per hr. 



Production — One man packs 1,200 per hr.; one man fastens up boxes. 

The blanks are first subjectfd to a cupping operation on a BUs6 press 
with 12-in. stroke, the punch shown in Fig. 486 and the die shown in 
Fig. 487 being used for this work. During this and the subsequent 
punch press operations the cases are lubricated with Lub-a-Tube made 
into a solution with the proportions of 30 lb. of the composition to 50 
gal. of water. 



GARTRIDQE CASES 



L5'J 






o 



t*— 


— " — -1 

_ 1 


V, 1 




9 ! 



no. 486. ciTFPiNa punch ani> punch holdeb 




tCTHOD OF HOLOme CUES M BOLSTER 



m 



CUPPIN6.0PErunON 2 



^r 



AT*"' 



■iT/eiian. >^^^ 



t* B«W 6" WWW 

FIG. 487. BOLSTEB AND DRAWINQ DIBS 



Chap. IVJ MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 605 

Tbe Dext operatioD is making the first indent. This is done on an 
18-in. Toledo press. The pimch, Fig. 488, and the die, bolster and 
center-section knock-out, Fig. 489, are used. The punch is fastened to 
the punch press with a holder similar to that for the cupping operation. 

The part then receives a second indenting 
on a 26-in. Toledo press. The reason for this 
second indenting operation is that a better case 
is produced than if the two operations were per- 
formed at one time and, as is obvious, it avoids 
the use of an extra-large press. For this work, 
the punch, Fig. 490, . the die bolster and the 
center-section knock-out. Fig. 489, are utilized; 
also the punch holder. Fig. 486. 

The next process is annealing and pickling 
the parts. They are placed on trays and shd 
into a crude-oil oven,. Fig. 491. Three such 
ovens are provided at the factory for this work, 
each one holding four 44-in. square pans, in each 
of which approximately 110 cartridge cases may 
be placed. The ovens are kept at a temperature of 1,250 deg. F., and 
the cases are left in the ovens 36 miri. The annealing operation ia 
conducted so that a pan is removed from the rear of the oven every 




no. 488. TBE PUNCH 




KNOCK-OOT 

9 min. Aa the pan is removed, another is placed at the front of the 
oven. This procedure enables the annealing operation to be a con- 
tinuous one. The three ovens anneal 11,000 cases in 24 hr., requiring 
504 gal. of oil. 



606 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



;. Ill 



When the pan has been taken from the oven, the cases are quenched 
in cold water. They are then conveyed, by means of a 1,000-Ib. air 
hoist, to the pictding tanks, Fig. 492. The solu- 
tion consists of one part sulphuric acid to ten parts 
water. The cases remain in the pickling tank 
about 5 min. The parts are then carried to an 
8-in. Toledo punch press where the base is flat- 
tened, so that the cases will present a good surface 
for the first drawing operation, in which the punch 
and die. Fig. 493, are used. The die is held with 
bolts on the bolster, Fig. 494. The punch is placed 
in the holder, Fig. 486. 
Fio. 490. PUNCH FOR -pjjg pj^gg ig jjQ^ ready for the drawing opera- 

BICOND INDENT .. „,,,..,,- , , - m , . 

tions. The first of these is performed m Toledo 
punch press, 8-in. stroke. The drawing punches, Fig. 495, are fastened 
to the machine by the punch holder, F^. 486. The die is illustrated 



in Fig. 487 and the bolster in Fig. 494. The cases are then washed 
in a hot-water and caustic soda solution for about 1 min. They are 



FtO. 492. PICKLINO OPERATION 



afterward annealed, quenched in cold water and pickled in a similar 
manner to that described for operation 5. 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 607 



The parts are then conveyed to a 12-in. Bliss press, for the second 
drawing. The punch, Fig. 495, inserted in the holder, Fig. 486, and the 
die, Fig. 487, held in the bolster. Fig. 490, are the tools for this second 




^. ei'.. J 











• 
• 
• 


» ^^^^^ 


i 


»i^^^ 



TOOLSTEa 



[ 



— y ' 



I 



TOOLSTEEL 



FIQ. 493. PUNCH AND DIES FOR FLATTENING BABE 

4,fPoppefs 




FIO. 494. BOLSTER FOR BASE-FLATTENING DIE 

drawing operation. The cases are then washed, annealed and pickled in 
a manner similar to that described in operations 5 and 8. 

The next operation, the third drawing, is performed on a similar 
Bliss press. The tools are a punch. Fig. 495, a punch holder, Fig. 486, 
a die. Fig. 487, and a bolster, Fig. 490. 



608 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



The cases are then trimmed to S% in. long in a lathe. The case is 
held on a cast-iron chuck that is made with its length to suit the case 
to be trimmed. Back of this chuck is a tool-steel disk. The chuck, 
disk and shank are attached to the spindle of the lathe. The circular 
cutter is operated by a handle on the cross-slide. As the case is revolved, 









A 

« 

i 

• 

1 
• 

J 

IS. 

• 

t 

• 

■ 

i J 




• 
• 

1 

• 
■ 
• 
1 


• 
• 
• 

! 

t 

• 
• 
• 
» 

1 


■ 

■ 
• 
• 

I 1 . 



ivoBmr 



tvDRAw ivonm 4'wwr 

FIO. 495. DRAWING PX7NGHBS 




the cutter is slid against it; and as the case is held against the hardened 
tool-steel disk, the edge is* trimmed off smoothly. Details of the trim- 
ming tools are given in Figs. 496 and 497. The cases are then washed, 
annealed and pickled, as previously described. 




CAST 
IRON 



-._jr__J.. 









CC: III ! 



"=p^-=r.:=tj| 






r 



^ 



^f 



■i^. 



ifif, 



J 



CASriKON 



^ 



kT 



^rThhyDknemhn io Su/Ugr^A of 
Corse biin^trimmed 

FIO. 496. MANDREL AND CT7TTER FOR TRIMMING 

The next operation is the fourth drawing, also performed on a 12-in. 
Bliss punch press. The tools for this operation are the punch. Fig. 495, 
punch holder, Fig. 486, die, Fig. 487, and bolster. Fig. 490. The cases 
are washed, annealed and pickled, as previously described, with the 
exception that the time of annealing is only 20 min. 



u. 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.WN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 

c 




—A\ 



-i^U 






® 



m 




•■I../J 



no. 497. DETAILS OF TfuuuiNa i 



610 CARTRIDGE CASES (Sec. Ill 

The cases are then ready for the fifth, or final, drawing operation. 
This is performed on another Bliss punch, IZ-in. stroke. DetaUs of 
the tools for this operation are given in the following illustrations: 



Fia. 49S. WASHING OPERATIOK 







Punch, Fig. 495; punch holder, Fig. 486; die, Fig. 487, and bolster, Fig. 
490. This operation completes the drawing work performed on the 
cartridge ease. 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 6ll 

After the final drawing operation tlie cartridge cases are taken to 
a special high-speed lathe and trimmed to 4 in. in length. The aame 
tools are again used, as shown in detail in Fig. 496, with the exception 
that there is another guide chuck to suit the diameter of the case and the 




KOCXN-otrr for 



no. 504. KNOCK-onr b 



. 505. SECOND HBADINO PUNCH 



length it is to be trimmed. The rate of production for the operation is 
270 per hour. The cartridge cases are washed for about 1 min. in a 
solution of hot water and caustic soda, to clean them. The tank held 



612 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



in position ready for receiving shells to be dipped in the solution of hot 
water and caustic soda is shown in diagrammatical form in Fig. 498. 

The next operation is the heading. This work is performed in both 
hydraulic and power presses. The operation is divided into first and 




^f/>\ 



4- 



TOOL 
STFn 



Punch 

^^ 





r ■ i^ • " 1 ■ "■ 

• ; » 




1 I'l — ^ 1 ^ — i 




FIQ. 



Die 

Bola+er 
506. TOOLS FOR PIERCING OPERATION 



second heading. Details of the attachments fitted to the hydraulic 
press are illustrated in Fig. 499 and die used is illustrated in Fig. 500. 
The die for the power press is shown in Fig. 501. The punch for both 
the hydrauUc and the power press for the first heading is seen in Fig. 



h 



— 6-. 



i 






ToSutiPUnch 




MACHwe 
STEEL 



V Si- -H 

Punch 



-j?> 





.,' n 

• 1 
1 1. 


i 
_4. 




Ejec 


'+or' 




1 1 

1 1 
1 




<....i.... ......7^ ^..J....> 

t T _■ 


11 



FIG. 507. 



Die 

TOOLS FOR TAPERING 



502. The knock-out used in the hydraulic is shown in Fig. 503 and that 
for the power press in Fig. 504. For the second heading the same tools 
are employed, with the exception of the punch, which is illustrated in 
Fig. 505. 

The cases are then trimmed to 33^-in. length in a manner similar to 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.6-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 613 



Fia. SOS. BET UP OP TOOLS 




CAHTRIDGE CASES 




®H 






3 ^'tr 




710. 510(a) 






riQ. SlO(b) 



Fia. slOCc) 







rr*i J 30 



if-, ft; 






-H-"^ 

a 



Fia. 510((J). DETAILS o 



4 UACHININO CASK 



Chap. IV] MAKING THE 4.5-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 616 



that previously described. This operation is performed on the special 
high-speed lathe, with the same tools, substituting a chuck to suit the 
length of the case being trimmed. The rate of production for this opera- 
tion is approximately the same as for operation 17. 

The next operation is piercing for the primer hole. The punch press 
for this operation is a Toledo 5-in. stroke press. The punch, die and bol- 
ster for the piercing operation are shown in Fig. 506. The cases are then 



^ 



ZS97S Radius 



'-Z456es'RQdh6 § 



i 




•«4 



■ *»•** •••«• ••**k •«•»•■• 



-136975 Radius 



ZS6975/Mfus 





00»W±ih 



FIQ. 511. DETAIL OF HEAD OF CASE 

ready for the tapering operation. The machine used on this work is 
a 6-in. Bliss press. The punch, ejector, die, and bolster. Fig. 507, are 
employed for the tapering operation. 

From the trimming machine to the piercing and then to the tapering 
presses, the cartridge cases are transferred by means of incb'ned wooden 
troughs, down which they slide. After being tapered the cases are slid 
down a short wooden chute feeding an inclined chain conveyor of the 




Ic - "4 J- •~ 

I f4Thmtdi.W.lf.H. 



^'"'^'^^wwm 




f iyr^ 




U"/i'.>H ,|? >1 l< - 'Ti-A ^LoeA 

STIfAIOHT- FLUTED TAP ^oo' Stte/Hanki^d 

^dl • *Ji5 LEADER 



•-t 



"A'—^tOLTwHeAOEIf 
FIG. 512. DETAILS OF TAP AND PILOT 

flight type. This conveyor delivers the cartridge cases to an upper floor, 
where they are given a thorough shop inspection before the remaining 
operations are undertaken. 

The next operation is facing, squaring to length, rough-threading and 
counterboring for the primer. Details of the tools used are given in Figs. 
508, 509 and 510a-d, while a detail of the shape required on the head is 
presented in Fig. 511. 

The next operation is finish tapping the primer hole. This is done in 
a drill press, with a tap fitted with a pilot, so that the thread will be 



CARTRIDGE CASES 








Chap. IVl MAKING THE 4.6-IN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 617 




u.-n-j 



[ rill i^^-i 




no. 515. 0A0E8 roB 4.5 howitier cabii 



618 



CARTRIDGE CASES 



[Sec. Ill 



tapped square. Details of the tap and pilot are given in Fig. 512 and 
of the pneumatic holding chuck in Fig. 513. The novel and valuable 
feature of this chuck is the method of locating the cartridge case. It 
will be observed that when the air pressure is admitted to the chuck the 
case is raised. It is then located against a finished flange on the chuck. 
As the outside face of the case flange has been accurately machined, the 
hole tapped and counterbored will thus be square with it, as the tap 
operates at right angles to the locating face of the chuck. Lard oil is 
used during this tapping operation, also when rough-tapping in the 
twenty-fifth operation. 

The next operation is finish-coimterboring. The drill press set up 
for this operation is a Leland-Gifford or Barnes drill press. For this 
operation the same pneumatic holding chuck. Fig. 513, holds the case. 
The counterbore is shown in detail in Fig. 509 and is the same as used in 
the fifth suboperation of operation 25. 





\J^SHvpH«^ 



orBall 




FIQ. 516. SPECIAL HOLDING VISE 



The surface of the inside boss is faced as the next operation. This 
is not done to any gage, being only to remove the burr left in the thread- 
ing and counterboring operations. The machine for this work is either 
a Barnes or a Dwight-Slate drilUng machine (see Fig. 514), the spindle 
of which is operated with a foot treadle acting through a cam. This 
revolves a gear that meshes with the rack cut on the spindle. By this 
arrangement the leverage of the cam is utilized as the force for the facing 
tool. The cases are then washed in a solution of water and caustic 
soda, heated to 150 deg. F., where they are allowed to remain for about 
10 sec. 

The next operation is the final inspection. The various gages for 
testing the cartridge cases are shown in Fig. 515. In Fig. 516 is shown 
a special vise to hold the case for any slight operation found necessary 
during the inspection. The rate of production on the inspection is 
approximately 65 per hr. 



Chap. IVl MAKING THE 4.5-lN. HOWITZER CARTRIDGE CASE 619 




620 CARTRIDGE CASES [Sbc. Ill 

The cases are then conveyed, by means of a chute, from the inspection 
bench to the marking machine for stamping. Details of the special 
jaws operated by air for holding the case are given in Fig. 517. It will 
be noticed that the jaws slide on a slight incline. By this means, when 
the case is in position under the stamp ready for marking, the pressure 
during the operation comes on the flange, thus avoiding injury to the 
thin waU of the open end of the cartridge case. A detail of the cartridge 
stamp is shown in Fig. 518. 




Oirecf-hn of RokrHon- 
FIO. 518. DETAIL OF STAMP 



The final operation is packing for shipment. The wooden case is 
made to hold 100 cartridge cases, which are placed in 5 layers of 20 each. 
Between each layer and around the insides of the packing case is placed 
corrugated paper. After cases have been filled, the cover is fastened 
down. The wooden cases are then pushed along the roller track and 
finally down an incUned chute. Such method eliminates any lifting or 
carrying of the cartridge cases during the packing. 



SECTION IV 
FUSES AND PRIMERS 

By 
Fbed H. Colvin 

Pagb 
CHAPTER I. Making the British Detonatob Fuse Mark 100 623 

CHAPTER II. Making the British Time Fuse Mark 80-44 660 

CHAPTER III. Making Primers for Cartridge Cases 705 



621 



THE DETONATOR FUSE— MAKING THE BRITISH DETONATOR 
MARE 100>— MAKING ADAPTERS FOR BRITISH DETONAT- 
ING FUSE' 

The function of the detonating head, or fuse, which Bcrewa into the 
noae of the high-explosive shell, is that of exploding the shell when the 
head strikes any object offering sufficient resistance to set off the explo- 
sive material, much in the same way aa a cartridge is exploded by the 
percussion cap in its base. Such an "exploder," known as the British 
Detonator Mark 100, is shown in Fig. 51d. 



na. sift. DETAILS OF BIUTI9R MABK 100 DETONATING PUBB OB KXPLODBB 

The percussion or firing material is held at two points, F and L, the 
firing mechanism being interlocked so that it is necessary to release 
the firet firing needle before it is possible to fire the second. 

In order to make the sheila safe to handle, even after the heads A 
and the firing materials are screwed into place, it is necessary to provide 
a lock 80 that the graze pellet G cannot carry the cap F into contact with 
the needle. This is done by inserting the centrifugal bolt Q so that it 
projects beyond the shoulder of the graze pellet G and prevents it being 
thrown forward toward D even if the shell is dropped point downward. 

> Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinial. 



624 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sac. IV 

The light conical spring E is simply to aid in keeping G in its place, but 
is not strong enough to act as a safety in this respect. 

When the shell is fired from the gun, however, the acceleration is so 
great that the inertia of the upper and lower detents R and S, which are 
virtually one piece, is enough to compress the spring behind them and 
allow the centrifugal bolt Q to be thrown outward and away from the 
graze pellet by the centrifugal force set up by the rapid whirling of the 
shell due to the rifling grooves in the gun.. This releases the graze 
pellet and leaves it free to act as soon as the momentum of the shell is 
retarded by striking an object. 

In order to be sure that the detent does not fly back to lock the cen- 
trifugal bolt, the small portion or upper detent is held in a ball joint with 
a 15-deg. movement. The whirling of the shell throws this out so that 
when the spring again forces it forward it locks the detent in the large 
holes. 

When this occurs the impact throws the graze pellet forward, forces 
the percussion material against the needle D and shoots the ignition 
flame down through the center of the graze pellet and the gaine or powder 
tube to the powder pocket in the base of the shell. To make explosion 
doubly sure the second percussion device is used, being released by the 
forward movement of the graze pellet. 

The cross or percussion pellet H is held against the pressure of the 
spring M by the lower end of the graze pellet fitting into the tapered cross- 
hole. As soon as the graze pellet shoots forward, the spring forces the 
percussion pellet needle J into the firing material at L and sets it off. The 
fire shoots through the small holes / around the needle J, through the 
center of the percussion pellet, and joins the other line of fire on its way 
to the explosion pocket in the gaine tube. 

In addition to the parts mentioned in connection with the operation 
of the fuse in action, there are several others which present problems in 
manufacturing. These are the small retaining screws N, 0, P and U. 
The wrench-key holes V and W also require attention, drill jigs for hold- 
ing and high-speed drilling machines being provided for doing these 
rapidly and economically. The hole W is in reality an oblong slot which 
must be milled to accommodate the spanner wrench for tightening the 
head. 

Material for these fuses must be approved after being submitted to 
mechanical test — from test pieces not less than 1 in. in diameter by 7 in. 
long where practicable. The materials for the fuse are divided into three 
classes of bronze or copper alloys, with the exception of the adapter, 
which is made of mild steel of from 28 to 36 tons' tensile strength. 

The detents are of phosphor-bronze alloys with a yield point of 20 
and a breaking strength of 30 tons. The next class of material must 
have strength of 12 and 20 tons respectively, while the more unimportant 



Chap. 1] THE DETONATOR FUSE 625 

parts are only required to have a yield point of 8 tons and a breaking 
point of 20 tons. The elongation demanded is 20 per cent, for the first 
class, 30 for the second and 20 for the third, while the steel for adapters 
need elongate but 17 per cent. 

These figures, however, are only acceptable if in the test piece fur- 
nished the length divided by the square root of the area equals 4. This 
interpreted into shop language means that the square root of the area of 
the test piece multiphed by 4 gives the effective length or the distance 
between grips in the testing machine, and with this setting the piece 
must give the elongation shown. 

The exact composition of these alloys is left to the manufacturer, 
the only requirement being that they come up to the physical require- 
ment specified. 

After completion the outside of the fuse and the inside of the adapter 
must be coated with a lacquer of specified composition. 

All screw threads must be of the British standard fine thread. These 
have the Whitworth form, but differ in pitch from bolt standards. 

Fuses are delivered in lots of 1,000, plus five extra fuses for testing 
purposes. The five extra fuses are fired with filled shells at 1 deg. ele- 
vation over sand, to be sure the fuse acts correctly on impact. Should 
one of the five test shells be "blind," or fail to explode, a second proof 
may be taken of five more selected at random from the lot of 1,000. A 
second blind fuse condemns the lot. This gives some idea of the ac- 
curacy required in this work. 

MAKING THE BRITISH DETONATOR MARK 100 

The body of the detonator fuse is made from a forged-brass casting, 
the cast plug with dimensions being shown in Fig. 520. These castings 
are an alloy of 60 per cent, copper and approximately 40 per cent, zinc, 
with traces of antimony, phosphorus and manganese. These slugs are 
cast l^Ke in. in diameter at the large end and 3% in. long, the detailed 
dimensions being as shown. 

In the new Boston plant of the American Steam, Gauge and Valve 
Manufacturing Co., the brass castings, slugs, are heated in oil furnaces of 
the Chicago Flexible Shaft Co. to a forging heat of about 1,500 deg. and 
placed in the screw press, which is rated by the makers, Zeh & Hahne- 
man, as having a capacity of 150 tons' pressure. Two of these presses 
are used, each capable of handling 10 to 12 slugs a minute, or 600 to 720 
per hr. 

The slugs are pressed to a length of 2% in., into the shape shown, 
reducing the volume about 15 per cent, and making the metal much 
more dense. The straight portion on the nose is for ease in chucking for 
the first operation. 

40 



626 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

The dieB for this slug are 6 in. square by 4^ in. thick and best results 
are obtained with a lubricant made up of water and mineral lard oil in 
the usual proportiouB, with the addition of graphite and white soda ash. 
These are measured in a email wooden box which gives about 13 cu. in. 



L!::z:>rriJ 



VIQ. S20. THE PORQED BRASS SLDO FOR THE BODV 

for the graphite and 2 cu. in. for the soda ash. This mixture is applied 
to the dies with a swab after every forging operation. 

After the body slugs have been hot-pressed they are sent to the 
department, which contains the turret or hand screw machines. These 
are of the Warner & Swasey, the Bardons & Oliver and Acme Machinery 
Co. manufacture. An outline of the sequence of these operations is 
shown in Fig. 521. Those marked 1 are the 
first operations and those designated by a 2 
show the sequence of the operations after the 
second chucking. The letter after each num- 
ber shows the order of the sub-operations. 

The tooling of the Warner A Swasey turret 
for operation 1 is shown in Fig. 522. The box 
tool for the first or roughing cut is shown at 
A, the holder having three side tools B in 
addition to the two-lipped center cutter C for 
counterboring the base for the adapter. The cross-slide tool comes in 
for the next cut 2, which undercuts beyond the thread and forms the 
angular shoulder where the fuse body fits against the shell. The 
next sub-operation — finishing for the die at A and facing at B — is 



Chap. I] 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



627 



shown in 3, where the inside is being sized for the tap by cutter C and the 
comers are chamfered at D. The flat-pointed drill 4 next cuts the hole 
beneath the percussion pellet, which allows the fire to communicate with 
the powder tube. This is held as shown. 



siiiti-® izzr 



._ir=EH 



Fia, 522. nitST CHDCKtNa o9 fube body, varnbr k swabet torbkt 




no. 523. escoND cbxtckinq of fcbe bodt, Warner a swabet tubret 

The next tooling is to undercut the bottom of the recess for the top, 
using tiie tool shown in 5 in a standard holder. Then comes the threading 
of the piece with a 14 right-hand thread, 1.993-in. diameter, self-opening 
die. This is followed by the seventh and last sub-operation on this end — 
tapping the end for the adapter with a 14 right-hand thread collapsible 
tap. 



111 



!8 FUSES AND PRIMERS (Skc. IV 

For the second operation on the Warner &. Swasey turret lathea the 
body is held by the chuck shown in 
sub-operation 1, Fig. 523. The 
body is screwed into the drawing 
bar A and pulled back against the 
conical seat B. The center drill C 
paves the way for the tapped hole 
which receives the cap. The next 
sub-operation involves drilling for 
the graze pellets with A, roughing 
off the straight nose to conform to 
the taper with tool B and facing 
the end with C. 

The drilling of the small hole 
which completes the opening to the 
powder tube is done in the third 
sub-operation. This is followed by 
the counterbore 4, which finishes 
the hole for the graze pellet. The 
tolerance here is only 0.002 in. 
Recessing for the cap thread comes 
next, sub- operation 5; then the 
taper is turned by the cross-slide 
forming tool 6 passing under the 
work and the facing tool 7, also 
held in the cross-forming sUde. 
Tapping for the cap completes the 
body, except for subsequent drilling 
for the detents and centrifugal bolts 
and tapping for the small screws. 

The production runs from 16 
to 20 per hour per machine forthe 
first operation and from 10 to 13 
per hour for the second. 

The 14 gages for the work done 
on the turrets are shown in Fig. 524. 
These explain themselves and give 
the tolerances allowed. Two gages, 
/ and N, are for the same purpose, 
gaging the depth of the turret hole. 
The last is an improved gage which 
now supplants the other. 

The drilling and tapping of the 
fuse body, the next operation, is more of a job than might be imagined 




Chap. 1] THE DETONATOR FUSE 629 

and involves the use of the seven special fixtures. In order to see ejtactly 
what these drilling operations are and to better appreciate alt the 
problems that present themselves, it is necessary to study the illustra- 



r„.I»n«f 1. tfM-MiW.'.^ ^ 

no. 626. sBcnoNB or British dbtonator head, showing oiuaNSioNS and toler- 
ances or VARIOUS PARTS 




IT. ., 

PIO. 626. FIRST DRILUMO PDCTURE FOR SIDE HOLES 

tions in Fig. 525. The small tolerances allowed, as well as the density 
and large amount of copper in the metal, make this a particularly 
difficult job. 



PUSES AND PniME&S 



■>£□ ©-ym.^^ 



SWtmum DUSHIN6 BUSHING 



wfi 



[Sue IV 




PELLET BOLE 




JI<V 



pio. 528. aAOBB POR cbntrifcqal bolt rolb 



B for CRp. B — Dianretn-^of hole. 



Chap. I] THE DETONATOR FUSE 631 

The fixture shown in Fig. 526 is designed for drilling the three holes 
N, and P, the first two being for the grub or headless setscrewa for hold- 



%±TA-r 




's® 



TOOL STEEL 



I. 520. nxTCBii roR becesbinq and 



PBRCnaSION-PELLBT HOLE 







FIXTURE FOR BETSCREW HOLE 



ing the cap and adapter in place, while the other drills the hole for the 
centrifugal bolt. The body B is shown in position in the drilling jig, 



632 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

being located by the central post, which fits the graze pellet hole, the end 
of the plug bottoming and the clamp of the fixtures holding it in place 
against this plug. Details of the swinging clamp are shown in Fig. 527. 
Feet are provided on three sides of the fixture, together with hardened 
steel bushings, as shown. The gages for the centrifugal-bolt hole are 
shown in Fig. 528. 

"With the exception of the operation shown in Fig. 535, which is located 
by the holes for the percussion pellet, all further drilling operations are 
located from the centrifugal bolt hole. The second fixture. Fig. 527, 
drills for the percussion pellet, the fixture being similar to that shown in 
Fig. 526, with the exception of the spring index pin or stop S located in 
the centrifugal bolt hole. This illustration also shows the details of the 
swinging clamp, which carries a central screw for holding the body B 
firmly in place after the clamp is swung under the locking bolt. 

Next comes the jig for recessing and tapping for the percussion pellet, 
Fig. 529. The body is located in the same manner as before in the fixture 
shown in Fig. 527, which illustrates very clearly how the work is done and 



i ^^ fe TOOL STEEL .|> 



.'«. _//««- "S^l. UThHs. LSfi, 



fHlS7'>\ t*ilS6''>\ n 






i^S^ 









FIO. 531. GAQES FOR PEBCUSBION-PELLET HOLE 

A — Diameter. B — Depth. C — Diameter of threads. D — Depth of threads. 

B — Depth of recess 

the bushing used. The bushing carries a pin which stops against the 
projection F to prevent turning. Each side of the central locating stud 
is grooved J^ in. wide and He ^^' deep, to reduce friction when sliding the 
body over the stud. The two setscrew holes in the side, for both the cap 
and the adapter, are tapped with the fixture shown in Fig. 530. Fig. 
531 shows the gages for this suboperation. 

Drilling the Detent Hole. — The next suboperation, Fig. 532, is perhaps 
one of the most difficult on account of the depth of the detent hole and 
the fact that the small drill must break through the cross-hole already 
drilled for the centrifugal bolt. The piece is located by this centrifugal 
bolt hole, as in the other cases, by the spring pin S, while the body fits 
over the post P with its flattened sides. The hinged lid E is fastened by 
a quarter turn of the screw F and the body held firmly in place by the 
jackscrew G, The bushing H fits into the lid at C, the inner end of the 
bushing projecting down into the adapter recess so as to guide the drill 



Chap. I| 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



for the hole, which is 0.221 in. for a depth of 1.420 in., this diameter 
terminating just before reaching the centrifugal bolt hole. 

Then the bushing 7 is put in place, guiding the small drill dear to 
the end. This drill is 0.085 in. in diameter, but as can be seen, the bushing 
is relieved so as to guide for only the last ^g in, and prevent friction in the 
bushing. As the specifications call for a square-bottom hole, it is neces- 
sary to follow the drill with a square-ended reamer. 



O- 






...fiVi 



TOOL STEEL iirc'-s/ia^-' ^ M~'''* 

.«a-^jffflj*4rn>w' COLO-ROlLtD STEEL ,- BtiiT 



'^fi^'-.L \. MACMINE4TEEL ''i'^ 



MMHlhE sncL 




na. 532. fdctubk fob dbhaino detent boles 

This detent hole is tapped by the simple fixture shown in Pig. 533. 
This is simply to hold it square while running in the 0.261-in. tap with 36 
threads per inch. The index pin S prevents any tendency to turn. 

The gages are shown in Fig. 534. The gage E, which shows the 
relation betwcou the detent hole and the percussion-pellet hole, is of 



634 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sbc. IV 



interest. The cross-piece of the gage is put into the percussion-pellet 
hole and the gage body is inserted in the adapter hole so that the side 
stud enters the detent hole and the center stud goes up and embraces 
the cross-piece. 





I -rl Groove exh skfe 



FIO. 533. FIXTURES FOB TAPPING DETENT HOLE 

The oblong slot for the spanner wrench is milled in the fixture shown 
in Kg. 535. This carries the body B horizontally on the post P and locks 
it in place by means of the swinging clamp E^ which has a cross-arm U 
spanning the adapter opening. This is locked in position by the latch F. 



MofMss g 
than 032 




a47S 



■>a<ajje 



FIQ. 534. OAQE8 FOR DETENT HOLES 

A — Diameter bottom detent hole. B — D«>th of bottom of detent hole. C — Diameter top detent 
hole. D-^Threaded diameter detent hole. B— Relation of detent and percusaion-pellet holes. P — 
Relation of top detent and graze-pellet holes' 



The small end mill is located and guided by the hardened bushing I, 
while the body is moved back and forth under it to produce the oblong 
hole. The body with the post P and the indexing stop S is mounted on 
the slide G, which is moved back and forth in the body D by means of the 



Chap. I) THE DETONATOR FUSE 635 

lever L. The amount of tuovemeat ia determiaed by the position of the 
stop screws TT. By feeding the rapidly revolving end mill down at the 
same time the body is moved back and forth underneath it, the oblong 
slot is quickly produced. 



no. 535. FiXTUBB for ullinq oblonq bpanner-wrencb'houd 



The gages are given in Fig. 536. The lines show the proper location 
of the hole. 

The Worfcmg Parts. — The graze pellet, which fits in the center of 
the body and carries the explosive material in the upper end, is shown in 
detail in Fig. 537. This illustration gives the tolerance allowed in the 






njl 



&S: 



various parts, the largest limit being 0.005 in. The pellet is made from 
Jtfe'i'i- diameter brass rod and averages about 10 to the pound. The 
specifications call for a brass having a yield point of 8 tons and a breaking 
point of 20 tons per sq. in., with an elongation of 20 per cent. These 
are long tons of 2,240 lb. 

This is an automatic screw-machine job. National Acme No. 52 four- 
spindle machines being used for all the small work. The operation 



636 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sac. IV 

view, Fig. 537, shows the sequence in which the Tarioue surfaces are 
machined, the hole in the end being drilled and the outside and the small 
ends rough-formed in the first euboperation. The second suboperation 




g 5 



n 



^ i'./8 7hi/s per Inch , _ , \^\ 
vngpa^flor, mm ~l [0) 

,xA o mm ^TTTu b U 

3ltl 



i in clampiiTg poafion 
fhSSDr 



Q Q^ 



Fia. 538. DRiLLtNO nxTURB for center holeJofJqraze pellet 

cuts the recess at the bottom of the tapped hole and finish-turns the back 
end of the piece. The next spindle position taps the hole, and the 
piece is finished by the cutting-ofF slide. This completes the fourth 



Chap. I) 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



637 



suboperation, leaving only the long center hole to be drilled. The tools 
used are shown in Fig. 537. The production is 300 per hr. per machine. 

The gages for the graze pellet (nine in number) are shown in 
Fig. 539. These cover the lengthy diameters, threads, taper and hole 
diameter. 

This hole is only 0.05 in. in diameter and long in proportion — a trifle 
over an inch — ^so that the question of clearing the drill becomes important. 
A No. 55 high-speed drill is used in a Leland-Gifford drilling machine, 
which rims at 10,000 r.p.m. The drilling fixture shown in Fig. 538 holds 
the graze pellet in the V-block A, the clamping being done by the hook 
bolt B, which is drawn into place by the threaded lever C. This drilling 
fixture is small and can be easily handled, which secures an output of 
120 pieces per hour for each. On accoimt of the length of these holes 
it is necessary to clear the drill frequently — about 20 times per hole on 
the average run. 






ig. 



S 
^ 






] 





Lasu 



ia3€7 



' B 





->§ 



((7Jttf 



^\ 




If 



. ; 



1 



l.« 









C 








H 

FIQ. 539. GAOBS FOR THE GRAZE PELLET 



A — Total length. B — Diameter of body. C — Diameter at top. D — Diameter of stem. ^ 

Length of stem. F — Angle of end of «tem. G — Diameter and depth of screw recess. H ^Lengthof 

body. I — Diameter of central hole 

Centrifugal Bolt.— The centrifugal bolt is the simplest piece in the 
entire fuse, being a cylinder cut from %2-in. diameter brass rod, and 
averages about 232 pieces to the pound. It is made of the same material 
as the graze pellet. The dimensions and limits are given in Fig. 540. 
The sequence of the automatic machine operations, shown in Fig. 540, 
consists of sizing the outside diameter with a circular forming tool, 
squaring to length, shaving the end and finally cutting off, the second 
cross-slide operation being omitted. The automatic turns out 1,020 
pieces per hr. per machine with single tooling, the tools being shown in 
Fig. 540. 

Detent-Hole Screw Plug.— The screw plug for the detent hole is 
shown in Fig. 541. The screw plugs are made from %2-in. brass rod— 
the same as the graze pellet— and run about 215 to the pound. These 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 
is 750 per hr. 



simply form or size, square and thread. The producti 
per machine. 

Percussioii Detonator Plug. — The percussion detonator plug shown 
in Fig. 542 is somewhat similar to the detent-hole screw plug, but re- 






eef/rmrusMi. 




Detoili o[ cmtiitucal boll. Sequc 



Det«ili of delent Kttw pli 




quires the additional operation of drilling the two holes for the double- 
pin wrench or key, by which it is screwed into place. It is also of the 
same metal, is ^^2 ^- i'^ diameter and runs about 75 to the pound. It 
requires two turret suboperations and two of the cross-slides as shown 



Chap. 1 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



639 



in the operation view, Fig. 542. These form and drill, re&m and square 
the bottom, thread and cut off. The special pointing tool and the cir- 
cular forming tools are shown in Fig. 642. The production is 720 per 
hr. per machine. 

The drilling is done in the fixture shown in Fig. 543, which has several 
interesting features. The piece L is held In a slotted pocket in the 
end of the lever A, which is pivoted at 7 bo as to swing the plug under the 
jig plate after it has been placed in position. It also swings clear around 
to bring the different drill bushings under the drill. 

In practice the plugs are laid on the plate E and slid through the slot 
D into place in the end of the lever when in the dotted position shown. 




peiKi/ssio// otro^TWf n 



fhlish evfthf ibctt an 




^smM^ "^r 



k ^i^-'*X% 

sKCMt pomm/9 TOOL 



542. PBRCUBBION DETONATOR PLUOS AND TOOLS 



The lever is then swung into the operating position, carrying the piece 
h past the swinging plate B, which keeps it from coming out of its pocket 
and which is controlled by the light spring C, so as to help locate and hold 
the plug for drilling when the lever A strikes the stop G. This is a some- 
what ticklish drilling job, as the drill cuts through the thread on the 
outside as shown. The depth is also an important feature, owing to the 
small amount of metal in the head, which is the reason for the flat bottom 
in the hole. The holes are drilled separately, the work-holding portion 
swinging through a half circle for locating the holes. The center dis- 
tance is 0.32 in. The gages are given in Fig. 544, 

The Percussion Needle FUug.— The percussion needle plug, Fig. 545, 
is a rather fussy piece to handle because of its smaU size and the four 
holes, 0.04 in. in diameter, drilled around it. It is made from %2-\\i. 



640 FUSES AND PRIMERS |Sbc. IV 

brass rod, of the same quality of brass as that used for the screw plug, 
running 210 to the pound. This plug is entirely an automatic screw- 














> 


^ 












^i 


j^ 








"iff- 






'J' 4 



5 B 









machine job, except the drilling of the holes and the staking of the needle 
into place. The sequence of operations is shown in Fig. 545, the machines 
being single-tooled, as in the previous cases. The suboperations are 



Chap. 1} THE DETONATOR FUSE 641 

form and center, drill, thread and cut off. Two of the IooIb are shown in 
Fig. 545. The production is 700 per hr. per machine. 

The drilling jig, Fig. 546, is almost identical with that shown in Fig. 
543. The extremely close center distance prevents the four small holes 
being drilled at one time. There is also a difference in the slotted pocket 




L'HJ'^ |f£=if°' 



at the end of the lever A , owing to the fact that there are several holes 
to be drilled and that these go clear through the plug. With these excep- 
tions the drilling fixtures are practically the same. The work holder 
can swing in a complete circle. The gages are shown in Fig. 547. 




^ &......,.- W "^"^ 

V^, -ii * TOOL STCCL 

■t^i ef'- I Endi Har^tntd and Dmim 
(a) Special Drill. 
fUith Cutting facts an 

Piomttans offer Hardeninq 



Tool;, 



M 




Th« Percussion Pellet. — The percussion pellet is closely related to 
the graze pellet, the tatter being designed to act as soon as the former 
has been thrown forward by the impact of the shell. The percussion 
pellets are made from ^^2-iD> diameter brass rod and average 29 pieces 
to the pound. The other end is jig drilled for the impelling spring. The 
pellets are shown in detail in Fig. 548, and also the sequence of operations. 



642 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. rV 



The pellets are formed with a box tool, drilled for the tap and centered 
for the other hole at the first operation, Next cornea the recessing for 
the tap which follows, the fourth suboperation being the drilling of the 
central hole and the cutting of the piece from the bar. The tools are 
shown in Fig. 548, the production being 320 per hr. per machine. 

The back end of the pellet is drilled for the spring pocket by turning 
the jig on end and using the necessary drills to produce the square-bottom 







/fSN 




i 




[I )) \ 4 ■©•"te* 1 






5J1Z 


■* 






£i*z5ti. 


.,..., 



■=eJE5E5E3" 






^ ■ rfiiiliwg?/ k^^ ' 






•*r 







t-^^m^i 



rf't *' 



FIQ. 546. DRILL JIG FOR PBRCCSeiON NEEDLE PLUO 

hole. The drilling of the cross-holes is done in the fixture shown in Fig. 
549. These holes are drilled in two separate operations because of the 
close center distance. The large hole is drilled and reamed to the 10- 
deg. taper shown, the pmall diameter being only 0.15 in., while the other 
hole through the side of the spring recess is but 0.10 in. The pellet is 
located by the stop screw A and held in place by the lid B, which clamps 
it into the V-block C. The lid is locked by the swinging cam lever D. 



Chap. I] 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



643 



The gages for the percussion pellet are shown in Fig. 550. 

The Detents. — The top detent, shown io Fig. 551, is of phosphor 
bronze or Bimilar metal made from ^2-ii- round stock and run about 
235 to the pound of stock. 




NEEDLE PLIT03 



The operations of the automatic are also shown in Fig. 551, the stem 
being finished in two box-tool suboperationa. The round head is formed 
and shaved by the forming slide for the third suboperation, the fourth 
suboperation being the cut off. Some of the tools are given in Fig, 551. 
The production is 300 per hr. per machine. 




i-Gmtid Igffflatd (Both ads) 



XThHsjtriKhei^fl. 
^ B 



^fliW' 



Tod 94e«ir<VnW 

'Aa£)-roots 

PERCUSSION PELLET AND TOOLS 



The lower detent is shown likewise in Fig. 551 and also the sequence 
of operations. This detent is also made from the phosphor-bronze rod, 
1^1 in. in diameter, running something over 200 to the pound. The 
only subsequent operation is the assembling of these two parts of the 



644 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

detent by staking down the beveled edge. Two of the tools are shown 
in Fig. 551, the production being 700 per hr. per machine. The gages 
of both detents are shown in Fig. 551. 



A 



'^ 




CBOasHOLES 



Fig. 552 shows the cap. Thia gives all necessary details and toler- 
ances and shows the sequence of operation on the screw machines. 
These caps are now being made of the same grade of brass as the 



< 

ivm. 


le srca 


BoMtl- 


< 

CM 




' toe 




>o !i 


» E 










(i ^ 


1. ! 


\ «) 



graze pellets and other parts mentioned, but later they, as well aa the 
bodies, will be made of steel. They are cut from 1%-in. diameter brass 
rod and require nearly }^ lb. of stock each. The operations are: Rough- 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



/?^=^ 



asso, 

'OMe Operations 

Hwspbor Broote 







' 3 XOUetHHSBOX 




Shming foot and rvsf fo ie meak in 
TOOiAMa/fesr 




Operations loo! Stieet 

BCfrmtDEIFHT Oi'^^J 

poiNnmTooL 



no. 561. DETAILS OF DETENTS, TOOLB 



Jhttadsptriidt, 
MHane^Bfitish 

Thrtad 




Fia. 552. rosE cap 



FUSES AND PRIMEBS 



[Sec. IV 







■4* 



.'X 






'1. 






THE DETONATOR FUSE 






If' vf VI? ■&! . 




648 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 



forming the rounded end and form the thread, including the recess at 
the end of the thread, and spot-drilling for the needle. The needle hole 
is then drilled and both the flat faces are made square. The thread is 
next cut, and finally the head is finish-formed and cut off. The produc- 
tion is 150 per hr. per machine. 



c 






J 






A 




Ham ^ moss 




Ol^£o)f§ 



B47hntaAper£rKA^H 

F 



■ 

6 



a<yfe^' 



FIQ. 555. GAGES FOR THE FUSE CAP 

A — Total height. B — Outside diameter. C — Diameter of wrench holes. D— Spacing of wrench 
holes. £ — Length of threaded end. P — Diameter of threads. G— Contour of cap 

Fig. 553 shows the tools, which give 150 per hr. per machine, these 
being done on the No. 55 National Acme. 

The drilling fixture for the fuse cap. Fig. 554, is simply an adaptation 
of that used for the percussion plug cap and the detonator needle plug. 
It is enlarged and modified to suit the shape of the piece being handled; 




56Threads . K '-AdBThreads v y<-0. 



%STEEl\ 



0.37S-- 



*1 




lq ^ Fie.60 ^ 

|lb Operatiorg i^ Opwotions , JT — ^ 1 Operations 

J t^Z, l^""^ L..^,, Setscrew 

A ^ 



^ 



FIQ. 556. DIMENSIONS AND OPERATIONS OF THE THREE SBTSCREWS 



but the method of holding and indexing is the same. The center dis- 
tance is 0.413 in., and the holes are drDled one at a time by turning the 
top of the holder around as with the percussion needle plug and the cap. 
A slot Ke ui- d^cp by \i, in. wide is cut in the under side of the jig plate 
to allow clearance for the tit which is left when the caps are cut from the 



Chap. I] THE DETONATOR FUSE 649 

bar in the screw machine. This is afterward removed by grinding. The 
gages are seen in Fig. 555. 

Fig. 556 shows three small screws. The one in brass, A, covers the 
centrifugal bolt holes, while the others are headless steel set or grub 
screws B clamping the adapter and C the cap. These are entirely screw- 
machine jobs, the production being at the rate of 600 per hr. per. machine 

lb conyxtss foa fvtgfh to compgtss to a length 

of QAS'taOes'mfh a ofQ40 iOJOBS wfHt a 

9mghfof6ltk6oz * V. migMpf BlhQca, 

K— - •:•- -w ^^Kbgrounel § |< ^— ">] 

U- lb' ' J"^i '^'^ S^k"^78---H 

S+eel Piano Wire.aOE6'oiam. tinned S+eel Rano Vfire,OjK4'oicim.+inned 
(li^Coils) OiColI^ 

SPRIHGfXT£f¥T) SPRING FOR FCRCUSS/OHf P£LL£T 

WW*ir' ' s spring most comprtss A "X \ ^ 

k<4S0%sfnofbe hQESStQOes' M-^ ^ (jf^J 

oner this (imenshnQDi Steel Music Wne, j i kn'nn' LJ ^norr' 

Wm'Musfnofbe Oi)l6'io 0.018' DiSra ^'i ^^^ , >^ ^^ 

unokrfhisdirrKnshnlDi tinned (S^Coi Is) '^'QOOeS Diamefer 

CRE£PSPR/M6 NUDLES FOR CAP AMD PLUQ 

FIG. 557. FUSE SPRINGS AND PERCUSSION NEEDLES 



for the short screws and 500 for the long screws. They are slotted on a 
National Acme rotary screw slotter at the rate of about 1,000 per hr. 
per machine. The sequence of operations is shown in Fig. 556. 

Fuse Springs and Percussion Needles. — The balance of the parts 
entering into a completed detonating fuse head consist of the three 
springs and the percussion needles, which are made by specialists. Two 
of the springs are of the plain helical type, while the third is cone shaped, 



<m2 
<uis' 






I — \am'^ 

B 

GAGES FOR SPRINGS 



A 
FIG. 558. 
A — Length gage for detent spring. B — ^Length gage for perctission-pellet spring 



and is used to hold the graze pellet away from the percussion needle 
until it meets with a real obstruction. These springs, with their dimen- 
sion specifications, are shown in detail in Fig. 557. The material speci- 
fications of the springs are: 

"The springs are to be made of steel piano wire, tinned, and are to 
stand the tests laid down on the drawing. The detent spring when 
compressed till all the coils are in contact for 12 hr. must not set up more 



650 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



EC. IV 



than 0.05 in. The percuBsion pellet spring when simultaneously com- 
pressed for 12 hr. must not set up more than 0.03 in." 

The needles for both the cap and the percussion-pellet detonator 
plug, which are supplied by the Excelsior Needle Co., are swaged and 
then hardened. They are identical except for a variation of 0.05 in. in 
length. Fig. 558 shows the gages for the springe and the percussion 
needles. 

The springs are tested by dead weight, the method being shown in 
Fig. 559. Different springe are tested by the same method, the plungers 
and weights differing according to the springe to be tested. The high 
and low limits of the springs, both free and under compression, are shown 
by the distance between return grooves. The widths of these grooves 




DEAD WEIOHT FOB TESTING SPBINQB 



show the tolerance in both positions. The spring is placed on the re- 
duced portion of the plunger and the whole inserted in the holder, the 
weight being then placed on top and the compression noticed. 

The detent spring must stand a dead weight of 6 lb. and 8 oz., which 
gives some idea of the shock caused by the acceleration of the projectile. 
For when it is considered that the detent, which weighe only a fraction 
of an ounce compresses this spring and locks itself out of the way of the 
centrifugal bolt, we begin to realize something of the effect of inertia 
resulting from rapid acceleration of the projectile. 

The spring for the percussion pellet must carry 2 lb. 8 oz. and the 
creep epring, which goes over the graze pellet, 6 oz. The testing appa- 
ratus is shown at A, B and C, Fig. 559. 



Chap. T\ THE DETONATOR FUSE 651 

HAEIHG ADAPTERS FOR BRITISH DETONATING FUSE 

The adapter, shown in Fig. 560, is made of machine steel l^Ke iQ- 
in diameter and screwed inside the fuse body, making a connection for 
the gaine, which is screwed inside the adapter. 



I . . I j™ >"f icrew Tlinoas 



no. 560. ADAPTER F 



I UARK 100 DETONATINO FUBB 



Five comparatively simple main operations are required in the manu- 
facture of this connecting unit, the sequence of which, together with 
brief data and descriptive sketches, is as follows: 

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 

1. Cutting-oS, drilling and receasiDK blanks. 

2. Counterboring. 

3. Tapping. 

4. Threading. 

5. Drilling holes far spanner wrench. 



OPERATION 1. 

Machine Used — National Acme No. 56. 

Special Fixture— None. 

Gagea— See Fig, 562. 

Production — 60 per hr. per machine. 




RBCBSeiNQ 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 




OPEHATION 2. 

Machine Uaed — Cleveland automatic. 
Gages— See Fig. 562. 



COVKTBRBORINO 



special Fixture — Tilting magaiine. 
Production — 90 per hr. per machine. 



Machine Used— Hand turret, Smur ft Kanimen. 
Special Fixtures — Chuck-iu turret and tapper tap. 
Gages— See Fig. 562. 
ProductioD — 150 per hr. per machine. 



OPERATION 4. 

Machine Used — Hand turret. 
e Fig. 562. 




Special Fixture — Self-opening die head. 
Production — 300 per hr. per machine. 



6. DRILLINQ 

M&cbine Used — Leland-Gifford drilling machine. 
Special Fixtures — Sellew two-spindle drilling head. 
Gages — See Fig. 562. 
Production — iOO per hr. per machine. 



Chaf. I] THE DETONATOR FUSE 663 

The first operation is performed on National Acme Automatics No. 
56 and consists of four suboperations. The first of these is drilling the 
bar stock for the hole to be tapped subsequently for the insertion of the 
gaine; the second, couuterboring for the bottom recess; the third, turning 
the shoulder; and the fourth in cutting-off the formed blank. This most 
complex of the five main operations consumes but about 1 min., the pro- 
duction from one machine being 60 per hour. 

The second operation consists in counterboring the top recess and is 
done on a Cleveland automatic at a rate of 90 pieces per hour per ma- 
chine, a tilting magazine being employed. 

am _ 












3/im TodSleel 



Fia. 661. DBIUJNO FIXTCBB FOB ADAPTER WBBNCH HOLES 

The third operation is the tapping of the thread for receiving the 
gaine, this being done in almost any kind of lathe, although a hand turret 
is preferable. A tapper tap is held in a suitable chuck on the lathe 
spindle, and the adapter is held in the turret while it is being fed over 
the tap. When the shank of the tapper tap is full, it is removed from 
the chuck, the pieces are slid off and the operation is repeated. 

The next operation is cutting the threads on the outside of the adapter, 
this also being done in a plain turret. The work is held in a spring chuck, 
and a self-opening die is used for the threading. Dies of the Geometric, 
Modern, and Warner &. Swasey types are all used for this work. 



654 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sbc. IV 



A fifth and last operation is drilling the two holes for the side spanner 
wrench. This is done in a simple drilling jig shown in Fig. 561. The 
adapter A fits into the block B and is held in place by the hook bolt C, 
which has a rounded siu'face on the inside of the hook and a pin handle 
D at the other end. It is held closed by the spring F. This hook bolt 
is swung to an angle of about 90 deg. to release and to lock the adapter. 
The pin E affords a stop for the handle D when in a locked position. 

The gages used are shown in Fig. 562. 





HThrnadt par Inch, Fighff-Hanct 

A 




(, 




, 1 


1 




1 









•TTK 



«CT 






E 



\^^ 



at=mi 



•H K-fl/J 



^nm" 



HThtkpm-JhcKm UUSK 

F 



1 1 



4^C!/^•^^■^ 



6 





y \ 



YLXU? 
f 




FIO. 562. GAGES USED FOB THE ADAPTERS 

A — Diameter of outside screw thread. B — Diameter of plain part. C — ^Length of screw. D — 
Total length. E — Diameter and depth of recess at top. P — Diameter and length of internal thread. 
G— Diameter of small bore. H — Depth and distance of keyholes. I — Diameter of keyholes. J — ^Low 
or "not go" diameter of screw threads 

Assembling. — ^Bringing the various parts together and assembling 
fuses at a rate sufficient to insure the desired delivery is an interesting 
problem, for it is the assembling which shows up the production of the 
various departments and indicates very clearly where the equipment or 
labor is insufficient. 

The assembling room is so divided as to keep the bodies moving, 
the various parts of the fuses being put in place by different girls. The 
small parts are kept in the boxes shown and the girls are expert in putting 
them together. A compressed-air hose is provided for each operator for 
blowing out any dirt or dust and assisting in putting the detent 
in a place where the small stem of the upper detent does not 
readily find its way into the small hole. Usually, however, this is accom- 
plished by a sort of swinging motion in line with the detent, which seems 
to centralize the parts so that they drop into place quite readily. 



Chap. 1] 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



655 



One of the most troublesome of the assembly details is the handling 
of the percussion needles for both the cap and the percussion plug. The 
latter is the more difficult because it is the shorter, the lengths being 0.25 
and 0.20 in. respectively. 

The needles for the cap are handled in the end of a sort of pencil-case 
affair, which enables the operator to place the spUt end of the holder 



■f2i( 



WICnurf 



^ 



o o o o o 



:^ 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 



o o o 0)t» ^ SM 






30^ Q067 Dn'fkspot frnm 8, use hiptr reamer in foofroom 



i?z/ 



"^aoei' 



*.aadta.ii*ai^lrh 



3E 



U M H 



Mochine SImI 
A 



r ; A?# ^.>i6+eel 



Cold-Rblltol 
2» Sfeel 

CokHWIed H/^^l 



T-r 



h/*i Mil Rod 
' — ,. (Hanief^ 

t<fH 

Si)SfioH,4^£<l**pfrF,matbthlin*mthcviitrofhoks A^aZie' ' *'-*~r~) 

Iiii'»»i»ti'' »■ »i I II | »''»>| l i'i i ''■! Il l r — l, »l|lt| | »»»l t 11 ^1 

I >o<'0 ' Oi'0'>0"OiiO •! Oi'Oi' O-i On Of 0'>0>> OmOiI Oi- Oi- Oh OmO I|0 < O • Oi. O ^O i'O h O ■« O ire-r* < < i ^r*- W 

Machine Sfeel *^ **^ 



Loaift ho/es m fabfe of 
machine from this pari Phg 
hole in /ttachine if necessary 



B 



OJSTS" NJiTh, 
i_t_ 




6 



.r-*4-« 



If-- — £-'tv<in 

imfh 
Spring 
to suit 



o 









V.v 



I/^ 



^rill ^ioA(Harden) kDriie 

Cold-RblledSI«e| 



\'i$ 



/\>ht 



^^^^^ifo Sharp fhb 

isi^^^iftlZlfs/ip f 

fiatSlightk^ 
Tool ^Mi^iHardeneniQrounel) 



f -H 



^ 



^^fcm 






hJ UasET' l^' 



I 






■**>•- 

_..ji. 



T~T 









c 


^ 




8 










SI 


B 


«■ 









Cold-Rolled Sfe«i 



D 





i 



r 



iM. 




I > 




Cold-Roltod $te«l 

QG 



Mochine S'teel 

F 

FIG. 563. HOLDER FOR NEEDLES DURING THE STAKING OR RIVBTINQ OPERATION 



over the point of the needle, pick it up and set the base down in the recess 
in the cap without difficulty. The raised portion is then spun down with 
a rotary riveter, as will be shown later. 

In handling the smaller needles, however, a very neat loading device 
has been made and is illustrated in Fig. 563. This consists primarily 
of the plate A, a piece of J^-in. steel, %-in. wide and containing 30 holes 
for holding needles, in addition to the two larger holes at the end. These 



656 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 



holes are made with a 0.067-in. drill-and-ream taper from one side, as 
shown. They are spaced 0.375 in. apart to conform to the holder shown 
in B, which acts as a magazine for the percussion-needle plugs. 

This magazine consists of a steel bar ^-in. wide by J^-in. thick, 
drilled and countersunk as shown in B, to receive the hardened drill-rod 
plugs shown at C. These blocks are knurled or roughened at one end in 
order to act as an anvil against the pressure of the revolving riveter 
and to prevent the plug from turning imder its action. The percussion- 
needle plugs are easily slipped into the pockets left in the strip B and the 
plate A placed over them so that the holes coincide. This is readily 
located by means of a pin D at each end of the strip. The needles are 
then placed with the large end in the tapered holes, from which they 
immediately drop into the holes in the percussion-needle plugs. The 



M'KiHtoefkss Se/scm^ i^'onff 



-i4Sf' 



. Khi/r/ 




CJviSii/vCn HofXfof end wx)ufitU 






©ffiSi 131 



ColdHMkd steel 

(rXKk rMtrtKn 

cmefOrouncO 



fe5l»S^T 



^ 







aiBs.^^m^ 



t^fkmfffss jjtfscrew SpUm 
Pug ihri Mo¥elAf^>ivid 

Tool SleeKAfairg^ 

FIG. 564. QAOES FOB PERCUSSION NEEDLES 

Gages for length of needle in cap. Distance of needle point from recess in percussion pellet. 

of centrifugal bolt in grase-pellet hole, when assembled 



ams 



S ^,^ 'mgh QOS'Uhckrcuf/fdksnd 
> Qotftrs 



Protrusion 



plate A is then removed^ the strip B placed in the holder E and the rivet- 
ing or staking begins. 

This holder E is fastened to the table of Grant rotary riveters and the 
holder B placed so that the first plug comes imder the riveting spindle. 
Here it is indexed by the cone-pointed plug F fitting in the small V- 
notches shown on A^ and the spindle of the riveter is brought down to 
the work. This spins the raised portion firmly around the base of the 
needle^ and the work slide is indexed from one plug to the other very 
rapidly. When all the plugs held in the slide are riveted it is an easy 
matter to simply dimip them into a box and insert another slide which 
has been properly loaded by a girl working at the bench. This loading 
is essentially a bench operation and can be done rapidly. 

The caps are riveted in the same way, except that each cap is large 



Chap. 1] 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



657 



enough to be handled individually^ and there is no trouble whatever in 
staking them in one at a time. 

The gage for testing the height of the needle in the cap is shown in 
Fig. 564. It consists of a cylinder A and the spool B^ which fits inside 
the cylinder and is held in position by a setscrew at C going down in 
between the heads of the spool. This does not hold the spool in one 
position but allows it to move back and forth, making it a type of ''feel " 




Qes'-^H 



VU a^lf^^^i X J 

X-Cold-Rolted ^/t^Mfhck Hankff , 
Y-^'Dtam.Drill ^tod(6rinc/ioSize,lflong^ 

A 



^ V AS 




I r- H ->vm 



< /i'Driil 
-i> Rod 




Knuried i, 
— 4- — 




X-Cpld-Rblled S\^\(PtKk He^tkn) 
Y- 4 Dlam.Dril I Rod (Orindio Size} long) 

B 



ttr"^^-^ 




Section 




Knurhd 



(xofau-z-j* j/ J 



X-Cold-Rolled ^ei^\(PtKk Harckn) , 
Y-^ Diam.Drlll ^od(6rindio Size f long) 



FIQ. 565. PIN WRENCHES FOR ASSEMBLING 

A — Wrench for perctuston-needle plug. B — Wrench for detonator plug. C — Wrench 

for screwing in cap 

gage. The cap is inserted in the end of the gage as shown, and the posi- 
tion of the upper end of the spool with relation to the half-round groove 
C indicates the proper position of the needle. 

The gage, Fig. 564, shows the distance of the needle point from the 
recess in the percussion-plug pellet. Another interesting gage is the 
one for determining whether the centrifugal bolt projects the proper 
distance over the end of the graze pellet. This is also shown in Fig. 

42 



658 FUSES AND PRIMERS [8t>c. IV 

564. The body fits the upper end of the graze-pellet hole and the lower 
end is cut to form a cam, the eccentricity of which represents the high 
and low limits. The 90-deg. sector cut from the flange gives the allow 
able variation in the setting of the bolt. 

Three of the wrenches used in assembling the fuses are ghown in 
Fig. 565 &t A, B and C. These are pin wrenches made to fit the parts 
named. They are made from cold-rolled steel and have pins of drill 
rod inserted in the end to fit the holes in the pieces to be screwed into 
place. The handles are knurled, but are flattened on one side so as to 
be stamped with their proper names for easy identification. 

Lacquering. — After assembling the fuse heads are placed in a reel 
oven built by the Meek Oven Co., Newburyport, Mass. This oven has 
large shelves, which hang horizontally, while the whole reel on which 
they are supported revolves in the heated chamber, thus heating the 
fuse so as to take the lacquer. The specifications require the fuses to 
be heated sufficiently to drive oft any excess of methylated spbit, reduc- 
ing the residual solvent to a minimum. It miist be applied to the out- 
side of the fuse and the interior of the adapter. 



FIQ. 566. SHIELD 1 

The lacquer specified is made as follows: Shellac, 1 lb.; turmeric, 
8 oz.; methylated spirits, 8 lb. 

The lacquer must be free from metallic impurity in any form, the 
following alone being permitted: 

A percentage of manganese not exceeding 0.5 per cent.; a percentage 
of lead calculated as Pb taken from scrapings not to exceed 0.005; a 
percentage of copper not exceeding 0.1. 

The lacquering is done by machines of the rotary table type, which are 
built especially for this work. The adapter of each fuse is set into one 
of the 16 sockets located in the outer ring. The whole table revolves 
and a pinion on the lower end of each holder, meshing into a large ring 
gear beneath, also turns each socket with its finished fuse while it is 
passing by the operator who handles the spraying nozzle. The machine 
is driven by a small electric motor. The compressed air comes from the 
regular air system of the shop and the lacquer is suspended in the bucket 
shown. This machine enables the spraying to be done very rapidly and 



Chap. I| 



THE DETONATOR FUSE 



659 



uniformly, the adapters being previously coated by a dipping process. 
A spraying shield is shown in Fig. 566. 

Painting the "Red Spot" and Packing. — An additional operation is 
the painting of a rectangular red spot on the fuse body just above the 
percussion detonator plug. This is to warn the artilleryman who puts 
the fuse head into the shell not to have the grub or setacrew come at 
this point owing to danger of exploding shells. 

This red spot is sprayed on with the air brush, the fuse being dropped 
in the holder shown in Fig. 566 with the detonator plug at front. The 
opening through the holder or shield, allows the paint to cover the de- 



IkigfifofSotfrrpfy 9(^6 




'^ YkighiofBoxmviCarlons-ekUi 

' YfeighfofBaiCarftjnsandlvses-AffinxJOOih 



Side Vleo "itti fbr+ion of Sld« 
cut owttj to show Cartons 



. 567. 



sired space only, the work being done very rapidly and satisfactorily 
in this way. 

The fuse heads are packed in boxes holding two layers of 20 each, 
or 40 in all. Each fuse ia held in a carton or square cardboard box, 
the dimensions being 2)^ in. by 2)^ in. by 4% in. high. The box is 
shown in Fig. 567. Each box must be securely fastened with nails and 
bound at each end by two iron straps not less than )^ in. wide and put 
on to lie flat. The empty box weighs 9)4 ">. The cartons add 3J^ lb. 
to this, while the total weight of a filled box is about 100 lb. 



CHAPTER II 

MAKENG THE BRITISH TIME FUSE MARK 80-44'— CAPS Aim 

FUSE PLUGS FOR TIME FUSE^— MAK[NG THE SMALL 

PARTS OF THE BRITISH TIME FUSE' 

The mission of the time fuse is to explode the charge in the projectile, 
either shrapnel or high-explosive shell, at a predetermined time after 
leaving the gun, or to explode on impact either before or after the time 
set. It is in reality a combined time-and-detonating fuse. The princi- 
pal parts are shown in Fig. 568. 

The time element is governed by the burning of a train of standard 
fine-grained pistol powder, the length of the train being varied by turn- 
ing the time ring. The detonator works practically the same as in the 
Mark-100 fuse already described. The safety element of the time por- 
tion consists in turning the rings so as to block the passage in the powder 
train. Safety against explosion by shock is obtained by means of the 
stirrup springs J and S. The operation is as follows: 

The rapid acceleration of the projectile as it is fired from the gun 
literally shoots it away from the time pellet F, the inertia forcing up the 
side ears of the spring stirrup J, even though it is made of hard-rolled 
sheet brass. The inertia of the pellet forces the detonator K against 
the steel needle P and explodes it in the chamber shown. The fire then 
shoots through A' and ignites the mealed powder in B\ which communi- 
cates with the powder train in the corrugations C through the hollow 
stick of black powder P' to D' and then to the second train £', finally 
going through the two powder tubes P' to F' and G'. As shown, these 
passages are directly connected, but in use the fire would have to bum 
part way around the powder train before it reached the opening through 
the ring to the next train and to the bottom charge. Should this fail, 
or should it strike some object in its flight, the detonator end becomes 
active. The sudden checking of the speed of the shell throws the deto- 
nator pellet H forward and forces the lower detonator K against the 
bottom needle, exploding the lower charge and sending the fire direct 
through the detonator plug / to the powder G' and the shell behind it. 
The specifications resemble those of the detonator, some of the features 
being almost identical. Several parts of the British time fuse — ^including 
the body, cap, base plate and some of the minor interior parts — are made 
of aluminum. The specifications call for an aluminum alloy which 

^Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinist. 

660 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK SO-U 



IfW 
sfl! 
elig 

i-H 
his 

* &|^ 

sill 
111 



= 115 

m 



662 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

shall be free from cracks and flaws, with a specific gravity not 
exceeding 3.5, capable of being satisfactorily machined and free from any 
ingredient which would be detrimental to the keeping qualities of the 
metal. The castings for the bodies are to be placed in a die and 
subjected to a total pressure of 400 tons in order to insure proper 
density. 

The ring and pin on the flange of the body are to be made of brass. 
The composition rings are to be made of the metal known as Class C, 
although Class B may be used if preferred by the contract. The ferrule 
is to be made of an alloy containing 70 parts copper and 30 parts zinc, 
while the stirrup springs, which hold the time and percussion pellets, 
are of hard-roUed brass. The spiral spring is of thin steel wire. The 
time and percussion pellets and the setting pin are of Class A metal. 
The classification of metals, as well as their physical properties, is given 
in Table 3. The needle plug and the holder for the percussion device 
are to be made of steel hardened and tempered; or as an alternative, the 
needle plugs may be made of a softer steel and blued. The cover was 
originally specified to be of brass of the best quality and capable of being 
bent double under the hammer and straightened without a sign of 
fracture. In some instances, however, these covers are now being re- 
placed with covers made of sheet lead and tinned on each side. 

Further specifications, including the detonating compositions, var- 
nishes and cements, follow: 

SUMMART OF SPECIFICATIONS 

The detonators are to be made of sheet copper, having a central hole covered by 
a copper disk, and are to be charged with the quantity of composition shown below. 
A pellet of pressed powder weighing 1.78 grain is to be placed on top of the composi- 
tion and the detonator closed by means of a copper disk. In the time detonator a 
cardboard disk is to be pressed over the copper disk. The detonators are inserted in 
the pellets and retained in position by the screw plugs, these being secured by three 
indents, the plug for the percussion pellet having a disk of paper placed over the axial 
perforation before being screwed home. The time detonator is to be charged with 
1.28 grain of the following composition: 

TaBLB 1. TiME-DETONATlNa COMPOUND 

Chlorate of potash 62.5 parts by weight 

Sulphide of antimony 36.5 parts by weight 

Fulminate of mercury 11.0 parts by weight 

The composition is to be put in dry and pressed with a pressure of 600 lb. The 
percussion detonator is to be charged with 1.39 grain of the following composition: 

Table 2. Percussion-Detonating Compound 

Chlorate of potash 45 parts by weight 

Sulphide of antimony 23 parts by weight 

Fulminate of mercury 32 parts by weight 



Chap. II] MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 663 

The composition is to be put in dry and undergo a pressure of 600 lb. As an 
alternative, a time detonator containing 0.75 grain of the composition given above 
for this detonator and a pellet of pressed powder weighing 0.87 grain may be used, in 
which case the cardboard disk over the copper disk and the sectors of vegetable paper 
over the lighting points of the rings should be omitted. The lighting hole in the top 
ring should have a pellet of pressed powder inserted instead of mealed powder. 

Table 3. Physical RsQinRBMSNTS of Metal 

Peroenta^^e of Elongation in a 

Test Piece 2 In. Long and 

0.664 In. in Diameter or 

Such Test Piece a« Can Be 

^ .^ _ - Furnished, Provided that 

Tenacity, Tons of 4 

2,240 Lb. per Sq. In. Length - 

Metals Yield Breaking VArea 

Aluminum alloy 7.75 12 7 

Delta metal 20 30 20 

Hard-rolled brass 6 12 10 

Class A metal 20 30 20 

Class B metal 12 20 30 

Class C metal 6 12 10 

The stirrup springs are to be made of hard-rolled sheet brass. All the stirrup 
springs will be subject to the following minimum test: The time-detonator pellet 
spring will be required to stand a pressure of 100 lb. and the percussion-detonator 
pellet spring a pressure of 60 lb. The percussion-detonator spring is to be gaged, 
after having been subjected to a load of 60 lb. in a steel counterpart of the fuse pellet 
and ferrule to mean dimensions, and the time-detonator pellet spring after having 
been subjected to a load of 100 lb. 

The cloth washers are to be made from waterproofed drab woolen materiali weigh- 
ing isyi oz. per sq. yd. Holes are to be cut in the washers so as to expose the powder 
pellets in the body and ring, also a hole to clear the brass pin in the body. 

The interior of the fuse, aluminum cap and washer and inside face of base plug 
are to be coated with shellac varnish consisting of: 

Table 4. Interior Fuse Varnish 

Shellac, finest orange 5 lb. 

Spirit, methylated 8 lb. 

and stoved at a temperature of 170 deg. F. for not less than 3 hr. Spirit lost by 
evaporation is to be replaced as required. 

After the holder for percussion arrangement has been screwed into the body, 
the holder and inside of cap are to be coated with shellac varnish. The exterior of 
the time rings and brass ring on body, the time pellet and stirrup, exterior of ferrule 
for percussion pellet, interior of composition grooves and flash hole in body are to be 
lacquered with a lacquer consisting of: 

Table 5. Lagqxter for Fuses 

SheUac 1 lb. 

Turmeric 8 oz. 

Spirit, methylated 8 lb. 

The screw threads must, unless otherwise stated, be of the British Standard 
Whitworth form, cut full. 

Perforated pellets of pressed powder are to be inserted in the fire-escape holes of 



^ 



664 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sbc. IV 

the top and bottom composition rings and the holes closed by brass disks. A pellet 
is also to be inserted in the hole on top of the bottom composition ring and in the flash 
holes of the body. The lighting hole in the top ring is to be filled with loose mealed 
powder covered by a patch of silk or tycoon paper. A cloth washer is to be secured 
on the face of the body and on the top of the bottom ring with shellac varnish con- 
taining a small quantity of Venice turpentine. The grooves on the under side of 
the composition rings are to be charged with the composition pressed into them to 
give the required time of burning. The under faces of the composition rings are then 
coated with the varnish previously referred to, and are to be covered with vegetable 
paper washers secured with shellac varnish consisting of best orange shellac dissolved 
in methylated spirit containing a small quantity of Venice turpentine, vegetable paper 
tablets being previously placed over the lighting points. 

In assembling, the threads, the percussion-arrangement holder and base plug are 
to be coated with Pettman cement before being screwed into the body. The cap is 
to be screwed down so that a turning moment of 144 X 1 2 in.-oz. will just turn the ring, 
the cap being secured by means of the setscrew. 

The bench or table upon which the tensioning apparatus is fixed is to be jarred 
by tapping with a mallet to assist the turning of the ring. The fuse cover is to be 
attached to the fuse in the following manner: Press the fuse cover into position 
and solder it to the brass ring of the fuse, using pure rosin as a flux, the surplus solder 
being removed. The fuse is set at safety before the cover is soldered on. The fuse 
with cover attached is then to be vacuum-tested to insure its air-tightness. After 
testing, the base plug is to be screwed into the body and the magazine filled with fine 
grain powder through the filling hole. The hole is to be closed with the screwed plug, 
the threads of the latter being previously coated with Pettman cement. The bottom 
of the fuse is to be coated with shellac varnish. A leather washer soaked in melted 
mineral jelly is to be placed under the flange inside the brass ring. The Pettman 
cement is to consist of: 

Table 6. Pettman Cement 

Gum, shellac 7 lb. 8 oz. 

Spirit, methylated 8 lb. 

Tar, Stockholm 6 lb. 

Venetian red 20 lb. 12 oz. 

The spaces between the cap, time rings and body and setscrew recess in top are 
to be filled with waterproofing composition consisting of: 

Table 7. Waterproof Coating 

Beeswax 2 parts by weight 

Mineral jelly 1 part by weight 

French chalk 234 parts by weight 

The escape-hole disks in the time rings are also to be covered with the above 
composition. The flash hole in the center of the base plug is to be coated with a var- 
nish consisting of: 

Table 8. Flash-Hole Varnish 

Amyl acetate 91 parts by weight 

Nitrocellulose (soluble in ether alcohol) 5 parts by weight 

Castor oil 4 parts by weight 

The cap is to be made of brass, formed to shape, with a projection. The strip is 
to be made of sheet brass, annealed and tinned all over. A ring made of brass wire, 



Chap. 11] MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 665 

with brazed joint, is to be secured at one end of the strip by turning over the latter 
and securing with solder. The strip, with ring attached, is to be soldered to the cap 
and the brass ring is to be held in position by means of a brass strip also soldered to 
the cap. In addition to the tests previously provided for, a percentage of the covers 
may be selected during manufacture and tested in the following manner: 

The cover will be securely held in a press with the open end against an india 
rubber pad and tested for airtightness either by immersing the whole apparatus in 
water at 100 deg. F. or by means of a vacuum process. Any escape of air will entail 
rejection. The fuse and cover are to be stamped and stenciled. 

The fuses are to be delivered into bond in lots of 2,000, with covers complete, 
to await the results of proof. An additional 40 is to be supplied free for proof with 
each 2,000 or any less number supplied; in the event of further proof being required 
the fuses will be taken from the lot supplied. If the results of proof are satisfactory 
the fuses will then be forwarded as described for final examination and testing. 

The fuses selected for proof will be tested as follows : Ten will have the percussion 
arrangement removed and will be fired in an electrical testing machine to determine the 
mean time of burning at rest. The mean time of burning, set full, when corrected 
for barometer will be 22 sec. +0.2 sec. The constant to be used when correcting 
for barometer is 0.023 of the mean time of burning. For every inch the barometer 
reads above or below 30 in. it is -f when above and — when below. If the lot fails 
to pass this test a further proof will be taken while spinning in a lathe at 2,500 r.p.m. 
The fuse must bum within the limits specified above, otherwise the lot will be rejected. 
Should the detonator fail to ignite time ring a second proof will be taken; should a 
similar failure occur at second proof, or should there be more than one such failure at 
first proof, the lot will be rejected. Twenty fuses will be fired at the same elevation 
in any of the following guns, with full charges. 

The mean difference from the mean time of burning of the 20 fuses is not to 

exceed: 

T ^ o J r If set full 0.14 sec. 

In 18-pdr. gun I jj ^^^ jg ^ ^^ ^^ 

T ^ o J fU set full 0. 20 sec. 

Inl3-pdr.gunjjj^^j^ q l^ ^ 

The difference between the longest and shortest fuse is not to exceed : 



In 18-pdr. gun 



In 13-pdr. gun 



If set full 0.75 sec. 

Omitting one fuse 0.60 sec. 

If set 16 0.60 sec. 

Omitting one fuse . 50 sec. 

If set full 0.90 sec. 

Omitting one fuse . 70 sec. 

If set 14 0.70 sec. 

Omitting one fuse 0. 50 sec. 



If there is one blind fuse, a second proof will be taken. If there is a blind at second 
proof or more than one such failure at first proof the lot will be rejected. 

The Sequence of Operations. — Details of the fuse body are shown 
in Fig. 669 and the sequence of operations is illustrated in Figs. 570-572. 
These may be listed as follows: 

1. Rough-turn outside of stem to fit collet. 

2. Bore, recess and tap inside and turn outside for the two threads. 

3. Hand-tap inside threads. 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[8bc. IV 



4. Mill thread on outeide of largo end. 

5. Pinish ouUide of stem, bore and counteibore email end and serrate upper side 
of platform. 

6. Hand-ream inside for upper and lower shoulders. 

7. Mill thread on end of stem. 

8. Mill fine thread for graduated ring on lai^ end. 

9. Rough-turn outer edge of graduated ring casting to allow easy ohuoldng. 

10. Bore and tap graduated ring. 

11. Screw ring on body. 

12. Drill ring and body for screwed plug. 

13. Tap ring and body for screwed plug. 








no. 569. DETAILS OF TIMB-FD8B BODY 



14. Turn outside of graduated ring. 

15. Face under side of graduated ring. 

16. Mill key slot in graduated ring. 

17. Mill recess for flash hole. 

IS. Drill powder hole in platform. 

19. Drill magazine hole, 

20. DriU flash hole. 

21. Roll graduations in ring. 

22. Turn neck on smalt end. 

23. Stamp base line on bottom of body. 



Chap. II] MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 667 

The bodies are machined for the most part on hand turret machines 
of various makes. The rough-turning of the stem in operation 1 makes 
it easy to hold tbo bodies in spring collets and has been found more satis- 



I 

h 



.1 
1^ 



factory than gripping in an ordinary chuck. This is done at the rate of 
50 per hr. 

The cutting speed for turning tools on the body is about 142 ft. per 



668 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

min., while a tapping speed of 55 ft. per min. is found very satisfactory. 
A mixture of kerosene and lard oil is used as a cutting lubricant. 

The tools used in operation 2 are shown in F^. 573. This shows the 
main dimensions of the various tools, and in some cases, notably in /, 



It 



the work they perform. It will be noted in M that the circular forming 
cutter is provided with radial slots. This has been done to prevent the 



Chap. II] MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 669 

cutter warping out ol shape and has been adopted in nearly all circular 
cutters. 

For hand-tapping the bodies are held in gpecial wooden vise jaws, 



£. I 



these being shown in Fig. 574. These hold the body firmly for tapping 
and do not crush or mar the stem. 

In the fourth operation the body is held in the special milling fixture 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 




MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 




U/..>K-^/.^.^/^Xf-' 






ic^M III 

T- " - ■ ' ^ i - "1 






Mm 



a 






S?u 






HI 



y J-i.>-— Ti U» 



i>gU 



672 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sbc. IV 

similar to the one shown in Fig. 575, and the thread is milled on the lai^ 
endjof the body. This is done in a simple fixture in which the body is 
held inside of a screw having the same lead as the thread to be milled. 



..'B Cut 14 Thrwckfm-liKK ffi^find, mOmirHi; 




Tt)OLSTai(Harehri 

H ThrecKkptrlnchl^frfHiMi VlhitwBrth 




COLO-mLLED STtEL 



F TIUa-FUBE 



The milling cutter has do lead, but is simply a cutter, set at the proper 
angle and having enough teeth to cover the entire length of the thread. 
In this way one revolution of the body in the hand fixture shown nulls 




«M«.V.^ "'"'^^^/SJi^*^ 



i FOB OPERATION h 



the thread on the entire circumference. A stop for the cross-slide 
allows the work to be fed in the proper depth, so that the right diameter 
is easily secured. The gages are shown in Fig, 576. 



Chap, in 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 8CM4 



673 



For the fifth operation the threaded end of the body is held in the 
chuck shown in Fig, 577. When screwing the body in place the central 
stop or pusher plug is moved to the position shown and forma the stop for 
the body. As soon as it is desired to remove the body the plug is with- 
drawn shghtly, so that the body may be easily unscrewed from the chuck. 

While in this position the outside of the stem is turned to the proper 
size for the rings and the threaded portion in front. The upper surface 



IC 



/uaar srm. (Cast Hardfif 



JIACKIN£ STtSi fOrse /ibnW 
FtO. 577. CHUCK FOB OPERATION NO. 5. PBODUCTION, 15 FEB HR. 

of the platform is also serrated by means of the flat forming tool shown 
in Fig. 578. 

One of the essential features is the shoulder distance between the 
upper and lower recesses, these siu^aces being hand-reamed in the sixth 
operation by the tool shown in Fig. 579. 



-iroac 



f* - --(jw - * 




IS ^^^.^* ° 



The next operation is milling the thread on the end of the stem, this 
being done on the fixture shown in Fig. 575. This also shows the thread 
gages for the stem. 

Details of the graduated ring are shown in Fig. 580 while the casting 
and the rough-turned ring appear in Fig. 581. The ring is finished after 
being screwed on the body. The tools for making the ring are illustrated 
in Fig. 582. Screwing the ring in place forms the eleventh operation, 
the ring and body being considered as one piece. 



674 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 





700L$TE£L 



. ef MACHINE STZEL 
-^i^ase Harden^ 












lira 



MACHtNeST££L 
(Cas9 Hcrckfj^ 

-7 



HKHIHESTEEL 
(Case ftordtrjf 



^iU^ 







'|*^^r I0TEE7H 

#1 
•"■•% H^«n 

TOOL STEEL (HarcferO 




MACHINE sren 



leef h Enlarged 



I 



■^4< 







I 



cO 




B 



TOOL STEEL (Harden) 




I I 







^^^^^ (Cot&i Harden) 



^ Tap.k'iO, 

^.ipusjsm 



\-X£.U 







HA HA 

HACHINE STEEL 




V 



-H 

7l?0i STEEL (Harden} 




Si- 



W7/A 




MACHINE STEa 



FIG. 579. FACING TOOLS FOR OPERATION NO. 6. PRODUCTION, 45 PER HB. 

A. hand reamer for inner shoulder; B, hand reamer for outer shoulder; C, hand reamer for inner seat; 

D. hand reamer for rounding inner comer 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



After the graduated nog has beeD screwed solidly into place, the 
next two steps are the drilling and tapping for the threaded plug which 



ria. 580. the 

keeps the ring from turning. The jig used for drilling the locking screw 
hole is shown in Fig. 5S3. This consists simply of a square body into 
which the fuse body is drawn by means of a nut on the small end of the 




PIG. 581. BINO CASTINO AND ROCOH-TUSNED RING 



Stem, and the hole drilled in the regular way. It is simply one of the 
many cases where extreme simplicity has proved best in the long run. 



FUSES AND PRIMEHS 



[Bbc. IV 




•^ liifTii^ i 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-M 



I "° ] 

i - -„-.j I -T I 



r 

* 




* t 


r/1 


i 


:.v-X- 


* 1 


© 






■tii- 



■f- 






Jn 



1. -? 

I 



...J 




678 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sec. IV 

Ad interesting feature of the jigs for holding the fuse body for drilling is 
the use of hardened steel pins for locating the body from the serrated 
platform. Four pins are used, these being assembled in poeitioD. These 







do not retain chips and make it easier to keep the jig in working condition. 
The tapping is done without a fixture by means of a small friction tapper 




■ -tf-.n k ^-S^7 - 










built by the Rickert-Shafer Co., of Erie, Penn, After the tapping, 
threaded brass rods are screwed through the ring into the body and 
twisted off. The body then goes to a hand screw machine or bench 



Cup. Ill 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 8(M4 



679 



lathe, as the case may be, and has the outside of the ring turned id opera- 
tion 14, by the tool shown in Fig. 584. Next cornea the facing of the 
under side of the brass rings, Fig. 585 showing the tool and gages used in 
connection with this, operation 15. This is done on a hand screw ma- 
chine and is one of the particular jobs in making the fuse. Fig. 586 
shows the fixture, the routing toot and the gages used in milling the key 
slot in the ring, ae shown in operation 16. This is later used in deter- 




i*!""**. 



tp 




no. 586. nxTUKE, tools i 



K, holder for mitliDg ring; 



B. rODtina cuttei foi key ilot', C. pontion of 
D, depth of key atot; E. langth of key dot 



KET SLOTB. 



mining the position of the hole through the platform which connects 
with the magazine inside the large end of the body. 

The recess in the stem, which later forma the connecting passage 
with the flash bole, is cut in a Burke hand miller, as shown in operation 
17. The milling cutter and gages for this are illustrated in Fig. 587. 
These recesses are cut very rapidly and, in common with all operations 
which follow operation 16, the body is positioned by the key slot already 
mentioned. This is particularly true in operation 18, in which the plat- 
form hole is drilled in the jig shown in Fig. 588. As can be seen, the 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 






■It'-' 



Hi'-i 




^' Ira? 



ifei 








■■»; 


h -,*f- 







if 
11 

^:< 'J 

J d 
il 

.«•■"• p !| 

S3 






".**_ 







Chap. 1 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



center line of the hole is 4 deg. 2 min. 30 sec. from the center of the 
key slot. The gages are also shown in the same figure. 

Drilling the hole through from the side of the platform hole to the 
magazine is done in operation 19 and in the fixture shown in Fig. 589. 
The gages are also shown in the same figure. 




PBODucnoH, 100 



The flash hole, which is drilled through the stem of the body into the 
recess shown in Fig. 584, constitutes operation 19. The fixture and 
g^es for this are shown in Fig. 590, these being very similar to those for 
the magazine hole. It will be noted in several of these fixtures that four 
small hardened and ground pins are used for locating the fuse body end- 




Fia. 689. II08 AND OAOES roB driluno magazine boles, production, 400 per br. 



wise. These come in contact with the serrations on the upper side of 
the platform and inside the raised ring on the outer diameter. 

Next comes the graduating of the ring on a rolling machine built by 
Noble & Westbrook. This is divided into two suboperations — the first 
rolling in the graduations and the second rolling the numerals in their 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[SkcIV 



K It' His 

^ I n't-.**'" , 

.|t K * -J ,,^-^ 

!< --iff-- i" 



VI 







a" I 

11 



,3J 



-ii5 nil* '■ 






ftp'*-* V4 



Chap. II| 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



6S3 



proper position. Id both of these suboperations the key slot previously 
referred to serves to locate the graduations in their proper position on 
the ring. The gage is sbown in Fig. 591. 

Operation 22 consists of necking behind the thread on the end of the 
stem. For this purpose the form of scissors tool, as it is called, shown in 
Fig. 592 is used, together with the gages shown in the same group. 

The final operation on the body consists of marking the base line. 



iScrviqllaV 



. 591. OAGEs FOR osadujItion or 



This is done by the punch shown in F^. 593 and is inspected by the g 
shown in the same figure. 





CAPS AHD BASE PLUGS FOR TIUB FDSB 

The fuse caps and base plugs are made from one casting in order to 
facilitate machining. This casting is also of aluminum and subjected to 
the same heavy pressure as the body in order to insure density of the 
material. Full details of the caps are shown in Fig. 594, while Fig. 595 




nrmm 



u h' 4-.----4^~ -k]^ '-•' 



shows the shape of the casting at A, and the operations, the first being 
shown at B. This work is performed in a hand screw machine by holding 
the straight portion in a collet and boring and tapping the end that is 
later to form the cap. The tools and gages for this operation are 
shown in Fig. 596. The gage at H, Fig. 596, tests both the diameter 
and the length of the hole tapped in the cap. The threaded portion 
of the gage is surrounded by a steel sleeve held in place by a spring. 
On the outside of this sleeve is a line indicating the proper position when 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 






h -.ftfr— -J %i% 







■^^^j&ill'*- 









1 
1 




Chap. Ill MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 685 

the thread in the cap is of the maximum length. The tolerance is 
0.002 in. The next operation cuts off the end that is to form the base 
plug, as shown at C, Fig. 592. It will be noted at A that the end of 
the plug is recessed, the exact shape being shown in the base plug 
details. Fig. 601. 

Leaving the base plug for the present and continuing with the com- 
pletion of the cap, the round end is formed in the usual manner, by 
either flat or circular forming tools, as shown in Fig. 597. The cap is 
then easily released from the threaded mandrel A by means of the left- 
band Dut that forms a stop and enables the pressure to be easily relieved. 






:i 



VIO. 594. DBTAtLB OF CAP 

Next comes the drilling of the spanner wrench holes, as shown at E, 
Fig. 595, this being done in a simple jig A, Fig. 598, with the aid of a 
double-spindle drilling head. The spindles have a center distance of 
0.413 in. These holes are 0.10 in. in diameter, and both the diameter 
and the center distance are tested by gages, shown in Fig. 598 at C. 
Then the aide hole for the setscrew is drilled as at F, and tapped as at 
G, Fig. 595. Tools and gages for these operations are shown in Figs. 
599 and 600. 

After the plugs have been cut from the cap casting, they are held 
in a collet and finished on the back side, the sequence of operations being 
given in Fig. 602. This plug is a rather diflScult piece to make, the various 
shaped recesses on the end not being easy to handle. The thickness 
of the plug is determined by a hardened steel stop in. the center of the 
facing tool that makes contact with a distance plug in the center of the 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sm. IV 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



J 



I 



— ■* 



m 



@=} 



8^ 



1s3 



•IS 
Sal 



ili 



Mfi 



5J1.S 






5' 






^ii ill 




688 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 








MACH/NE STEEL ((bxHarctvi 






y 












TOOLSTEEL 



f|^ ''18 7hds.per IncKUUYnufmrih 
A 

t^sr^ — 




c o 

FIG. 597. TURNING THE OUTSIDE OF THE CAP 

Tools — A. threaded mandrel for holding cap; B, flat forming tool for outside of cap. Gages — C, low 
length and shape of cap; D, diameter of cap. A similar gage tests the diameter of the lip on the cap 



.» .» 



r J 



f * 



i'^\ JM. 






^lu fjiJl^W 





iik' 



•HOIK 



•LOOK 







°l^ 


y* 


f^ 




FIG. 598. DRILLING THE WRENCH HOLES 

Special Tools — Sellew drilling head with fixed center; A, drilling fixture. Gages — B, diameter of holes; 

C, center distance of holes 



Chap. 11] 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARE 80-44 



689 



collet. Instead of threading this plug at the first operation and chucking 
it by the thread, the threading is done by means of a special device 













^ 




via. 599. DRILLING SETBCRBW HOLES 
Gage for distance of hole from space of cap. 



.» .* 



Pvri ';"i"'£iHf'' — •;•••; v"/i Jl 





FIO. 600. TAPPING BBTSCREW HOLES 

Special Tools — All friction tapping heads; Rickeri-Shafer friction tapper. 

hole. Production 200 per hr. 



Gage — Diameter of cap 



r.'*Q^^ 






3=£ 












36 mis. yj^/^f 

per ItKh-ri /i^L^ 




m' 



^-^^ AIIThreacfs 
^ RighiHancL 
mfworfh 

Daieof 
Filling ■ 




FIG. 60L 



Conffocfors 
IniHals or 
Recogjvzed Thckm a ' fP 

DETAILS OF BOTTOM PLUG 




arranged in a vertical drilling machine, after the outside has been finished. 
A general view of this is shown in Fig. 603, and the detail in Fig. 604. 



44 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



Chap. II] 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



691 



Here the die A is held stationary in the top of the holder B, which is 
fastened to the drilling-machine table. A plunger C comes up through 
the center of the die, and the plug to be threaded is laid on the end of 
this central plunger at D. Then the drill spindle, which carries a driver 
E, is brought down on the plug, the driver fitting the cross-slots on the 
outer end of the plug and revolving it in the die at the same time it is 
supported by the plunger, to insure the thread being cut square with 
the axis of the plug. The plunger recedes as the plug is threaded 




FIG. 603. BABE PLUQ THREADER IN POSITION IN DRILLING MACHINES 



through the die and allows the finished plug to drop out of a side 
opening, as can be seen. Details of the connections are shown and the 
whole device can be readily understood. 

Next comes the drilling of the two holes for the spanner wrench 
and the hole for the loading screw. These operations are shown in J 
and K, Fig. 602, the fixtures and tools being shown in Fig. 606. The 
plug hole is also counterbored for the head of the screw and finally tapped 
to 0.198 in. with 36 threads per inch, Whit worth form. 

The packing of these parts for shipment is also important as being 



FUSES AND PRIUERS 



-^.tl* •Jlf 



i,V-t 



jh 



{l£Bi 



^i -If 1^*11 



i-,H :»!• 



i r-r--^ air ■^.tSJ I 

,.".« 4fr III -^.^^-p ° 

a 
a-d|J 




ii*rs 




MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 






1 T 

o c i 
o o i 

i 



®i^. 



ssi 






Q . 

CO, 

O 



II 

S8. 



as 



5i 



I! 



if 



? 



I., II'! 



694 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Shc. IV 

of aluminum they are easily damaged. The boxes used, with all essential 
details, are shown in Figs. 606 and 607. 





























































































' 




























n 





















HaZ Cn/baanlfbciing^i Thkli,XptrBot 



-7perBai 



FIG. 006. FACKINO BOXES FOB CAPS 


















































































































































































































MM INI 



}bl CardtKxrd f\Kkhg4 ™<^ ^P*r But 

FIO. 607. PACKING BOXES FOR : 



~1 VL lti!OrdboarJ 
-J W^A« 



MAKIHG THE SHALL PARTS OP THE BRITISH TIME FUSE 

In addition to the body, cap, base plug and timing rings that have 
been described in more or less detail, there are also many other parts 
that are largely made in the automatic screw machine and the punch 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-U 




II I 



si 






li 



^ I: 









Kop) 



PUSES AND PRIMERS 



[8bc. IV 



^^1 
fl^ 



^towSMPri -SCOOIISIO 




Ifo 






i-> 



II 



j/^Wms. 









Chap. II] MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK SO-M 697 

press. These are shown in Figs. 608 and 609, the designating letters 
corresponding to those used in Fig. 568, and for the moat part are made 
on automatic screw-machines. No special methods are employed but 





RL or Caifroctai MHalt er 

* [otnlimf*- of Fiat 
ZX /fumm! of FuM 




no. 610. THE r 



the collection of gages which are used is particularly complete — see 
Figs. 611 to 623. 

Fig. 610 shows the brass fuse cover as ori^nally called for and gives 




ength; B, diaoiEter ol 



f mjicAlieagnanlbelSh^ 

TlUB PELLET 

i; D. di&metcT bad steps of thrcAded 
ntnl hole: C. ihapc of top 



some idea of the work that it involved. It consists of the body A, the 
brass wire ring B, which must be butted together and brazed at the joint, 
the tearing-off strip C and the short brass strip D. This strip is soldered 



698 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[SbcIV 




9l7hd3.perhch,RH,WhiimHh 






|§> m^ m. m m 



■*4h 



s C 






TOOLSTCEL 

D 



FIQ. 612. TIiaS-PBLLBT SCREW 
A, total length; B, diameter of plug; C, diameter of nipple; D, length of nipple 



I I 

•Kosae' 



mwh 



{. 



IJ1584 



a: 



]4 



TOOL SlT£L(HcnxkfO 

I' ■ 



HQO05 LOOTS 
— #1^ > 



TOOL STEEL _,# 



1 



TOOLSTEELOfarekri) 




C-rtOSflfiT U1393. 
ChH.a4S8\ La4S6 , 



>rfi^- 



H 



8{i- 



3; 



^r 



I 



DRILL ROoOiardenf 
I 



IT T' 



T- 



DRILL ROO (Harden) 



$ »,*(2fll? 



DRILL ROD(Harckn) 

F 

Umt&perlffch, t^R 



DRILL ROD (Hordvif 
J 

TOOLSTEELOhrdm) 
K 
FIG. 613. PERCUSSION PELLET 

A, total length; B. thickness of flange; C, diameter of front part;,D, diamctCT of body; K, diameter of 

flan; F, diameter and recess in top; G, depth of recess detonator in top; H. diameter ot central hole; 
, diameter of detonator recess; J, diameter and depth of threaded part; K, external forma 




Chap. II] 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



699 



Z4THds. per Inch, 
s RtUWhrtfiorfh f 




aMJhROUSO 
.'STEEL 



Lam 



•lir 



§ U— •••?" — jH 

HoOLSTEhOhrtien) 



, 7* 'TOOL STEEL 
^i"'^ Ohnieri 



E (f|) it • 

NOPtlpf^ \J\''TOOL STEEL 



ftOZOT'l y' [TOOL STEEL 






TOOLSTEELOhrd^ 





1=. 



T@- 



fffsra ROoOhrekn) 



FIO. 614. PBRCUSSINO-PELLET SCREW PLUG 

A. total length; B, diameter of screw plug; C. diameter of nipple; D. length of nipple; B. diameter of 

center hole 



QOZ^t 



'taoor 



■^f- H. iHh 



1 



!» 



ST 






?^ 



SE£i 






I 










»< ^if- 

B 



HCfTE'.AII Gages are Tool Sfeef 



i^fl^i 






I 














1*^' bCOLD-fiOLLfD STEa 'W 
^ ^? >i Ofarafe/7; 



' » 



FIO. 615. TIME STIRRXTP SPRING GAGES 

A, length and form; B, diameter of hole; C* internal form; D, width of lugs; B, thickness of brass 

Pp diameter of circular part 



700 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 



to the cap of the body A in order to hold the ring B on the aide opposite 
the hold of the tearing-ofi strip. 

The object of the fuse cover is to protect the fuse from exposure to 
dampness and to guard it against mechanical injury. Another form of 
cap was made of heavy tinfoil, although this later gave place to a cap 
of fead thoroughly coated with tin in order to prevent any possible 
contact of the lead and the explosive material, which make a dangerous 
combination. 

The screw-machine work covers everything but the washers, detonat- 
ing time and percussion body and the stirrup spring. These are all 
punch- press operations, and while seemingly simple in themselves. 



§ h-V ->l iHh 




me'' ' 






FIG. 616. PEBCDSSION BODY 



il length; B. diameter ol 



some of the specifications are not easy of fulfillment. The stirrup 
springs, for example, are made of hard rolled sheet brass. The spring 
for the percussion pellet must be gaged after having been subjected 
to a pressure of 60 lb. in a steel counterpart of the fuse pellet and should 
return to the mean dimension. It must yield at a load of not less than 
77 lb., nor more than 99 lb., these pressiu-es being the hmits which the 
fuse is supposed to be subjected under firing conditions. 

The time stirrup spring is made in a similar manner and must with- 
stand a minimum pressure of 100 lb. A certain percentage of those 
tested must not yield at less than 125 lb. nor more than 165 lb. 



Chap. II] 



MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 



701 






I 



i 



8 S 

! I 



-4 



] 



■ • 



f*. k..f. 




'« >^ 



7 



Si- 






g^reoiVeogJ 



)W6« ^«»Ifl097plJ 






CO 



— >(© 



it,*l! 3? 






i§. 




—el* — >l 

c 



sDLH 



^Vibk.ptrMKftH.Wuh^ 

D 



* 



h- — 



— <- 



( •••■•••■•••^Mh 








I 




r 



T 





k -^ ™.>.>, iOXSmLOhnkn and Grinds 

cf Thtitptr f/Kn^ruH, fmirnortn 

6 

YIO. 617. PKRCUSSION-ABRAKOEMSNT HOLDER 

A, length of holder; B, diameter and depth of holder; C, length of head; D. diameter of needle hole in 
crown; B, diameter of large part of head; P, length of screw threads; G, diameter of screw thxtesads. 



I TOOL STEEL t^"^ H ^t^ 




-3v ••" "" •••••^•— > 




J*-"—" •*••-— ^ ^..>||^ 



I 






^ kf*» 



ig^O 



TOOL STtSL 

c 



FIQ. 618. CAP HOLDER 
A. total length; B. internal diameter and form; C, diameter of central hole 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Skc. IV 

















pli fJi rJ-l ffi 



fOm All Goffti one Too/ Sfe*/ 



no. 620. PBRBtTLE OKoee 

A. total length; B. length olchimper; C, thitlmeu of flange at topj D, cone and diamettf, E, radiui 



toUllength; B. length olchii 
torn; F, depth ot to shoulder 



K V, cone ana oiameicTr D» raoiua 
for lame purpose; H. diameter of 



Chap. Ul MAKING THE BRITISH TIME MARK 80-44 




704 



PUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 






f< 2"' - >i 







^TOOL 57ZZI (Hartkr^ 
FIQ. 623. 8STSCBEW FOR CAP 

Screw-machine times on these parts are: 



Time pellet, 140 per hr. 

Time-pellet screw, 380 per hr. 

Percussion pellet, 130 per hr. 

Percussion-pellet screw plug, 380 per hr. 

Base-plug screw, 260 per hr. 

Ferrule, 300 per hr. 

Rotating pin, 600 per hr. 

Slotting rotating pins, 1,800 per hr. . 

Gap setscrew, 450 per hr. 

Slotting cap setscrews, 2,000 per hr. 

Polishing top of cap setscrews, 1,700 per 

hr. 
Time pellet. Delta metal, 360 per hr. 
Time-pellet screw plug, 400 per hr. 



Slotting time-pellet screw plug, 1,200 
per hr. 

Rethreading time-pellet screw plug, 800 
perhr. 

Polishing time-pellet screw plug, 1,200 
per hr. 

Percussion-pellet automatic, 130 per 
hr. 

Reseating top of percussion-pellet auto- 
matic, 800 per hr. 

Polishing top of percussion-pellet auto- 
matic, 2,000 per hr. 



The foregoing are the number of pieces the automatics are timed to 
produce. The actual work turned out, however, is considerably less — 
as is always the case. In the average shop from 75 to 80 per cent, of 
the camming time is a good output. 



CHAPTER III 

MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES^LOADING THE 

PRIMERS 




Smokeless fhffckr 



I 



VIG. 624. PRIMER IN PLACE IN GA8E 



The general appearance of the primer for field artillery and its parts 
is shown in Fig. 625. They are seen in place in a cartridge case in Fig. 
624. While the primer is very simple as compared with the time or 
even the detonating fuse, it involves more problems than might appear, 
especially when 5,000,000 are made on one order, as was called for by 
the contract awarded the American Mnltigraph Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

These primers fire the charge in 
the cartridge case that expels the 
projectile from the gim, just as the 
percussion cap in the fuse of a shot- 
gun shell fires the powder inside. 
One of these primers does more, 
however, for it must not only fire 
the charge of powder ahead of it but 
prevent the gases from getting back 
into the breech of the gun. 

The small exploding charge is contained in the small copper cup that 
fits into the base of the body. Just above this is the anvil to receive the 
yow of the firing hammer. Next is the plug, which backs up the anvils 
and also forms a cover for the safety pocket in the anvil. Surrounding 
the central stem is a recass for a powder charge that is ignited by the 
small exploder in the base. The explosion of this charge bursts through 
the paper cover and the copper closing disk, igniting the main charge in 
the cartridge case and firing the projectile from the gun. The reaction, 
however, forces gas backward and bends the points of the closing disk 
in. It is for this reason that the small copper ball is used as a check 
valve in the anvil cavity. 

This ball normally rests on the lower side of the cavity and allows the 
flame to shoot through the three small holes in the anvil and out through 
three similar holes in the plug. The ball is forced against tho plug, and 
to prevent its interfering with the flame reaching the powder in the sur- 
rounding cavity, a groove is cut in the inside face of the plug to allow 
free passage no matter what the position of the ball. 

The primer proper, the percussion cap, involves no intricate opera- 

' Fred H. Colvin, Associate Editor, American Machinist. 
45 705 



706 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sic. IV 



tions, being a simple punch-press task that simply calls for close limits. 
But the balance of the primer parts involve a number of more or leaa 
complicated operations and these, as performed at the shops of the 
American Multigraph Co., are of interest. 




^^^%"9 *f^/iiso>. 





\ I'Mtiiat' Braa J^^tsf 

CLOSINe DISK 

no. 62S. THB COUPLKTE PBIMBS 



The Primei Body. — The primer body is shown in Pig. 626. It is 
made from bar stock 1.410 in. in diameter. As the outside finish size 
is 1.4 in. with a tolerance of 0.004 in., this gives from 0.01 to 0.014 in. 
to clean up, which means a very true running chuck to start with. The 



Chap. Ill] MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 



707 



material must have a tensile strength of 26,880 lb. per sq. in., a breaking 
strength of 44,800 lb. and an elongation of 30 per cent. 

Nine main operations on the primer bodies were found necessary to 
secure maximum output of work. These, together with brief data, are 
as follows: 




ti-HTUkpTlaAllHBrifiaSli 



riQ. 626. THE DETAILS c 



THE PRIMEB B 



SEQUENCE OP BODY OPERATIONS 

1. Turning and boring blanks. 

2. Facing the head. 

3. Milling thread on primer body. 

4. Waahing in gasoline. 

5. Milling key aeats. 

6. Tapping for anvil. 

7. Finishing counterbore. 

8. Washing in gaaoline. 

9. Final inspection. 

BODY OPEBATION 1. TUBNIKO AND BORINQ 

Machine Used — Gridley 1^-in. automatic. 
Special Fixtures— Tools in automatic. 
Production — 150 per hr. per machine. 

' BODT OPEBATION 2. FACt^Q THX HEAD 

Machine Used — Brown & Sharpe vertical miller. 
Special Fixture — Table for continuous milling. 
Production— 500 per hour. 



BODY OPBBATIOK 3. UILLINO THREAD ( 

Machine Used — Special thread miller. 
Production— 450 to 500 per hour. 



FRIUEB BODY 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 



BODT OFEBATIONS 4 AND 8. WABUINQ IN 



H '^"^v— 1 



'ThreenvtK ^ \ ^tl Drill- 0.1 f 
•Taper i inn 
High-Spted Steel. Harden&6nnel 

BODY OPEBATION 5. MILLING KEY SLOTS 



Machine Used — Special five-spinJIe miller. 
Production— 2,400 per hr. 



BODT OPERATION 6. 



roK. A 



T OPERATION 7. ■ 



H COUNTBBBORG 



Machine Used — Vertical drilling ma- Machine Used — Vertical driUiog ma- 
chine, chine. 

Special Fixtures — Errington tapping Special Fixtures^Holding fixture and 

head and fixtures. tools. 

Production— 250 per hr. Production — 600 per far. 

The first operation is performed on l^i-ia. Gridley four-spindle 
automatics, the tooling set-up being shown in Fig. 627. The sequence 
of operations is shown beneath the various views, the outside turning 
and the counterboring being done simultaneously, in both roughing and 
finishing. This is made possible by the cross-slide forming tool being run 
into the flute of the counterbore, although the tool layout indicates an 
interference, as the counterbore has been turned to show the shape of 
the cutting edges. The forming tools and counterbores are shown in 
Fig. 628. 

From the Gridley the fuse bodies go to the face-milling attachment, 
shown in Fig. 629. The table holds 30 bodies, gripping each body in a 
pair of jaws that are drawn down in a wedge-shaped pocket by the 



Chap. lU) MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 



709 



levers with rollers on the end, these rollers passing under a cam at the 
proper time. This draws them down against the face of the plate just 
before they pass under the single-pointed^fly cutter which runs at top 
speed and makes a dat,"smooth surface. 




„ — n r , Two-flirtBFbrmecll^omwftr 

Pajgh,fg Cowi+erbore for ij ijsrkjky A^te for OiVt 100 

<Jr>dlei|Au1o(orOSV(IOO Q 



. 628. FORMING TOOLH A 



;0UNTBBBORBa 



Just behind the milling cutter is an ingenious device that stamps the 
back of the primer body with the company mark "M," saving one 
operation. This punch, or stamp, ia actuated by the small wedges E 



710 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sbc. IV 

which lift the punch and then release it, a spring behind the punch giving 
it a quick blow which does the stamping. The milling spindle A carries 
a single point fiy cutter. Each set of gripping jaws has a roller B on the 
outer end which is actuated by the cams C and D. The first draws the 
jaws down, locking the primer, while the second D raises the roller and 
the jaws for releasing and reloading. The wedges E raise the marking 
stamp and release it for the blow. Air jets keep the chips clear of the 
work and the holding jaws. 



The thread milling comes next, being done at the rate of 10 per minute 
on the special machine shown in F^. 630. This machine has one hob 
with alternately relieved threads, and two spindles which carry the primer 
bodies. The primer bodies are automatically gripped by the Sange, 
carried against the hob, rotated and moved endwise at the proper speed, 
and moved away from the hob, the other spindle then coming into 
operation. The time for loading and unloading, although there is no 
lost time, is at the rate of 6 seconds each. 

The fourth operation is to wash in gasoline, it having been found the 
most suitable cleanser. It is used in small quantities only, kept in shal- 
low pans, and every precaution taken to prevent flame from coming 
anywhere near it. 

The fifth operation is to mill the key, or wrench slots, another special 
machine. Fig. 631, being used for this purpose. This slot-milling machine 



Chap, nil MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 711 

carries five horizontal milling spindles, tliree running in one direction 
and two in the other, and works on four bodies simultaneously. The 
bodies are placed in the cyhnder of the machine, two operators being 
kept busy in loading it. The bodies are indexed into position; the five 
spindles move sidewise, first one way and then the other, and in so doing 
mill the two slots in ail four bodies. The cylinder is turned at a rate of 
40 bodies, or 10 movements, per minute, or 2,400 per hour. 



no. 630. spsciAj. thread uiller 

The illustration shows two views and gives the essential details. 
The cylinder G is removed from the shaft F in one view. The five 
spindles are shown at A and the four holding fingers at B. The arm C 
carrying the pawl D and actuated by the lever E indexes the cylinder 
by means of the ratchet H. It is a very compact and very efficient little 
machine for this kind of work. 

Tapping, the sixth operation, is done under a sensitive drill with the 
aid of Errington tapping devices at the rate of nearly 500 an hour, the 
body being held in the fixture shown in Fig. 632. The body is set over 
the two pins, to hold against turning, and the fork is slid over the flange 
to prevent lifting. 

Following the tapping comes the finish counterboring to get the seat 
for the percussion cap the correct distance from the face of the primer 
body and also to insure the length of this recess being exactly correct, 
BO a£ to hold the anvil and plug in proper relation to the tap. 

This counterboring is done under a sensitive drilling machine similar 
to that used for the tapping previously referred to,thefixtureand methods 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



Chap. Ill) MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 713 

being clearly shown in Fig. 633, The key slots of the fuse body are 
placed over the two locating pins, aiid the combined connterbore and 
spacing cutter, A and B respectively, are brought down into the recess 



until the collar C rides on the hard-steel bushing D. This insures the 
correct depth and can be handled very rapidly, a production of about 
600 an hour being maintained throughout the day. 



wo. 633. COONTBRBORINO FIXTURE 

The eighth operation is to wash again in gasoline, preparatory to the 
ninth operation, or final inspection. 

The finished primer bodies are substantially boxed for shipment to 
the loading factory. The heavy wooden boxes, 123^ X 14^ X 9^-in. 



714 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Seo. IV 

deep, hold 100 primers per layer — 10 layers per box. A sheet of corru- 
gated cardboard is placed between each layer, the primers in each 
layer being sta^ered, and also over the top. When packed in this 
way, the upper layer protrudes beyond the box so that, when the cover 
is niuled down, the thin edges of the primer bodies force their way into 
the corrugated paper. This effectively prevents any shifting or injury 
to the contents. 



I."™ o^;^. J n*—- » 

FIO. 634. DETAILS OF THE &NVIL 

The Primer Anvil. — The anvil, Fig. 634, is made froto brass-rod stock 
in five main operations, which, together with brief data, are as follows: 

SEQUENCE OF ANVIL OPERATIONS 

1. Forming the blaok. 

2. DriUing the bUok. 

3. Slottii^. 

4. R«moviDg the burr by hand. 
g roupded end. 



ANVU. OPBBATION 1. 

Machine Used — National Acme automatic No. 515. 
Production — 660 per hr. 



MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 



ANVIL OPERATION 2. DRILLING 

Machines Used — Laagdier and Burke bench mt 
Special Fixtures — Drilling fixture. 
Production — 140 per hr. 



L. OPEBATION 3 



Machine Used — National Acme slotter. 
Production — 1,800 per hr. 



L. OPERATION 4. HAND BURRINQ THE SLOT OF T 



ANTIL OPERATION 5. SHAVE I 

Machine Used — Brown &, Sharpe bench machine 
Special Fixture — Split oliuck. 
I^tMluction — 560 per hr. 



716 FUSES AND PRIMERS (Sec. IV 

The first operation, forming the anvil, is done on a National Acme 
No. 515 and consists of four sub-operations in the order indicated on 
Pig, 635 — i.e., form, counterbore, thread and cut-off. The machines 




OPERATION 1 



employed for this work are single tooled and average 12,000 pieces in 
21>^ hours. 

The second operation on the anvi] consists in drilling the three flash 
holes in its rounded end. This work is done in the fixture shown in 




no. 636. SPECIAL indkxihq vixtdbb 



Fig. 636, the drill being run in either a small Burke bench drilling 
machine or in one of the new high-speed machines built by liaogelier. 
The latter handle about 4,000 primer anvils in 9 hours. 



Ch*p. Ill] MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 717 

The base of the indexuig fixture, Fig. 636, is inclined so as to give the 
desired angle to the hole, and uo guide bushing is found necessary, ae 
the drill ia allowed to project only a short distance from the chuck. The 
anvil to be drilled is dropped into the opening A, resting on the plunger 
B, and held by a slight movement of the knurled setscrew C. It is 
indexed around by hand, from notch to notch; when the last hole is 
drilled a movement of the lever D into the dotted position shown ejects 
the anvil by means of the plunger B. This plunger is normally held in 
its lower position by the helical springs, and the indexing lever can be 
moved only far enough to cause ejection when the holder is in one 
position. 




The third operation on the anvil is slotting in a National Acme screw 
Blotter provided with suitable holding plates, and with a production of 
17,000 in 9 hours. The burr is then removed from the slot by hand, the 
fifth and final operation being the shaving of the rounded end on a small 
Brown & Sharpe bench machine, consisting solely of a bed, headstock 
and cross-slide. The anvil is held in a grip chuck, the production averag- 
ing 5,000 in 9 hours. 

The Primer Plug.^ — The plug. Fig. 637, is also made from brass-rod 
stock, but two main operations being required. These, with brief data, 
are as follows: 

The first operation, consisting of forming the plug, cutting the circular 
groove in its face and cutting off the plug, is performed on a No. 515 
National Acme automatic, the production being about 13,000 during a 
day's run of 213-^ hr. 



PUSES AND PRIMERS 





Machine Used — National Acme automatic No. 515. 
Special Fixtures — Forming t^ola. 
Production — 600 per hr. 



PLDO OPEBATtON 2. DEILLINQ BOLEB 

Machines Used — Laagelier and Burke bench machines 
Special Fixtures — Holding fixtures. 
Production — 350 per hr. 




PIO. 638. THS TOOLS USED IN THE AOTOMATIC 

The tools are shown in Fig. 638. The circular groove in the face of 
the plug is cut by the siDgle-Upped tool shown in Fig. 638, which is rather 
interesting. It has a helix equivalent to a 7-pitch thread cut on the end, 
so that it can be ground back almost indefinitely, as with a circular 
forming tool. 

The second operation on the plug is to drill the three email flash holes 
in the fixtures shown in Fig. 639. The operation of this fixture is prac- 
tically identical with that of the one shown in Fig. 636, the same method 



Chap. Ill] 



MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 



719 



of ejecting the work being employed in this case. The production is 
practically the same as with the anvil, 3,000 pieces being handled per 
day of 9 hours. There is no special acciu'acy required in the spacing of 
these holes, so that no drill bushing is found necessary. 

Both the anvils and the plugs are shipped in lots of about 100 lb., 
no assembling being done until they reach the loading plant. They are 
boxed in a substantial manner, no special packing being found necessary 
to prevent the threads being damaged in transit. 




Pfm 



f « fi i I 













FIG. 639. DRILLING FIXTURE FOR THE PLUG 



LOADING THE PRIlffER 

The top of the box of 1,000 primer bodies, in 10 layers of 100 each, 
is removed at the loading factory and the box turned upside down on a 
broad bench. Raising the inverted box leaves the contents in a pile, 
the various layers separated by the corrugated cardboard. The primers 
are then placed open end up in wooden trays, each tray accommodating 
50 bodies. This is the unit in which they are handled through the 
various departments. 

The primer bodies are subjected to a visual examination for possible 
faults, care being taken to see that they are correct in every particular 
before the assembling and loading are commenced. 

The anvil and plugs are also examined particularly for the flash 
holes, for if these are not clear it is impossible for the fire to reach the 
powder in the body of the primer. The rounded end on the anvil is 
carefully inspected, as the distance between this and the explosive in 
the cap is of great importance if they are to fire properly. 

The length of the anvil is tested in a simple multiplying device, as 
shown in Fig. 640, where the outer face of the anvil rests on the gage 
plate and the anvil projection touches the feeler that actuates the mul- 
tiplying lever. Two marks on the scale givfe the maximum and mini- 
mum, which in this case is 0.096 to 0.098 in. 

The holes are tested by placing the anvils over a sheet of ground 
glass having an incandescent bulb beneath, as in Fig. 641. This throws 



720 



FUSES AND PRIMERS 



[Sec. IV 




PS 
O 

H 



the light through the holes, so that the operator can easily see light 
through the three holes in each anvil, even though they are drilled at an 
angle. The operator is partly inclosed, so as to shut out bright daylight, 

which might tend to confuse. 

In order to facilitate the handling of these 
anvils for this insp)ection a special form of rack 
has been made, as illustrated in Fig. 642. This 
is of hght sheet metal and holds 81 anvils, 9 on 
each side. The holder is easily loaded by simply 
scattering anvils over the top. A little practice 
enables a girl to fill these holders very quickly, 
and they are then passed to the inspector through 
an opening in the side of her cage. 

This holder is made in two parts, the lower 
containing 81 rather sharp pegs A, which fit 
up inside the hole of the anvU and center the 
anvils so that the rounded end will point up- 
ward. The lower part is removed as soon as 
the holder has been filled, only the upper part 
being necessary to hold the anvils over the 
ground glass for the eye test. After the inspec- 
^ tion of the primer parts is finished, and the 
^ percussion caps, which are shallow, drawn cop- 
g per cups that have been partly filled with the 
p proper mixture of explosives and covered with 
I a thin disk of tinfoil, have been brought to the 
^ operator, everything is ready for assembling. 
The first operation is to put the caps in 
place, which is done while the primer bodies 
are in the trays previously referred to. The 
caps are picked up by a ball hand-spring chuck, 
Fig. 643, and a ring of Pettman's cement is 
placed on the outer edge to seal the cap into the 
body. This is done by an ingenious little de- 
vice seen in Fig. 644, the central portion being 
practically a hollow tube and bringing a ring of 
cement up against the cap as it is held in the 
position shown. 

The board of primer bodies with the percus- 
sion caps in place goes to a bench, where the 
arivil is screwed in by the little machine shown 
in outline in Fig. 645. This is a mechanical screwdriver, operated by a 
small pair of bevel gears and a handwheel, as shown. The primer body 
is held under the screwdriver by the yoke, which is operated by a hand 




o 
6 



Ch*p. nil MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 721 

lever beseatb the bench. The anvils are screwed down solidly on their 
seats; and as both the depth of the cup and the projection on the anvil 
have been previously gaged, there is practically no danger of their making 



no. G4I. INSPECTINO PBIUER ANVILS 

contact. The surplua cement is cleaned out with a soft stick. The 
caps are all seated in the body by being lightly pounded, using a soft- 
nosed stick for this purpose. 

The assembling fixture, Fig. 645, consists primarily of the frame A 
and the screwdriver spindle B. This 
is driven by the handwheel at the 
side, through the bevel gear C. The 
handle D controls the vertical move- 
ment of the screwdriver, which is 
made solid on the splined shaft and 
is shown at E. The primer body is 
held in position by the plate G, which 
forms a guide for the screwdriver . 
and is actuated by the cam J, shown 
beneath. This pulls the plate G 
down against the primer body, the 
spring shown releasing it as soon as fBr^r^lin^bOTfriOnQnllnOn 

direction. The hardened-steel plug 

I in the base of the clamping fixture 

locates the proper distance from the face of the primer body to the 

rounded or outer surface of the percussion cap above the surface, forcing 

up the end of the cap, should it be necessary. 



722 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sbc. IV 

The bottom of the primer is then inspected to insure the caps being 
at the proper distance, this being done in a machine almost identical 
with that illustrated in Fig. 640. Then the primer bodies are turned over 
in the tray, and the small copper ball is put into the anvil. The plug is 
next started in the hole, bo that the ball will not come out. These plugs 
are screwed into place with a three-prong screw- 
driver. 

The next operation is to close the metal around 
the plug by forcing a hollow-coned die over the 
central portion of the primer body, closing the 
thread so as effectually to prevent the plug from 
backing out. This is called "dabbii^" and is 
done in a foot-power press on the order of the 
well-known sprue cutter. The operation is per- 
formed about as rapidly as a man can handle the 
primer, a production of probably 30 a minute being 
steadily maintained. Men are shifted from this 
to other and less laborious work every two hours, 
& so as to avoid excessive fatigue. 

ria. 613. hakd bfbino The surface of the raised portion is then ce- 
cHucE mented in a machine similar to that seen in Fig. 

644, and a small paper washer is put in place to prevent the grains of 
powder from working down into the flash holes. This is also done very 
rapidly, the small paper washers being spread on the bench and picked 
up with the end of a soft wooden stick, which is occasionally moistened 
on a damp sponge. 



FIO. 644. TBE CEMBNTER 

Loadii^; the Primers with Powder. — The bodies are now ready to be 
loaded with the coarse-grained powder that surrounds the central portion. 
This powder is already measured in regular 16-page paper shells, which 
come in cases containing 20 boxes, each box holding 120 paper shells 
and each shell containing a proper load for the fuse. 



Chap. Ill] MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 723 

The powder ia poured into the primer body very rapidly, ae there is 
no danger of its getting into the flash holee. The girls who do the loading 
become very expert, and by using both hands they fill a tray of 50 primers 
in remarkably short time. 

Then the brass closing disks are put in place, each previously having 
a paper washer cemented on the inside. A ring of cement ia placed 
around the outer edge of the closing disk, a brass tube of the proper 
dimension being used for this purpose. It is simply dipped into the 
cement and placed on the top of the closing disk, which makes a ring 
around the outer edge. The sharp edge of the primer body is closed on 
the disk by another foot press. 



ma. 645. asseubuno pixtuiu: 

The primer then goes to a regular crank press, which puts the finish- 
ing crimp on the end and at the same time stamps the proper marking 
on the base of the primer. This handles about 9,000 primer bodies in 
lOM hr. 

Guarding Against Fire. — AU the tables where powder is used are 
covered with a linoleum or rubber pad and are surrounded by a water 
trough perhaps 3 in. wide. All loose powder is brushed into the water, 
so as to avoid any accumulation that might become a source of danger. 

The final inspection is primarily for the thread on the body, in order 
to make sure that it has not become distorted in any of the closing opera< 
tions. The thread gage is held in a chuck and revolved by a small 
friction that turns it in either direction. Any large primer body passes 



724 FUSES AND PRIMERS [Sbc. IV 

along the bench to the special vise, Fig. 646, which holds it while the 
hand die is being run over the thread. 



no. 646. 

This vise consists of a body A, raised in the center and carrying two 
studs that fit the wrench slot in the back of the primer body. The two 
jaws B and C are closed on the primer body by 
means of the handle D and the cam E at the end. 
This pulls the two jaws toward each other, the spring 
shown surrounding the central bolt forcing the jaws 
apart as soon as the lever is released. 

The completed primers are lacquered by dipping, 

this having been found much more satisfactory than 

the spraying process. The primers are handled very 

rapidly, placed in a wire basket tray, dipped, lifted 

"TEaTO^o aAOB*^ out and drained, then placed in front of a fan, which 

dries them in about 2 min. 

After this they go into the trays once more, and the upper side of the 

closing disk is covered with Pettman's cement. Here itgain various 




^^ 



Pin. 648, PACKING aox por t 
more or less com])licatcd methods have given way to the simple expedient 



Chap, III] MAKING PRIMERS FOR CARTRIDGE CASES 725 

of flooding the top with the cement on the end of a small round brush. 
This is done very quickly by hand^ after which the primers are set aside 
to dry as long as necessary. The final gaging is for the cap distance from 
the bottom, the form of gage shown in Fig. 647 being used for this purpose. 
The primer bodies are then packed in a special box that holds 10 
trays, the style of box being shown in Fig. 648. It is open at the end to 
allow the trays to be put in place and removed easily, and is provided 
with four bolts, so that a cover can be readily and substantially adjusted 
and held by means of wing nuts. This box holds the trays while the 
primer bodies are going to the shop, where they are put into the cartridge 
cases. 



APPENDIX 

Paos 

Machine Tools fob Munition Manufacture 729 

Composition and Pbopbbtibs of Shbll Stbel 734 

Light Shells 737 

Details of Some Shbapnbl 738 

Details of Some High-Explosive Shells 743 

British Requirements for Projectile Inspection 755 

British Prices fob HAin)-PAiNTiNG Shells 757 

Diameter of British Shells Over Paint 757 

Weights and Dimensions of Some British Shells 758 

Temperatures and Duration of Heat Treatment for British Shells 759 



727 



MACHINE TOOLS FOR MUNITION MANUFACTURE^ 

The importance of machine tools and metal-working machinery 
in munition manufacture is strikingly shown by the exports of these 
classes of machines during the first two years of the great European 
War. Previous to the outbreak of this war, the greatest fiscal year in the 
export history of the American machine-tool building industry was 
1913 when a total of $16,097,315 worth was sent abroad. The record 
for the fiscal year 1914 is smaller, although this is the second largest year 
in our history previous to the European War. Against these, by com- 
parison, modest figures we must put the total for the fiscal year 1915, 
$28,162,968, and for the fiscal year 1916, $61,315,032. 

That is, the total American shipments abroad of metal-working 
machinery for the second year of the war is nearly four times the best 
pre-war record for the same length of time. 

The statistics are even more striking when we appreciate the fact that 
during the fiscal year 1916 in round figures $50,000,000 worth of the 
exports went to the aUied nations. It is probable at this time of writing 
(October, 1916) that the Allies will take at least $100,000,000 of American 
machine tools to satisfy their war needs. 

The following table gives the total exports of metal-working machine 

tools from the United States for the fiscal years 1905 to 1916 both 

inclusive: 

Exports op Machine Tools pob Twelve Fiscal Years 

1905 $4,332,665 1911 9,626,965 

1906 6,445,612 1912 12,161,819 

1907 9,369,056 1913 16,097,315 

1908 8,696,235 1914 14,011,359 

1909 3,640,034 1915 28,162,968 

1910 5,975,503 1916 61,315,032 

But these large totals of the exports for 1915 and 1916 do not repre- 
sent by any means the total of the great demands placed upon American 
machine-tool builders during that period. It is estimated at the time 
of this writing that the total of the munition contracts placed in the 
United States is some $1,600,000,000. Much machinery had to be 
produced to manufacture the material to satisfy these huge orders. 

It was but natural that the machine-tool industry should be pro- 
foundly affected by this huge volume of business. The existing machine- 
tool building plants could not supply machines fast enough and many 

* L. P. Alford, Editor-in-Chief, A merican MachinUL 

729 



730 APPENDIX 

machine firms that had never built such machinery before, turned to it 
in the emergency. It is estimated that at least thirty concerns built 
lathes that had never made such a machine before. 

Many machines were developed especially for munition manufacture. 
Of these, lathes for turning shells are the most numerous. In general, 
these war lathes ranged from 18-in. to 24-in. in swing with comparatively 
short beds and no attachments. There were also special grinders for 
shell bodies and bases, millers for surfacing the bases of shells, drilling 
machines for fuse parts, shell forging and shell banding presses, shell 
marking and shell painting machines, cutting off machines for shell 
blanks and copper driving bands, and special machines for rifle manu- 
facture including particularly barrel finishing machinery. These are 
far too numerous to be mentioned here in detail. The files of the 
American Madiinist for 1915 and 1916 present complete information 
about them. 

Many special outfits of munition making machines were designed and 
buUt and some of these are shown in the preceding pages. See particu- 
larly the turret lathes and forming lathes used on 3-in. Russian shrapnel 
(Chapter V, Section I), the outfit of hydraulically operated drilling and 
turning machines used on 3-in. Russian high-explosive shells (Chapter 
IX, Section II), and the outfit of lathes of most simple and unusual design 
used on the British 9.2-in. high-explosive shells (Chapter VI, Section II). 

Furthermore, fuse-making machinery has been developed to a very 
high degree, by the use of semiautomatic and automatic mechanism and 
turret and station-type machines. 

A feature of the design of many of the new machines is ruggedness. 
Very large spindles have been used, wide belts and simple constructions. 

As a rule, automatic machines have not been widely used on shells as 
the preceding pages show. On the other hand, automatics have been 
the salvation of the manufacturers of fuses, detonators, primers and 
small parts. Many shops have rigged up munition manufacture on their 
regular machine-shop equipment and have made a success of the work. 

In addition to the application of machine-tools to the specific problems 
of munition manufacture as shown in the body of this volume, the pro- 
curing of the right kind of machine tools, in the shortest possible time, 
would be of the greatest importance in the emergency of war in the United 
States. It is, therefore, wise to analyze some of the broader events of 
the past two years in the machine-tool industry. 

Although there has been some scattered buying, the greater number 
of the machine tools exported from the United States have been taken 
by Great Britain, France and Russia. Exports have been cut off from 
Germany and Austria, while the Scandinavian coimtries, Holland and 
Italy have increased their buying much beyond the normal amount. 
But little is known in this country of the method that Germany has 



APPENDIX 731 

employed to build and maintain the machine tools necessary to produce 
her munitions of war. On the other hand, there is considerable infor- 
mation available in regard to the methods employed by Great Britain 
and France. Thus it is with the experiences of these latter-named 
coimtries, that we are at the present moment concerned. From their 
methods we can formulate the principles of action to govern the design, 
purchase, production and distribution of machine 'tools in preparing for 
a national emergency of war. 

The events of the past 26 months justified the statement that the 
machinery-building industry is the backbone of any defensive or oflfen- 
sive warfare at the present day. This statement emphasized anew the 
need of carefully considering machine tools in any plan for industrial 
preparedness. 

The machine tools shipped abroad within the past 26 months analyze 
into three general classes: First, simple, plain machines that were either 
standard with certain manufacturers before the outbreak of war or have 
been designed and built under the stress of the tremendous foreign 
demand; second, regular machine tools of a more highly organized grade, 
particularly automatic machines that were the standard product of some 
manufacturers prior to the outbreak of war; third, special machine tools 
developed for some operation or series of operations in the manufacture 
of some particular detail of munitions. These group into (a) lathes 
for the outside turning of shells; (b) lathes for boring shells; (c) lathes 
for waving, grooving and undercutting shells. The first class comprises 
by far the greater volume of the exports, and simple lathes are the pre- 
dominating machines. In like manner, lathes predominate in the third 
class. 

The methods adopted by Great Britain, France and Russia in buying 
these machine tools need brief consideration. The early orders were 
placed by European machine-tool agents who had handled American 
machine tools for years. Their knowledge of the business gave them the 
first entrance into the field. 

These dealers' contracts were followed by others given by special 
agents or government commissions who came over to this country during 
the first year of the war. These orders brought about a condition of 
scarcity of machine tools in the United States and at the same time filled 
all the regular machine-tool building plants with such a volume of busi- 
ness that deliveries in many cases have been seriously delayed. The 
third class of buying has been by government commissions in shops 
making high-grade machinery other than machine tools, as printing 
presses and wood-working machinery, and in general have been for ma- 
chines of the third class previously mentioned. Their buying has been 
most ably managed, and the results of their work have been more uni- 
formly successful and satisfactory than that of any of the private buyers. 



732 APPENDIX 

The private buying — that is, the buying done by machine-tool dealers 
— can be roughly divided into three periods. During the first period 
simple lathes and turret machines were bought almost exclusively. 
The demand during the second period was for grinders, drilling machines 
and millers. The demand during the third period was for planers, 
shapers and toolroom machinery. 

After learning from the hard school of experience it is now realized 
that toolroom machinery should have been bought during the first period. 
The reason is obvious, for such machines are needed to produce the jigs, 
fixture and gages that are the necessary accompaniment of machine 
tools for duplicate production. 

In case of war with a first-class power, the United States would un- 
questionably need to add an enormous number of machine tools to the 
present equipment of her machine shops. Based on the record of the 
years immediately preceding the outbreak of the war, the normal sur- 
plus of machine-tool production of the United States as represented by 
the amount shipped abroad, has a value of about $15,000,000. This 
supply would naturally be kept at home, but in addition thereto, and in 
addition to the increase of machines that would be turned out by our 
own manufacturers under war conditions, we would have to draw from 
the industrial nations of Europe, provided we were not involved in a 
European war. This bujdng would have to be done by some organiza- 
tion not now in existence, for the reason that there are only a few agen- 
cies in this country that market European machine tools here. 

Thus the European buying for the United States would have to be 
placed in the hands of experienced men, perhaps civilians representing 
both builders and users. The present British Ministry of Munitions 
with its subcommittees might well form a model for the American organi- 
zation charged with the duty of buying machinery abroad. There are 
facts that tend to prove that the work done by the British commission 
has been most efficiently handled and has brought excellent results. 
This is an experience well worth careful weighing. 

One of the early acts of the British Ministry of Munitions was the 
prohibition of the importation of machine tools into Great Britain, ex- 
cept under license of the ministry. A number of reasons led up to this 
decision. Among them are the necessity of suppressing speculative 
buying and selling, controlling the kinds of machine tools bought abroad, 
the effective utilizing of ocean-borne freight, the distributing of machine 
tools in a manner to best further the manufacture of munitions and the 
control of quality. 

But little is known of the conditions that have surrounded the ma- 
chine-tool industry in Germany during the war. However, at the out- 
break of war edicts of the Ministry of War placed a prohibition upon the 
exportation of machine tools as one of the items in a hst of articles that 



APPENDDC 733 

might be of value to the enemy. As the war progressed, the ministry 
formed two committees — one the War Raw-Materials Committee and the 
other the Industrial Committee. These committees have controlled 
the machine-tool building industry as well as other German industries. 
They have directed what machines should be built, where they should 
be built, have handled the suppUes of raw materials for machinery 
building and have arranged for the distribution of the new machines 
as well as other machines that could be released from their regular 
employment. 

It is reported that France mobilized the machine tools of the Republic 
as one of the early war measures. The purpose was to bring together 
the machine-tool equipment into units of such a size that manufacturing 
could be carried forward expeditiously and efficiently. 

Thus from the experience of Great Britain, Germany and France, 
the necessity of controlling the supply and distribution of machine tools 
is evident in case of war between first-class powers. 

No exact estimate can be given of the number of machine tools that 
might be immediately available in Germany in case there should be an 
emergency demand from the United States. A careful estimate for 
Great Britain, however, is that under normal conditions there are some 
1,200 to 1,500 lathes in the stocks of dealers and builders at any normal 
time. In any event it is fair to assume that the stock of machine tools 
in the possession of dealers and builders in Europe would not be very 
great and in fact would be a very small factor in the number that we 
should be likely to need. Accepting this situation as a starting point, 
a decision can be made as to whether the United States should buy 
standard machines regularly manufactured abroad or order special 
machines particularly adapted to our own needs. It is conceivable that 
it might be much better to have machines built to our own drawings and 
specifications than to attempt to use the regular products of European 
builders. 

It is estimated on reliable authority that plain lathes of say, 16 to 
24 inches in swing, could begin to be shipped from British machine shops 
in 12 weeks from the receipt of detailed drawings of their parts and de- 
tailed specifications for their manufacture. Not only could they be 
procured in this time from machine-tool building shops, but also from 
other machine shops accustomed to doing high-grade work. Broadly 
speaking, any machine shops that are accustomed to do accurate planing 
and scraping can build machine tools under the conditions of demand 
such as have existed in the United States during the first 26 months of 
the European war. 

Machine tools should be standardized for munition manufacture, 
and because of the small stocks of machine tools in Europe, it is evident 
that not many could be obtained during the brief period of waiting for 



734 APPENDIX 

American standardized construction to be produced. It is of course 
possible that the essential standardized details could be reduced to a 
minimum, with the insistence that these should be incorporated in the 
regular designs of European builders. In this way the essential needs of 
uniformity with American products would be met, and it is possible that 
a certain amount of time could be saved over the estimates just given. 
From the exp)erience of the Allied nations in purchasing machine 
tools during the past 26 months it seems justifiable to lay down the follow- 
ing principles for the standardization and procurement of machine tools 
in organizing for American industrial preparedness. 

1. Organize at once in skeleton form an industrial committee of the Council 
of National Defense to control the standardization, design and preparation of machine 
tools for the production of American munitions. 

2. Through joint action of this committee, the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and the National Machine Tool Builders Association standardize the details 
of regular machine tools and design whatever additional special machine tools may be 
necessary for the rapid and economical production of American munitions. 

3. Immediately on the outbreak of war prohibit the exportation of any machine 
tools from the United States. 

4. Immediately on the outbreak of war prohibit the importation of any machine 
tools into the United States except under license and control of the committee men- 
tioned under 1. 

5. Order all machines abroad through this committee or its representatives in the 
capitals of Europe and intrust these men with the responsibility of securing the 
desired deliveries and quality. 

6. Order no machine tools abroad except to standardized American designs 
either for the complete machine or the essential details, as the committee may 
determine. 

COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SHELL STEEL^ 

The importance of imiformity in the chemical composition of the 
steel used in shell making is a question which would appear to be viewed 
from varying angles by different nations. The British specifications, in 
particular, are exacting in their requirements and unquestionably pro- 
hibit the use of much steel of satisfactory phyBical properties. The 
French Government demands exceedingly severe hydraulic pressure tests 
and places importance upon the ballastic properties of the shell — as is 
evidenced by the test for the eccentricity of the center of gravity 
described in the chapter devoted to the manufacture of French 120-mm. 
high-explosive shells. 

Notwithstanding the rigid chemical specifications of the British 
Government, the subsequent physical tests to which every batch of 
British shells are subjected are more exacting than the French hydraulic 
pressure test. The accepted British shell, and to almost the same degree 
the Russian shell, must be made of a particular and comparatively uni- 

^ Reginald Trautschold. 



APPENDIX 



735 



form grade of steel and, in addition, must possess certain physical proper- 
ties. The French shell, on the other hand, while it must possess certain 
physical properties, supplemented by exacting requirements in the matter 
of distribution of weight, may vary to some extent in chemical com- 
position; the sole object being apparently to produce a shell which will 
have the necessary physical properties, irrespective of composition. 

In connection with this question of composition of shell steel, it is 
interesting to note the results of chemical analyses of 21 high-explosive 
German shells, published by Dr. J. E. Stead in "The Engineer," Jan. 
14, 1916. These analyBes, given in Table I, were made from fragments 
of exploded German shells found on the field of battle — not selected 
samples — sheUs which had proved satisfactory in their destructive mission 
and doubtless illustrate general German practice. 

Table I. — ^Elements Found in 21 German High-EIxplobive Shells 





C. 


Mn 


Si. 


s. 


P. 


Cu. 


N. 


Tenacity. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




1 


0.600 


0.730 


— 


0.062 


0.085 


— 






2 


0.700 


0.800 


0.350 


0.027 


0.043 


— 


— 55 


3 


0.670 


0.515 


0.336 


0.037 


0.048 


0.083 


— 62 


4 


0.870 


1.094 


0.252 


0.037 


0.028 


0.080 


— 


65 


5 


0.465 


0.794 


0.324 


0.038 


0.028 


0.090 




55 


6 


0.600 


0.655 


0.597 


0.046 


0.051 


— 


— 


— _ 


7 


0.820 


1.266 


0.186 


0.048 


0.052 




— 


_-^ 


8 


0.765 


0.655 


0.364 


0.030 


0.045 


— — 






9 


0.630 


0.550 


0.400 


0.042 


0.077 


— 






10 


0.860 


1.030 


0.186 


0.053 


0.045 






_— . 


11 


1.120 


1.000 


0.230 


0.054 


0.038 




— 


_^_ 


12 


0.850 


1.330 


— 


0.080 


0.105 




—. 




13 


0.600 


1.210 


0.334 


0.071 


0.069 


—_ 


0.0112 


59 


14 


0.740 


1.170 


0.261 


0.044 


0.064 




_ 


62 


15 


0.675 


0.380 


0.078 


0.083 


0.043 


— 




_-^ 


16 


0.700 


1.108 


0.221 


0.041 


0.079 




— — 


_^_ 


17 


0.980 


1.050 


— 


0.055 


0.086 








18 


0.930 


0.980 


— 


0.059 


0.065 


-^— 






19 


0.740 


0.980 


— 


0.054 


0.050 






_^_ 


20 


0.393 


1.400 


0.210 


0.035 


0.041 




—. 




21 


0.930 


0.970 


0.164 


0.032 


0.048 




— 





Most of these German shell fragments were small, and the fractures 
generally indicated material of very high tenacity. The analyses show 
a variation of 285 per cent, in carbon content, 368 per cent, in manganese, 
766 per cent, in silicon, 307 in sulphur and 375 per cent, in the propor- 
tion of phosphorus. Quite obviously no exacting chemical requirements 
are imposed by the Germans, for shell material high in sulphur and phos- 
phorus was sometimes comparatively high in manganese and carbon and 



736 



APPENDIX 



at others the proportions of these elements was comparatively low. No 
apparent relationship exists in the proportions of the various elements, 
as is strikingly shown in the graphic presentation of Table I given as 
Chart I. Furthermore, there is no reason to assume that the analyses 
made depict in any way extremes in German practice. They indubitably 
show the ibSTMil variation in the chemical composition of German shell 
steel. 

The German shells analyzed were successfully fired and, presumably, 
were just as destructive as it is possible to make shells, yet many of them 
would have failed to pass the British specifications, as well as those of 
many other nations. That they were successfully fired proves that they 



Chart I. 

3.0 



2.5 



2.0- 



z 

bJ 
O 

0:1.5 

bJ 

a. t— 



1.0 



0.5 



-Variations in the Composition op German Hiqh-Explostve Shell 

Steel 



I 



Carbon 



Manganese Sulphur Phosphorus Silicon Copper Nitrogen 




6 7 8 9 ■ K) n 12 13 14 16" 16 17 18 19 20 21 
SMELL NUMBER PER TABLE I. 



would have passed some such physical examination as the French 
Hydraulic pressure test, and it is probable that some such test was made. 
The French test may be exacting, probably is, but it would appear to 
be the logical test, that which definitely establishes the availability of 
the shell. 

The chemical composition of steel indicates what physical properties 
may be expected but these must invariably be confirmed by actual 
physical tests. Tests on pieces cut from specified sections of a shell are 
of interest, but must fail to establish conclusive proof of uniformity of 
strength. The hydraulic pressure test, on the other hand, does establish 
uniformity of strength and quite obviously is much more easily performed 



APPENDIX 737 

than examinations necessitating the cutting of test pieces from sample 
shells and subjecting these to the various required tests. 

Physical tests alone can show up the defects of a shell, for the strains 
to which the shell is subjected are all physical and their destructive 
capabilities are also governed by their physical properties. It would 
then seem that some such test as the French hydraulic pressure test could 
profitably be incorporated in the specifications of all nations and only 
such test required, as chemical tests are of value merely in indicating 
what would be the result of the physical test. The abolishment of the 
chemical requirements for the steel stock would also have the very 
desirable result of making available much steel which is at present barred 
from use by limitations in the allowable percentage of certain component 
elements. Particularly is this true in regard to the presence of sulphur 
and phosphorus. 

LIGHT SHELLS 

The exacting requirements and small tolerances common to shell 
specifications have resulted in manufacturers working to the high limits 
rather than running the danger of shell rejection on account of lightness. 
A heavy shell can nearly always be brought down to weight but a shell 
which is deficient in weight has usually to be scrapped. With a tolerance 
in weight of but 1 per cent, or so, a light shell is apt to represent a dead 
loss to the manufacturer for the use of lead or any lead compound, the 
obvious remedy for a shell but slightly under weight, is absolutely 
prohibited on account of the formation of the destructive compound, 
picrate of lead, in the loaded shell. 

The French Government, realizing that production would be stimu- 
lated if it were possible to make use of the few shells which even with 
the greatest manufacturing care are slightly lacking in weight, permits 
a certain number to be brought up to weight by tinning on the inside. 

This is done by pickling the inside of the shell with a solution of 
sulphiu-ic acid — one part acid to ten parts water — for about two hours. 
The shell is then thoroughly washed and afterward filled with muriatic 
acid. This acid is allowed to remain in the shell] for about 10 min., 
after which the outside of the shell is covered with vaseline and the shell 
immersed in a bath of molten tin. The first dipping has little effect 
but the second will add some 20 to 25 grams to the weight of a 120-mm. 
shell. 

The shell is then partly filled with this molten tin, an aluminum plug 
screwed into the nose and the shell inverted. The tin cools about the 
plug and the nose can be bored out, leaving a sufficient amount of tin on 
the inside to give the required weight. But 5 per cent, of the shells 
in any one shipment, however, may be so tinned. 

47 



DETAILS OF SOME SHRAPNEL 



'K^i 








'I T ^ 

!i L 

S 



l< iW<y? -H 



740 



APPENDIX 




A. 

< 



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< 

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CO 

p 



CO 



c 



742 



APPENDIX 




h3 
H 



QQ 



(l^ 



< 

as 
P 



o 



DETAILS OF SOME HIGH-BXPLOSIVE SHEU.S 



totOiKlimustbtai^htfiiiathtihellond 



' I i 



■s 



6aaOieck Shall 

nc. 656. RUSSIAN 1-lr. hior-kxplobive shell 



657. BUasiAN $-iN. HiaH-miPix>BivB b 




5 
1 

1 


1 


1 


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Bodi( Ogi« Poin+ 

7ia. 65d- 6EBBIAN 120-UU. HiaB-EXPLOBITE BaKU< 



ria. 660. rRENCH 120-'iiu. higb- 




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APPENDIX 




APPENDIX 




,1 1 


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wtmhtofSiuqZisoib. j ,* ■**•',■ 

Diamt^rofilug Sin. ^^ ^ nSI -■ 

LtiffhofSlugilin, I — ■ i 

FIO. 608. BRITISH 15-IN. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE HOWITIEB BHEI 



'^-■-1* ->< DiSmthr^^^ is:„ 1^2?''<' V B^'-- A 

I Length of 5/ug£Sin. ■ ' \ ( 

k - ..- -. fi-e/^?' ^<■ ■ ■ -Z2.0!' >j 

l.6a93- >■ 

«0, 669. BKITIBB 15-lN. HIOH-BX PLOSIVE OVtl 8HBLL 



APPENDIX 



755 



British RoQimcBMENTB for Projectile Inspection 



Type 



Number to be inspected per man 



Per hour 



Per week 



2-m. practice shot 

2Pr. Tracers 

3Pr. Shells 

Annealed 

With tracers 

Shot 

6Pr. Shells 

Annealed 

With tracers 

Shot 

With tracers 

12&14Prs. X 2.75-in 

Shot 

Shot with tracers 

15&12 Prs. X2.95-in 

12 & 14 Pre. X 2.75-in. shells 
16 A 12 Prs. X 3-in 

Shrapnel with tracere 

13Pr. SheU 

With tracere 

3-in. High-Explosive 

18 Pr. SheU 

With tracere 

4-in. SheU 

With tracere 

Shot 

With tracere 

4.5-in. SheU 

With tracere 

Shot 

With tracere 

4.7-in. SheU 

With tracere 

Shot 

With tracere 

5-in. SheU 

With tracere 

Shot 

With tracere 

5-in. SheU 

With tracere 

Shot 

With tracere 



15.00 
15.00 
18.00 

9.00 
21.00 
12.00 
16.00 

8.00 
18.00 
15.00 

• e • • ■ 

15.00 
12.00 

9.00 

8.00 
8.76 
8.00 
8.00 
8.25 
7.60 
6.30 
6.00 
8.50 
7.75 
7.00 
6.25 
8.75 
7.76 
6.50 
6.00 
8.50 
8.00 
5.50 
6.00 
7.60 
7.00 
5.00 
4.50 
6.50 
6.00 



1,080 
720 
720 
864 

« • • • 

1,008 
676 
768 
384 
864 
720 

. • « • 
720 
676 

• • • • 

432 

• • • • 

384 
420 
384 
384 
398 
380 
312 
288 
408 
372 
336 
300 
420 
372 
312 
288 
408 
384 
264 
240 
360 
336 
240 
216 
312 
288 



756 



APPENDIX 



British Requirements for Projectile Inspection — (Cantintted) 



7.5-m. Shell.... 

With tracers . 

Shot 

With tracers . 
9.25-in. Shell... 

With tracers . 

Shot 

With tracers. 
10-in. SheU.... 

With tracers. 

Shot 

With tracers. 
12-in. H. Shell. 

With tracers . 

Shot 

With tracers . 
13.5-iii. I. Shell 

With tracers . 

Shot 

With tracers. 
13.5-in. Shell... 

With tracers . 

Shot 

With tracers. 
15-in. Shell.... 

With tracers. 

Shot 

With tracers . 



Type 



Number to be inspected per man 



Per hour 



"Pcsr week 



3.50 


168 


3.25 


158 


4.50 


216 


4.00 


192 


1.00 


48 


0.85 


40 


2.25 


105 


2.00 


96 


0.85 


40 


.66 


32 


1.16 


56 


1.00 


48 


0.75 


36 


.625 


30 


1.00 


48 


.85 


40 


0.625 


30 


.50 


25 


.85 


40 


.75 


36 


0.50 


24 


.40 


20 


.75 


36 


.625 


30 


.35 


17 


.30 


15 


.50 


24 


.40 


20 



APPENDIX 



757 



British Prices for Painting Shells 
Hand Painting Per 100 



Type 



E 



Unstacking 
cleaning 
lit coat 
2d coat 
stacking 



Unloading 



Loading 



Stencilling 

calibre and 

numeral 



Red tip 



2.75-in. Shrap. 
15-lb. Shrap... 
18-lb. Shrap... 
4.6-iQ. Shrap. . 
60-lb. Shrap... 
12 A 14 Pr. H. 
18-ib. H. £... . 
4.5-in. H. £.. . 
eO-lb. H. E.... 

G'in. H. E 

8-in. H. E... . . 
9.2-in. H. E... 



3. 
4. 
4. 
7. 
9. 
4. 
4. 

.1 9. 
.jll. 
.17. 
. 25. 



10 
3 
7 
9 
2 
9 
7 
9 
2 

8.75 
4.5 




0.92 

1.02 

1.10 

1.86 

2.20 

1.14 

1.10 

1.86 

2.20 

2.815 

4.13 

6.00 



8 d 



7.25 

7.26 

7.25 

1-0. 25t 

1-3. 25I 

7.25; 

7.25! 

1-0. 25| 

1-3.25! 

2-6.50 

5-1.25 

12-^ 



0.145 
0.145 
0.145 
0.245 
0.305 
0.145 
0.145 
0.245 
0.305 
0.610 
1.225 
3.06 



6.125 
6.125 
6.125 
1-0.25 
1-0.25 
6.125 
6.125 
1-0.25 
1-0.25 
2-0.50 
5-1.25 
12-9 



$ 


Bd 
8 


0.1225 


0.1225 


8 


0.1225 


8 


0.245 


9 


0.245 


9 


0.1225 


8 


0.1225 


8 


0.245 


9 


0.245 


9 


0.490 


9 


1.225 


1.3 


3.06 


1.3 


















16 
16 
16 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
30 
30 



B d 



9.25 

9.25 

9.25 

10.25 

1.1.25 



0.185 
0.185 
0.185 
0.205 
0.265 



N0TB8. — In the case of 9.2-in. and &-in. high-explosive shells no stacking is 
exceptional circumstances, but prices are paid for "Rolling during operation*' 
operation" which are included in the above. 

One penny is assumed to be equivalent to two cents. 



done, except under 
and "Rolling after 



Diameter of British Shells over Paint 



Calibre 



Diameter 




1.453-in. 
1.571-m. 
1.846-m. 

2.240-in. 

2.74a-m. 

2.951-m. 
2.990-in. 
2.990-m. 

2.995-iD. 

3.295-in. 

3.980-m. 



Calibre 




7.5-in. 

8-in. 

9.45-m. 

9.2-in. 

10-in. 

12-in. 

13 . 5-in. 

14-in. 
15-in. 



Diameter 



4.490-in. 
4.709-in. 

4.980-in. 
5 . 980-in. 

7.480-in. 

7. 980-in. 
9 . 43a-in. 
9 . 180-in. 
9. 980-in. 

11. 980-in. 

13.480-in. 

13. 980-in. 
14.98a-in. 



758 



APPENDIX 



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•ii|q«na 



APPENDIX 



759 



Chart II. — Temperatures and Duration of Heat Treatment for British Shells 









■■ 


ro 


OJ 


-^ 


Time of Hea+inq 

Ol «^ --4 


in Hours 


o 




- 


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INDEX 



A C 

Adapters for British detonating fuse, Canadian Allis-Chalmers Co., 312 



651-669 
assembling, 654 
lacquering, 658 

manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 653-659 
operation data, 651-652 
painting the '^Red Spot'' and pack- 
ing, 659 
Amalgamated corporation lathes, 392-395 
American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., 

389-391 
American Locomotive Co., 555 
American Multigraph Co., 705 
American Steam Gauge and Valve Manu- 
facturing Co., 625 
Analysis of machine tool exports, 731 
Automatic production of shrapnel parts, 
203-220 

B 

Base-plates for high-explosive shells, 247- 
250 
forging operations, 248 
inspection, 249 

restricting imperfect work, 250 
Brass, cartridge, 517-528 
Brass casting shop (see Casting shop), 

519-525 
Brass furnace equipment, 518 
Brass, tensile strength, 593 
British cartridge case (see Cartridge case), 
555-620 
detonator Mark IV (see Detonator), 

625-650 
detonator fuse adapters (see Adap- 
ters), 651-659 
high-explosive shells (see High- 

explosive shells), 251-411 
prices for painting shells, 757 
requirements for projectile inspec- 
tion, 755-756 
shrapnel (see Shrapnel), 8-196 
time fuse mark 80-44 (see Time 
fuse), 660-683 



Canadian Car and Foundry Co., 26 
Canadian Car and Foundry Co. Domin- 
ion Works, 242 
Canadian IngersoU-Rand Co., 31 
Canadian Pacific Angus Shops, 577 
Canadian Steel Foundries, Ltd., 236 
Caps and base plugs for time fuse (see 

Time fuse), 683-694 
Cartridge brass, 517-528 

manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 525-528 
specifications, 517 
Cartridge brass, rolling, 528-535 
annealing, first, 533 

final, 534 
overhauling, 532 
pickling, 534 
rolling operation, first, 529 

second, 534 
running down, 533 
straightening bars, 530 
Cartridge cases, 536-554 

manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 543-554 
operation data, 537-543 
requirements, 536 
Cartridge cases, drawing British 18 lb., 
577-594 
annealing and semi-annealing, 584 
bulldozers, 582 
heading operation, 590 
heading press, 800-ton, 587 
hydraulic accumulators, 592 
indenting and heading operations, 

587 
inspecting and testing, 592 
manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 579-593 
planers, 582 
pressing taper, 585 
prices on handling and washing, 

594 
prices on machine operations, 594 
schedule of operations, 577 



761 



762 



INDEX 



Cartridge cases, making British 18 lb., 
665-577 

chemical composition, 556 

hardness, 676 

manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 566-576 

operation data, 656-664 

weights, 577 
Cartridge cases, British 4.6-in. howitzer, 
696-620 

chemical composition, 696-696 

manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 603-620 

operation data, 69&-603 
Casting shop (brass), 61^626 

crucibles, 623 

fluxes, 624 

fuel, 620 

furnace, 619 

layout and equipment, 619 

molds, 620 

scraproom, 526 

tool equipment, 622 
Composition and properties of shell 
steel, 734-737 

D 

Detonator fuse, 623-626 
Detonator, British Mark-100, 626-660 
centrifugal bolt, 637 
chemical composition, 626 
detents, 643 

detent-hole screw plug, 637 
fuse cap, 644 
fuse spring, 649, 660 
manufacturing processes and equip- 
ment, 626-660 
needles, 660 

percussion detonator plug, 638 
percussion needle plug, 639 
percussion pellet, 641 
working parts, 636 
Diameter of British shells over paint, 757 
Dimensions of British shells, 768 
Dominion Bridge Co., 222, 261 
Drive band, British 18-lb. high-explosive 
shell, 298-301 
18-lb. shrapnel, 59 
4.6-in. high-explosive shell, 358, 

361 
8-in. howitzer shell, 378 
9.2-in. Mark IV howitzer shell, 395 
12-in. Mark IV howitzer shell, 410 



Drive band, French 120-mm. explosive 
shell, 510 
Russian 1-lb. high-explosive shell, 
426 
3-in. high-explosive shell, 468 
Serbian 120-mm. shell, 487-488 



E 



East Jersey drilling machine, 444 
East Jersey Pipe Corporation, 442 
East Jersey turning machine, 446 
Eccentricity test, French 120-mm. explo- 
sive shell, 612 
Explosives used for high-explosive shells, 

233 
Exports of machine tools, 729 



Forging base plates for high-explosive 
shells, 242 
blanks, high-explosive shell, 236-242 
4.6-in. British high-explosive shell 

blanks, 242-247 
operations, British 18-lb. shrapnel 
blanks, 13, 17 
French 75-mm. shrapnel, 6 

120-mm. explosive shell (see High- 
explosive shells), 494-614 
Fuse and charge for high-explosive shells, 

232 
Fuse, detonator, 623-626 

Time-Mark 80-44 (see Time fuse)j 
660-^83 
Fuse plug, British 18-lb. shrapnel, 73, 
74-82 



H 



Heat treatment, British 18-lb. shrapnel, 
67 
British 18-lb. shrapnel forgings, 24 
British shells — ^temperatures, etc., 

759 
French 120-mm. explosive shell, 606 
Russian 3-in. high-explosive shell, 
464 
High-explosive sheU details, 743-764 
British 18-lb., 744 
60-lb., 746 

6-in. Mark XVI, 747 
8-in. howitzer shell, 748 



INDEX 



763 



High-explosive shell details, British 
9.2-in. howitzer sheU Mark II, 
749 
9.2-in. howitzer shell Mark IX, 750 
12-in. howitzer shell Mark IV, 751 
12-in. howitzer shell Mark V, 752 
15-in. howitzer shell, 753 
15-iii. gun shell, 754 
French 120-mm., 745 
Russian 1-lb., 743 

3-in., 743 
Serbian 120-mm., 745 
High-explosive shells, 231 
explosive used, 233 
fuse and charge, 232 
heads, 207 
materials of construction and shape, 

231 
steel, 235 
High-explosive-shell manufacture, 236- 
514 
British 18-lb., 251-311 
drive band, 298-301 
final inspection, 305-308 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 278-311 
operation data, 251-278 
painting, 308-309 
shop inspection and hospital work, 

292-294 
standard stamps, 311 
British 4.5-in., 242-247, 312-365 
drive band, 358, 361 
forging blanks, 242-247 
inspection, 247 
operations, 242-247 
piercing operation, 242 
luting and packing, 365 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 325-365 
operation data, 312-325 
shell inspection, 355, 363 
varnishing inside, 360 
British 8-in. howitzer, 366-388 
drive band, 378 
gages, 384-388 
inspection, 383*388 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 374-383 
operation data, 368-373 
British 9.2-in. Mark IV howitzer, 
38^398 
drive band, 395 



High-explosive-shell British 9.2-in. Mark 
IV howitzer, manufacturing proc- 
esses and equipment, 392-^98 
sequence of operations, 391 
British 12-in. Mark IV howitzer, 
399-411 
adapter, 408, 410 
drive band, 410 

manufacturing processes and 
equipment, 399-411 
French 120-mm., 494-514 
drive band, 510 
eccentricity test, 512 
heat treatment, 506 
hydraulic pressure test, 509 
inspection, 504, 511, 513 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 499-514 
operation data, 494-499 
packing, 514 
volumetric test, 505-506 
Russian l-lb., 412-441 
chemical composition, 413 
drive band, 425 
gas check, 432 
inspection, 438 
loading, 435 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 423-441 
operation data, 413-423 
Russian 3-in., 442-459 
chemical composition, 453 
drive band, 458 
heat treatment, 454 
inspection, 458-459 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 453-459 
operation data, 448^53 
Serbian 120-mm., 460-493 
drive band, 487-488 
gages, 483 

inside varnishing, 489 
inspection, 482 
manufacturing processes and 

equipment, 471-493 
ogive, 484-485 
operation data, 461-471 
packing, 492-493 
painting, 490 
point or cap, 491-492 
High-explosive shell forging blanks, 236- 
242 
analysis and tests, 241